He was the ruler of England, and breaks away from the Catholic Church. He wanted to divorce his wife, which is why he broke away. He embraced Protestantism and made the Church of England i 1532.
Jan 1, 1516
Erasmus publishes Greek New Testament
This was a big deal because it showed how the world was developing with the Renaissance, and how it is one of the ways that Humanism was shown during the time.
Jan 1, 1516
Thomas More publishes Utopia
In this work More condemns the government calling it corrupt and sayiing that it is private property. This gets him in trouble and he is eventually exectued. The book was about a perfect imaginary society.
Jan 1, 1517
Luther composes 95 Theses
In his Theses Luther is responding to the Indulgences, specifically about how Tetzel is trying to sell them, and about how corrupt the Church had become with how bishops were chosen.
Period: Jan 1, 1519 to Dec 31, 1556
Charles V Reign
He was the Holy Roman Emperor at the time. He aso was the Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms where Luther was put on tiral. He supported Catholicism and wanted to crush the Reformation.
Jan 1, 1525
German Peasants' War
This was an uprising that threatened order and the social class in Germany. It was started because of Luther's writings an, but the German Princs were finally able to defeat them.
Jan 1, 1529
Colloquy of Marburg
This is where Luther and Zwingli meet. They have many similar views, but they differ with how the Eucharist is seen and they will never unite because of this.
Jan 1, 1540
St. Ignatious of Loyola was the founder. This was a new religious order. It renewed religious zeal and excitement for Catholocism. It helped them bring Catholics back to the Church. They were also very successful in missionary work.
Period: Jan 1, 1545 to Dec 31, 1563
Catholic Council of Trent
This was a council in the Catholic Church that was a response to the reformation movement. They met three times and reformed the Churh according to the doctrines, salvation, indulgences, the sacraments, and a Mass that was universal.
Jan 1, 1555
Peace of Augsburg
This was a treaty that involved Charles V and religious leaders. They decieded that princes were then allowed to decide if they wanted their reigion to be Lutheran or Catholic. It gave more freedom to Lutherans and they were now recognized as a religion.
Period: Nov 17, 1558 to
Queen Elizabeth I Reign
She was the Queen of England. She was also known as the Virgin Queen. She defeated the Spanish Armada and gained a lot of power for Englad. She was one of Henry VIII's daughter, and also allowed for the growth of the Protestant religion in England.
Jan 1, 1559
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
This treaty happened in the LE Cateau and was between Henry, Philip, and Elizabeth. It brought peace between the countries of France, Spain, and England.
Period: Jan 1, 1560 to Dec 31, 1574
Charles IX reign
He was the son of Henry II. During his reign his mother influenced him greatly. He was the ruler of France and a Catholic.
Period: Jan 1, 1562 to
French Wars of Religion
These were a serios of wars in France that had to do with religion. France was Catholic by the government, but the Huguenots who were French Calvinists lived there. Most of the wars were between them and the Catholics.
Jan 1, 1563
Calvin with Institutes of the Christion Religion
This was Clavin's work that developed and justified the idea that Calvin believed in, which is that salvation comes from faith alone. This means that good works did not do anything, and it promoted predestination.
Jan 1, 1571
Battle of Lepanto
The Spanish had been fightig the Ottomans in a naval battle. In 1571 they declared the battle of Lepanto and the Spanish defeated the Ottomans, which stopped their expansion into Europe.
Jan 1, 1572
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This was a group of assassinations in France. They were directed towards the Huguenots and Protestants. It was carried out by the Catholics, and after there was a lot of Catholic mob violence also directed toward the Huguenots.
England defeats Spanish Armada
The English and Spanish had been fighting each other at the time, and the Spanish decided to send their Armada England. When they got there Queen Elizabeth defeated them with her small navy. This allowed the English to now control the seas, and it was the start of England being a huge power in the world.
He was a royalist who sat out the English Civil war in France. When he returned to England he published Leviathon in 1651 where he argued for unlimited authority in a ruler.
Henry IV of Navarre Reign
He was the king of France and ended the French civil wars. He also somewhat protected the Huguenots and the Edict of Nantes was during his reign. He was asassinated in 1610.
Edict of Nantes
This was the toleration of Calvinism and it also recognized the rights of the Huguneots or French Protestants. It was made during the reign of Henry IV of Navarre.
James I Reign
He was the son of Mary Stuart and became the leader of England after Elizabeth I. He was a strong believer in the divine right of the king. By doing this he alienated Parliament and gave them less authority.
This was Guy Fawkes' attempt to blow up the House of Commons during the State Opening of Parliament. he was trying to kill James I. It was led by Sir Robert Catesby who was exectued later.
Settlement of Jamestown
This was the first permanent English settlement in what was to become America. It would be part of the Colony of Virginia and was founded by the Virginia Company of London.
Thirty Years' War
This was a war which involved the Bohemians, Swedich, French and Bohemians. It was caused because of how the Calvinists were excluded from the Peace of Augsburg, making it a religious war. Most of the battles took place in present day Germany.
Charles I reign
He ruled England without Parliament for eleven years. He also was towards supressing Puritans. He was eventually executed by Parliament. There was a lot of problems with Parliament during his reign.
Petition of Rights
This was in England and it said that monarchs couldn't collect taxes without Parliament's consent, civillians weren't allowed to be forced to quarter soldiers, and military law wasn't allowed to be put in place during peacful times.
He disagreed with Hobbes and absolute authority. He used social contract to provide a foundation for constituionalism.
Sentence Pronounced against Galileo
Galileo was sentenced to house arrest by the Catholic Church. He was talking about how the Earth wasn't the center of the Earth, which the Church thought was heretic, so this is was their punishment was.
Frederick WIlliam of Hohenzollern Reign
He was the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia. He brought his nation to the end of the Thirty Year's War and then secceeded in making his lands into an absolutist state.
This was called by Charles when he needed money. He denied Parliament rights however and it was called off.
This was called after Short Parliament also by Charles. It was on and off until 1660, but Parliament gave Charles his taxes if he allowed them to have the trennial act.
English Civil War
Charles I was very pro divine right of the king and was bringing a lot of Catholic influence to England. War broke out between the supporters of Parliament and the supporters of the King. He was eventually executed in 1649.
He was a European Scientist. He had many huge advances in his studies, and also caused some problems because of the ideas that he was proposing.
Louis XIV Reign
He was a French King. He ruled by divine right and is known for finishing Vesailles and being thought of as the Sun King. He was an absolute ruler and spent a lot of time at war. He helped France a lot with their power and influence in Europe.
This was written by the English Puritan Poet John Milton. It was a response to Parliament and was one of the first times someone fought for freedom of the press.
Peace of Westphalia
This was the Peace that ended the Thirty Years War. It saw the Dutch to be independent, it extended the Peace of Augsburg to the Calvinists, it weakened the HRE. It was a major turning point in Euro history through all of the 4 levels of history.
Oliver Cromwell believed that the king should be killed, so that there wasn't a counterrevolution. He then used the army to break up Parliament when they wouldn't agree. This broke Parliament up from 150 to 50 because of he used Colonel Pride to remove 100 of them. The remaining 50 were called the Rump.
The Dutch Republic was formed because they gained their freedom from Spain
This was during a time of a series of French Civil Wars. They were fought because of the increase of power of the monarchy and because imporant people in society were being ignored. It was also part of government and was controlled by Cardinal Mazarin who organized the government into an Intendant system that controled the peasents. He ruled while Louis XIV was still a child.
These were any independent countries of colonies that were formed during the time of exploration.
Oliver Cromwell Reign
He was a military leader and lead England as the Lord Protector. He did this after the Charles I had been executed after the English Civil War.
Charles I beheaded
After the English Civil War Parliament executed him because of how he had led England.
These were three wars between England and the Dutch. It started because of British ships attacking Dutch ones. England wins, and gains more power in the navy, but they do annex a Dutch colony in America.
This is a state that is parly controlled by a larger nation, but still under their own control of government. Many European countries used this system with their colonies around the world.
HRE Leopold I Reign
He was the head of Hapsburg, and was elected because he promised not to help Spain and that his empire would just be a state of princes who would each control their own regions.
Treaty of Pyrenees
Treaty of Pyrenees
This was the treaty that ended the continued fighting between France and Spain after the Thirty Years War. After this, Spain was no longer a major power in Europe.
These dates aren't exact, but it is a timespan when it was popular. Mercantilism was a doctrine that allowed the government to intervene to increase national wealth by whatever means possible.
Charles II Reign
He was very opposed to Catholocism. He led during the time of exploration and colonization, and he had a strong influence on trade.
Barbados Institutes slave code
These were codes that told slaves exactly what their rights were. They pretty much gave the master complete control over the slave.
This was what the supporters of Charles I were called. He tried to snub out Parliament, so his follower, the cavaliers, were called the cavalier Parliament. They made up the House of Lords in Parliament.
These were laws passed by Parliament in England that promoted Anglicans and punished and hurt the Puritans.
Control of New France
Colbert used mercantilism to extend to Canada. Here he took control of teh trading company that founded New France. He wanted to regulate all economic activity in the colonies.
This was a huge fire in London that took out most of the city.
War of Devolution
This was a war that was started when Louis claimed land in the Spanish Netherlands. He defeated the Spanish armies but had to make peace when England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic joined the fighting.
Treatey of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War od Devolution. Louis gained control of towns in the Spanish Netherlands; the Flanders.
Louis declared war on the Dutch because he wanted lands in the Spanish Netherlands and they were in the way. He also fought the Holy Roman Empire because he marched through their lands. The French held their own however.
In this act Parliament excluded everyone but Anglicans from civilian and military positions. Puritans were also considered radical and Catholics were seen as being traitors.
Declaration of Indulgence
This was done by Charles II, and it said that all laws against Catholics and Protestants were suspended. Parliament refused to fund the Dutch War unless he took it away, and this also led to the Test Act.
Treaty of Nijmegen
This was the end of the Dutch War and Louis gained several towin in the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté. Alsace was now linked to the rest of France.
Habeas Corpus Act
This act stated that any person who was unjustly imprisoned could obtain a writ of haeas corpus which made the government tell them why they had lost their freedom and been put in jail.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Luois XIV did this in order to take away the rights of the Huguenots or Protestants. This closed their schools, churches, it exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion, and it banned all their public activities.
This was enforced by Louis XIV. It regulated the legal status of slaves in the French colonies to prevent non Catholics from owning slaves.
King James II reign
He was an English King who was very Pro-Catholic. He even allowed tolerance of religion, and when he left the Glorious Revolution occured. People did not like how he was with religion.
William and Mary Take the Throne
Parliament gets rid of James II and invites the Dutch William and Mary to take the throne. Mary was the daughter of James II.
The Glorious Revolution
This is in reference to the time where James II gave up the throne and WIlliam and Mary took over. There were a lot of problems with James II, so people were happy when he left.
War of the League of Augsburg
The League of Augsburg consisted of England, Spain, Swede, th Dutch Republic, The Austrian emperor, and other German princes.. They teamed together to fight Louis, but it ended in a stalemate.
English Bill of Rights
This was brought to William and Mary from Parliament to give rights to the British people. It limited the king's power to taxed and didn't allow military control in times of peace. It also guaranteed civil liberties to the upper English class and didn't allow Catholics to take the English throne.
William Prince of Orange Reign of England
He was a Dutch Prince who was invited to become the ruler of England with his wife Mary after the Glorious Revolution. He was part of the League of Augsburg and was a foe to Louis XIV.
Mary Reign with William
She was the daughter of James II and ruled England with William. They ruled as enemies of Louis XIV.
Peace of Rijswijk
This ended the War with the League of Augsburg. Luois had to return everything that he had gained in conquest since 1678, but he got to keep Strasbourg.
Treaty of Karlowitz
This was a treaty between the Ottoman Turks and Austria in which the Turks surrenedered almost all of Hungary over to Austria. Leopold I of Austria won the war, but Hungary was hurt both physiclly and politically.
Act of Settlement
This is when the English crown is given to the House of Hanover in Germany.