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Period 4 Timeline: 1648-1815

  • Nov 10, 1500

    Height of Mercantilism in Europe

    Mercantilism was an economic theory and practice, dominant in modernized parts of Europe during the 16th to the 18th century.
  • Nov 17, 1500

    Commercial Revolution

    economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the late 13th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution.
  • Nov 4, 1529

    Ottoman siege of Vienna

    The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.
  • Nov 4, 1568

    Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War

    Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War
    was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion.
  • The “Golden Age” of the Netherlands

    The “Golden Age” of the Netherlands
    was a period in Dutch history, in the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years' War which ended in 1648.
  • The Baroque Period in art and music

    The Baroque Period in art and music
    period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
  • Consumer Revolution

    England in which there was a marked increase in the consumption and variety of "luxury" goods and products by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds.
  • The Trial of Galileo

    The Galileo affair was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism
  • The English Civil War

    The English Civil War
    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government.
  • Reign of Louis XIV

    Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes The Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes publishes The Leviathan
    Leviathan or The Matter, Form and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civil.
  • Oliver Cromwell’s Navigation Acts

    These acts were designed to tighten the government's control over trade between England, its colonies, and the rest of the world.
  • The English Monarchy Restored

    The English Monarchy  Restored
    The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
  • Test Act in England

    Test Act in England
    The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
  • Reign of Peter the Great

    Peter the Great was born Pyotr Alekseyevich on June 9, 1672 in Moscow, Russia. Peter the Great was the 14th child of Czar Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina. Having ruled jointly with his brother Ivan V from 1682, when Ivan died in 1696, Peter was officially declared Sovereign of all Russia.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Nantes (1598) had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state.
  • The Enlightenment

    The enlightenment was a time of new ideas and new thinking.
  • Newton’s publication of the Principia Mathematica

    Newton’s publication of the Principia Mathematica
    Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
  • The “Glorious Revolution”

    The “Glorious Revolution”
    the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
  • John Locke published Two Treatises of Government

    John Locke published Two Treatises of Government
    Two Treatises of Government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
  • The Agricultural Revolution

    The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity
  • Enclosure Movement

    wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land
  • War of Spanish Succession

    first world war of modern times with theatres of war in Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, and at sea. Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir. In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou.
  • The Classical Period in art and music

    The Classical Period in art and music
    It is mainly homophonic—a clear melody above a subordinate chordal accompaniment.
  • Reign of Maria Theresa of Austria

    She was the only woman ruler in the 1650 history of the Habsburg dynasty.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    a conglomeration of related wars, two of which developed directly from the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian branch of the house of Habsburg, on Oct. 20, 1740
  • Reign of Frederick the Great of Prussia

    By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power.
  • Seven years war

    The Seven Years' War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.
  • Diplomatic Revolution

    The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
  • The Rococo Period in art and music

    The Rococo Period  in art and music
    , is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication on the Rights of Women

    Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
  • Reign of Catherine the Great of Prussia

    became the Russian empress in 1762. Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized, following the lead of Western Europe.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau publishes The Social Contract

    A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques
  • American Revolution

    The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
  • First Partition of Poland

    first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
  • Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations

    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
  • French Revolution

    a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
  • Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte

    rench military leader and emperor who conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century. Born on the island of Corsica, Napoleon rapidly rose through the ranks of the military during the French Revolution (1789-1799).
  • Slave Revolt in Haiti

    Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony.
  • Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccination

    well known around the world for his innovative contribution to immunization and the ultimate eradication of smallpox
  • Last appearance of Bubonic plague in Western Europe

    The plague disappered , could be caused by new hygen and sanitation.
  • Congress of Vienna

    was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.