Mercantilism was an economic theory and practice, dominant in modernized parts of Europe during the 16th to the 18th century.
Nov 17, 1500
economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the late 13th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution.
Nov 4, 1529
Ottoman siege of Vienna
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.
Nov 4, 1568
Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War
was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion.
The “Golden Age” of the Netherlands
was a period in Dutch history, in the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years' War which ended in 1648.
The Baroque Period in art and music
period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
England in which there was a marked increase in the consumption and variety of "luxury" goods and products by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds.
The Trial of Galileo
The Galileo affair was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism
The English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government.
Reign of Louis XIV
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Thomas Hobbes publishes The Leviathan
Leviathan or The Matter, Form and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civil.
Oliver Cromwell’s Navigation Acts
These acts were designed to tighten the government's control over trade between England, its colonies, and the rest of the world.
The English Monarchy Restored
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Test Act in England
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
Reign of Peter the Great
Peter the Great was born Pyotr Alekseyevich on June 9, 1672 in Moscow, Russia. Peter the Great was the 14th child of Czar Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina. Having ruled jointly with his brother Ivan V from 1682, when Ivan died in 1696, Peter was officially declared Sovereign of all Russia.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes (1598) had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state.
The enlightenment was a time of new ideas and new thinking.
Newton’s publication of the Principia Mathematica
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
The “Glorious Revolution”
the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
John Locke published Two Treatises of Government
Two Treatises of Government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
The Agricultural Revolution
The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity
wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land
War of Spanish Succession
first world war of modern times with theatres of war in Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, and at sea. Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir. In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou.
The Classical Period in art and music
It is mainly homophonic—a clear melody above a subordinate chordal accompaniment.
Reign of Maria Theresa of Austria
She was the only woman ruler in the 1650 history of the Habsburg dynasty.
War of Austrian Succession
a conglomeration of related wars, two of which developed directly from the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian branch of the house of Habsburg, on Oct. 20, 1740
Reign of Frederick the Great of Prussia
By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power.
Seven years war
The Seven Years' War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
The Rococo Period in art and music
, is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.
Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication on the Rights of Women
Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
Reign of Catherine the Great of Prussia
became the Russian empress in 1762. Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized, following the lead of Western Europe.
Jean Jacques Rousseau publishes The Social Contract
A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques
The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
First Partition of Poland
first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte
rench military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. Born on the island of Corsica, Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799).
Slave Revolt in Haiti
Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony.
Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccination
well known around the world for his innovative contribution to immunization and the ultimate eradication of smallpox
Last appearance of Bubonic plague in Western Europe
The plague disappered , could be caused by new hygen and sanitation.
Congress of Vienna
was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.