Stuart monarchs 2

Britain 1625-1688 A Level History

  • Charles I becomes King

    THEME 1
  • Period: to

    The Rule of Charles I

    ALL THEMES
    Charles I believed strongly in the Divine Right of Kings, meaning that God made him King and uses this to justify him being more powerful than his Plts. He is an Anglican Protestant but William Laud has great Arminian influence over him in his policies that he introduces, closely linked to Catholicism. When Charles arrives in England to be King, he brings his French wife, Henrietta Maria which caused opposition with fears she would catholically influence King in Protestant society.
  • Francis Bacon dies

    THEME 3
    Although he dies early on in the time period, his ideas still help to change society as a scientist (experimental method)
  • Period: to

    Charles I's forced loans

    THEME 1
    Charles issues these without the consent of parliament as a way to raise money for his foreign policy. Parliament had previously rejected his grant for this money.
  • Five Knights Case

    THEME 1
    Five knights refuse to pay Charles I's forced loans so he imprisons them without trial. Charles punishes without the use of Parliament.
  • Petition of Right

    THEME 1
    Document issued to Charles I by Parliament and was them trying to get the King to change his ways:
    - No taxation without Parliament (e.g. Forced loans)
    - No imprisonment without cause shown (e.g. Five knights case)
  • William Laud appointed Bishop of London

    THEME 2
    William Laud was Arminian in religion which had strong links to Catholicism. He had a great influence upon Charles in control of a Protestant country.
  • William Harvey publishes book on blood circulation

    THEME 3
  • George Villiers (Duke of Buckingham) assassinated

    THEME 1
    The Duke of Buckingham was one of Charles I's closest advisors and a good friend but Parliament use their power to impeach and assassinate him without the consent of the monarch.
  • The three resolutions

    THEME 1 + 2
    Parliament read these out before they were dissolved:
    1 - If you collected Tonnage and Poundage*, you were a traitor
    2 - If you paid Tonnage and Poundage, you were a traitor
    3 - If you were Arminian, you were a traitor *Tonnage and Poundage was the right to raise revenue for the whole of the monarch's reign from imports and exports. Charles was a refused a grant for this early in his reign but was able to use it without the restraints of Parliament during his personal rule.
  • Period: to

    Charles I personal rule (11 years tyranny)

    ALL THEMES
    Charles issues old taxes as his main source of income; Charles only briefly calls Parliament to get money; William Laud has great influence within the church; Thomas Wentworth (Earl of Stafford) made Lord Deputy of Ireland and creates the Thorough; Charles introduces laws without Parliament and uses courts to reach favourable judgements.
  • Book of Orders

    THEME 1 + 3
    Book created by Thomas Wentworth (Earl of Strafford) in his Thorough which was a set of instructions that JPs had to follow in controlling their assigned region.
  • William Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

    THEME 2
    William Laud was Arminian in religion which had strong links to Catholicism. He had a great influence upon Charles in control of a Protestant country and encouraged Charles to make changes within the church including adding decorations e.g. the installment of stain glass windows as opposed to Puritan plain churches and moving the communion table within the church, as well as even changing the colour of vestments that Priests should wear.
  • Charles I's scottosh coronation

    THEME 2
    Catholic ceremony
  • First money scrivening firm founded

    THEME 4
    Loans were given out with low interest rates so were cheap to pay back
  • Ship money trial

    THEME 1
    Ship money was an old tax issued by Charles as a way to get money during his period of personal rule. It was traditionally used for the defence of region in coastal counties but was used as Charles' main source of income. The tax brought him £200,000 annually.
  • Prynne, Burton and Bastwick

    THEME 2
    Three Puritan middle class professionals published attacks on the English Government (Bishops and Laud's Arminian influence). Laud punished them by having their ears cut off and cheeks branded. This annoys parliament as the punishment was issued without their consent. The fact that the punishment was issued by Laud instead of the King shows the influence he had over him.
  • Scottish prayer book rebellion

    THEME 2
    English prayer book read out in Scotland for the first time and riots broke out.
  • Population of Britain reaches 5 million

    THEME 3
  • National Covenant

    THEME 2
    As a result of the prayer book rebellion in Scotland, National Covenant was a document drawn up in meeting between the Scottish Nobility and the Clergy to defend the Scottish Church (Kirk) and restore their religious rights. It was signed by many Scottish Nobility and Clergy and was given to Charles I.
  • First Bishops war

    THEME 2
    War between Charles and Covenanters (Scottish Presbyterians) but Charles was defeated as Covenanters had strong army but Charles lacked money and often relied on county militias from England to form his Army. Charles signs the Treaty of Berwick to end the war.
  • Second Bishops war

    THEME 1+2
    Another war between Charles I and Covenanters (Scottish Presbyterians) but this time he used the support of Thomas Wentworth (Earl of Stafford). Stafford raised funds in Ireland to raise an Irish Army which would be used to help defeat the Scots but Charles still had an underequipped army and continued to have a lack of money so was defeated at Newcastle. As a result, Charles had to sign the Treaty of Ripon which meant he had to pay the Scots £850 a day whilst they occupied Newcastle.
  • Root and Branch Petition

    THEME 2
    Petition signed by 15,000 Londoners as an attempt to remove Bishops from English churches in a similar way to the religion of Puritans ad Presbyterians. Bishops belonged to the Anglican faith. But failed because Anglicans the majority of population.
  • Impeachment of Laud and Strafford

    THEME 1
    Opposition group, 'Pym's Junto' within Parliament wanted to remove 'evil counsellors', Laud and Strafford as they were blamed for Charles' policies during personal rule. Impeachment was Parliament's attempt to remove a minister of the crown.
  • Triennial Act

    THEME 1
    The monarch had to call Parliament once every three years
  • Act of Attainder and execution of Strafford

    THEME 1
    It was believed that in Strafford's impeachment, the Lords would be biased in their court case. The Act of Attainder was passed which stated that Strafford was to be executed. As a result of the Act of Attainder, there was a breakout of angry mobs and although Charles had promised to protect Stafford, he had signed his death warrant.
  • Army Plot

    THEME 1
    To secure the Act of Attainder and execution of Stafford, Pym revealed a plot by Catholic army officers to release Strafford and release Parliament by force.
  • Ten Propositions

    THEME 1
    Document issued to King which included extensions for Parliament's power such as the right for them to approve the King's advisors. It was an attempt to balance power between King and Parliament to prevent Royal harming.
  • Irish rebellion

    THEME 1 + 2
    Irish Catholics started to kill Protestants in Ireland which upsets the English (Protestant). Parliament don't trust Charles with an Army to supress the rebellion as they fear he may use it against the English Parliament. Instead, Parliament pass a militia bill/ordinance which states that Parliament now as control over the Army instead of the King and publish the Grand Remonstrance to show everyone how bad a King he was. Rebellion gave Parliament a reason to challenge Charles' power.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    THEME 1
    Document produced by Pym in order to persuade MP's to pass the Militia Bill/Ordinance. It listed all the faults of King Charles I since the beginning of his reign in 1625 and therefore, why he couldn't be trusted to be in control of the Army (why militia bill need to be introduced)
  • Abolition of Star Chamber and High Commission

    THEME 1
    These were Royal Prerogative courts that the king used to punish Prynne, Burton and Bastwick so by Parliament forcing the King to abolish them, the King lost power and had to rely more on Parliament for court cases
  • Charles attempts to arrest 5 MPs

    THEME 1
    Rumours had reached Charles that Pym was planning to impeach the Queen with his Parliamentary powers so therefore, Charles wanted to impeach Pym and his peers. Charles arrived at the House of Commons with a warrant for the arrest of the five members of Parliament, including Pym, backed by an army of 300 soldiers but they had already fled. If this was successful, it could have acted as an attack on the rights of Parliament in the way that it was carried out.
  • Militia Ordinance

    THEME 1
    A Bill introduced that would mean that Parliament are control of the Army instead of the King. Introduced as Parliament didn't trust Charles with an Army to supress the Irish rebellion, fearing he would use it against the English Parliament instead. The Bill was passed after the publication of the Grand Remonstrance in 1641 which listed the faults of Charles from the beginning of his reign in 1625 and therefore why Charles should not be trusted to be in control of the Army.
  • Nineteen Propositions

    THEME 1
    A document created by Parliament and issued to the King, saying that they wished to control the education of the King's children, as well as who they should marry. An example of Parliament pushing the boundaries of their power.
  • Period: to

    First English civil war

    ALL THEMES
    War between Charles I and his Parliament. Charles and his Royalist forces had started in a strong position. However, Parliament had control of the Navy which posed a threat to Charles. Parliament also organised their forces into a single Army, the New Model Army, which defeated Royalist forces in 1646 when they had lost their ground across the country and Charles surrendered to the Scots.
  • Solemn League and Covenant

    THEME 1 + 2
    During Civil War, Parliament sign an agreement with the Scots for the Scots to fight on parliament's side against the King in exchange for a Presbyterian settlement after the war had ended.
    (Parliament then go back on their word).
  • Oath of Abjuration

    THEME 1 + 2
    During the Civil war, it was introduced so that members of the Anglican Church had to take an oath, swearing against Catholicism. It showed the threat of Catholicism to political stability if interrupted a war to do so.
  • Period: to

    Westminster Assembly

    THEME 2
    Met in the middle of the Civil war to talk about the future religion of England after attempts to establish Presbyterianism in England
  • Apologetical Narration

    THEME 2
    5 Radical Puritans appealed for independent national churches outside of the national church. Rejected and even horrified some Puritans and Presbyterians
  • William Laud executed

    THEME 2
  • Newcastle Propositons

    THEME 1 + 2
    Political Presbyterian compromise after the First English civil war for strict anti-Catholic laws, for Parliament to control the Army for 20 years and Bishops to be abolished. However, these negotiations soon broke down and in 1647, the Scots handed the King over to Parliament.
  • Levellers issue the Agreement of the People

    THEME 3
    The document issued by the levellers, defined the powers of Government and the rights of the people.
  • Charles handed back to the English Pariament

    THEME 1
  • Politicisation of the Army

    ALL THEMES
    More heavily influenced by the Levellers and wanted religious freedom which made it more difficult to progress to a Presbyterian church in England
  • Second civil war

    THEME 1
    Another war between Charles and his Parliament where the new model army led by Thomas Fairfax defeats royalist forces.
  • Prides Purge

    THEME 1
    Thomas Pride and the new model army kick out of Parliament anyone who supported the King so that the remaining MPs could sign his death warrant. Troops arrested 45 MPs and excluded a further 186 from the Commons.
  • The Engagement

    THEME 1 + 2
    During the second civil war, the King secretly signed a document with the Scots where he promised to establish a Presbyterian church in England for three years in return for their military assistance
  • Leveller leaders imprisoned in the Tower of London

    THEME 3
    The Levellers were a radical political group that wanted equality within society and a wider franchise (right to vote); a lot of their power came from within the Army and were influential in establishing ideas. However, after their leaders' imprisonment, society remained unequal.
  • Walter Bliths publishes 'A new survey of Husbandry'

    THEME 4
    Walter Bliths publishes a book which advocates the use of new agricultural techniques
  • Charles I executed

    THEME 1
    After the Pride's Purge (kicking anyone out of parliament who supported the King), the remaining MP's in Parliament signed the death warrant of Charles I and led to his execution.
  • The Rump abolish the House of Lords

    THEME 1
    Faced opposition from the Nobility as this area of Parliament was closely linked with the Monarch.
    After this, the Rump declared England to be a commonwealth governed by a single chamber parliament.
  • Period: to

    The Rump Parliament

    ALL THEMES
    This Parliament marks the start of rule by a Republican Government and consisted of the remaining MPs from the Prides Purge in 1648. However, this Parliament was unsuccessful as it was slow to introduce reforms and was unpopular as the Army were involves and the Rump had raised taxes to maintain a large standing Army. The Rump also failed to gain support from the Gentry and Nobility.
  • Period: to

    The rule of a Republican Government

    ALL THEMES
    After the execution of Charles I in 1649, England was left with no option but to abolish the monarchy. Charles II was the rightful successor but due to the execution of his father, he obviously didn't want to become King and there was little other options for another monarch. Despite going through many different Parliaments as part of Republican rule, all proved to have little success and so the monarchy was restored in 1660 when Charles II eventually does take to the English throne
  • Ranter scare

    THEME 2 + 3
    Fear that Ranters were on the rise but were a limited group. Ranters were a group of political radicals who believed that we were predestined to be saved by God and therefore, incapable of committing sin. Ranters committed lots of crime as thought it didn't matter.
  • Rump pass Blasphemy and Adultery Acts

    THEME 1 + 2
    Rump attempt to restrict the activities of the Puritan sects by passing these acts. The Blasphemy Act was where if you said God's name in vein, you would be punished and the Adultery Act made it illegal to commit Adultery. These acts were part of an attempt to supress radical groups by introducing severe fines and penalties for these crimes, including imprisonment and death as punishment for non conformity.
  • The Quakers emerge

    THEME 2 + 3
    This group, originally known as .the seekers, were a political radical group that believed that of was a part of you and therefor, you should follow your 'inner light'.
  • First navigation act is passed

    THEME 3 + 4
    All goods imported to England and it's territories had to be carried on English ships and all crews of English ships had to be at least half English in nationality. Led to the growth of merchants as English trade was promoted
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes 'Leviathan'

    THEME 3
  • Hale Commission set up under the Rump

    THEME 1
    Was to investigate into reform of the legal system and met regularly for a year but their recommendations were never adopted
  • Rump declared collection of Tithes should continue

    THEME 2
    Tithes were a tax raised by churches
  • Period: to

    The First Anglo-Dutch War

    THEME 4
    War over trade between England and Holland/Netherlands including clashes over the East India Company, cloth trade and fishing grounds. The Anglo-Dutch Wars hindered the British economy because they were costly but ultimately improved trade as England won the majority of them.
    England wins the First Anglo-Dutch War
  • The rule of the Nominated Assembly

    ALL THEMES
    This new Parliament was often nicknamed the Barebones Parliament and all of it's members were chosen by churches. It failed to solve political stability as it included many different ideas e.g. Fifth monarchists vs non religious; Wales, Scotland and Ireland with different religious ideas; different classes with different political ideas (Richer people wanted to keep England the same - Nobility. Army and the Nominated Assembly wanted change - Gentry)
  • The Instrument of Government

    THEME 1
    A document produced by the army without consulting Parliament (Army to blame for political instability as undermining Parliament's power) It established Cromwell as Lord Protector and announced the introduction of the Protectorate. In response, 100 disagree and leave parliament.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector

    ALL THEMES
    Through his command of the new model army, he becomes Lord Protector of England, Head of State, until his death.
  • The Treaty of Westminster

    THEME 4
    Ended the First Anglo-Dutch War. It was favourable to the English and gave boats respect.
  • Comissions of Triers and Ejetors set up

    THEME 2
    Set up to check ministers of the church and members of the clergy to ensure they were well educated and capable and ejected unsuitable individuals. In five years, they made judgements on 3,500 church appointments
  • Period: to

    First Protectorate Parliament

    ALL THEMES
    Attempts to reduce the size of the army and cares more about the Army than parliament. Passes no laws and spent most of it's time complaining about the system. (Members of Parliament to blame for Political instability as could have left Parliament when Instrument of Government issued - chose to stay) Cromwell dissolves it after 4 months when it is supposed to last 5 months.
  • Western Design (Capture of Jamaica)

    THEME 4
    Jamaica is captured from Spain and starts the growth of the sugar trade.
  • Period: to

    The Rule of the Major Generals

    THEME 1
    A major general appointed for each of the 11 districts of the country, responsible for local Government and security.
    Many opposed the Army which is clear through opposition to the Rump because the Army was involved. Therefore, it was to be inevitable that the rule of the major generals would not be successful . Cromwell had to raise taxes in order to keep the Army, similar to the Rump and this caused huge resentment. (It was both Cromwell and the Army that caused political instability)
  • James Nayler

    THEME 2
    James Nayler was a Quaker who was sent to the South by George Fox (Leader of the Quakers) to preach and convert people to their religion. He rode into Bristol, where he was due to hold a Quaker meeting, on a Donkey on Palm Sunday, along with female Quakers who waved branches and flowers in his path, to re-enact Christ's entry into Jerusalem. Nayler was accused of Blasphemy and MPs called for him to be executed but Cromwell intervened and challenged Plt's right to severely punish.
  • Period: to

    The Second Protectorate Parliament

    ALL THEMES
    Introduced as Rule of Major Generals proved unpopular and this new constitution was accepted by Cromwell. It was this Parliament that offered the crown to Cromwell in 1657.
  • The Humble Petition and Advice

    THEME 1
    Document offered to Cromwell by the Second Protectorate which offered Cromwell the Crown but he refuses document and becomes Lord Protector instead. Cromwell believed in the divine right of kings and thought God had got rid of Charles. He did not want this to happen to him. Parliament refuse to learn from their mistakes as trying to bring back a King would not solve political stability (just got rid of Charles) and Army would refuse to be controlled by Plt which was stated in doc too.
  • Marine Insurance Law

    THEME 4
    Meant England received a wider variety of trade. Ships were insured which encouraged foreign ventures
  • Oliver Cromwell dies

    THEME 1
    His death marks the end of the Second Protectorate Parliament. He is succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell but the new Protector had little political experience and had no strong links with the New Model Army, the key power group.
  • Period: to

    The End of the Protectorate

    ALL THEMES
    Richard briefly summons the Third Protectorate in Jan 1659 but forced to resign later 1659 and Rump was recalled who learnt nothing from their mistakes (still argue and do not pass any laws). General Monck, who had fought for the Royalists during the Civil War and commander of Scottish Army, marched his forces to London to restore a free Parliament and eventually the Restoration of the Monarchy.
  • Period: to

    Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector

    ALL THEMES
    Richard succeeds his father after his death in 1658 but has little links with the Army which would be needed for his rule to help to maintain political stability. He briefly summons a third protectorate in 1659 but is forced to resign by the Army's leader the same year.
  • Booth's Rebelllion

    ALL THEMES
    Showed that there was a demand for a restored monarchy. Radicals of the rebellion pushed for a new Godly rule, Royalists had demanded for a return to the monarchy and the Army wanted to be paid.
  • Period: to

    The Rule of the Rump

    ALL THEMES
    Still proved to be ineffective, making the same mistakes. They still argued and still didn't pass any laws.
  • The Restoration of the Monarchy

    ALL THEMES
    General George Monck marches his forces into London in Jan to restore order and was presented with a number of petitions for restored monarchy. Elections held for new Plt and Convention Plt meets in April. Plt resolved to restore the traditional Gvt of King , Lords, Commons and on 29th May, Charles II was welcomed on his return to London from exile abroad. Would solve the problems with Army (monarch controlled), religious conflict (confessional state) and growth of Nobility (titles)
  • The Declaration of Breda

    ALL THEMES
    Before Charles returned to England, he promised:
    To listen to the advice of Parliament
    Indemnity - people not persecuted for actions taken in the Civil war, unless they took part in the execution of Charles I, settled by Parliament
    Toleration of peaceful religions, settled by Parliament
    Settlement of dispute over land to be decided by Parliament
    Payment of Army's wages Promised all that Parliament wanted and no preconditions for his rule
  • Royal Society founded

    THEME 3
    A group of intellectuals
  • Act of Indemnity and Oblivion

    THEME 1
    Granted a general pardon to supporters of the republican regimes, apart from those who had condemned Charles I to death.
    Regicides (people involved in killing King) and 9 people exempted from the pardon
  • Anglican Church restored

    THEME 2
    Church of England restored and Bishops appointed
  • Return of the House of Lords

    THEME1 + 3
    Had been abolished by the Rump in 1649 but it's return as part of the Restoration settlement not only improved political stability with more people working in Parliament, but also helped for the Nobility to grow in society after their power had significantly declined. (Nobles and House of Lords supported the King)
  • Second Navigation Act is passed

    THEME 4
    Modified version of the First Navigation Act- both imports and exports from England and it's territories had to be carried on English ships. Also includes long list of goods including tobacco and sugar which could only be shipped to England and it's colonies
  • Period: to

    Rule of Charles II

    ALL THEMES
    When he returned to London from being in exile abroad, he was the country's last hope of achieving political stability. A number of different Parliaments had failed and Charles II was the only person that the country could bring back as a King. However, when he returned, he believed he had ruled for 12 years from when his father died (divine right). Charles was secretly catholic in charge of a Protestant society and so, he pushed for religious toleration. Has no legitimate children.
  • Convention Parlaiment dissolved

    THEME 1
    The convention parliament had provided a balance between Royalists and Presbyterians and was the first Parliament of Charles II.
  • The Savoy Conference

    THEME 2
    After the dissolution of the convention parliament who had restored the Anglican Church of England, this conference was called to decide what would now happen to the church. However, this conference fails as nothing is decided upon. The meeting was between Anglican Bishops and Puritan Ministers.
  • Cavalier Parlaiment assembles

    THEME 1+2
    A Royalist Parliament with the aim of weakening the restrictions placed upon the King's power and undermine the clarity achieved by the Convention Parliament.
  • The Corporation Act

    THEME 2
    Meant that extremists cant be in a position of political power and all involved in local Government had to be members of the Anglican Church of England
  • Abolition of Feudal Tenures

    THEME 1
    Ended Monarch's right to feudal taxes such as forced loans but failure to restore prerogative courts also meant that ship money was dissolved as well. This protected the powers of Parliament
  • Charles doubles the size of the Privy Council to 120 members

    THEME 1
    This was an attempt to accommodate different factions and was done in need of money
  • Fifth Monarchist Rising (Venners Rising) in London

    THEME 2
    Thomas Venner, a fifth monarchists and 50 other armed followers broke into St Pauls Cathedral and declared that God was their King, not Charles II. Resulted in Venner being executed and the fear of a similar rising happening again amongst the Restoration Government led to the issue of the Conventicle Act, banning all religious meetings outside of the Church of England. Punish non conformists but people wanted religious toleration.
  • Period: to

    Clarendon Code

    THEME 2
    Charles I and his minister, Clarendon imposed a narrower religious settlement after being forced to do so by Parliament (they had actually wanted to broaden C of E with moderate Protestants groups) and the failure of the Savoy conference:
    Corporation Act 1661
    Act of Uniformity 1662
    Conventicle Act 1664
    Five Mile Act 1665
  • Quaker Act

    THEME 2
    Required Quakers to take an oath of allegiance to the King but their religion didn't allow them to do so. Therefore, Quakers were subject to increasingly intense persecution. Many Quakers were imprisoned, with over 400 dying during their confinement.
  • Act of Uniformity

    THEME 2 + 3 + 4
    Extremists not allowed in church offices. About 1,800 Puritan ministers (1/4 of the clergy) were ejected as they were unable to conform. Many of these Puritans followed the example of previous Puritans and emigrated to America.The Act also made the Book of Common Prayer compulsory in all churches
  • 1st Declaration of Indulgence

    THEME 2
    This allowed religious toleration and was introduced by Charles as an attempt to suspend the previous Act of Uniformity as he wanted toleration for Catholics (secretly Catholic himself) but the majority in Parliament forced it's withdrawal
  • Licensing Act

    THEME 1
    Re-introduced censorship of the press. The King didn't want people to hear bad things about him.
  • Hearth Tax

    THEME 1
    A tax on every fireplace and stove in the Kingdom which helped to increase royal revenue
  • Settlement Act

    THEME 3
    Meant that you could only receive poor relief if you had lived in the same parish for 3 or more years. Those that fitted the criteria were given a poor relief certificate which they could take with them if they then moved parish and would still be able to get poor relief. But caused less migration as few certificates were given out (didn't want to pay them poor relief when left) Helped the settled poor who stay in one parish but restricted vagrants and beggars.
  • Staple Act

    THEME 4
    Updated the Navigation Act in that all goods shipped from Africa, Asia or Europe had to pass through England first before reaching it's destination.
  • Turnpike Act

    THEME 4
    Creation of new toll roads opened by merchants and businessmen
  • Conventicle Act

    THEME 2
    Religious meetings of five or more people were banned. Also meant that there was harsh punishment for religious meetings outside the C of E
  • Triennial Act of 1641 repealed and replaced with a weaker version

    THEME 1
    Did not establish a procedure to be followed if the King failed to call a Parliament
  • Dunkirk sold to Louis XIV

    THEME 1 + 4
    This ends English possessions in France and was done as Charles needed more money
  • George Fox imprisoned

    THEME 2 + 3
    George Fox was the leader of the Quakers and was imprisoned in Scarborough Castle, kept in chains as part of the Government's harsh Punishment towards this radical religious group. He was released in 1666.
  • Capture of New York

    THEME 4
    Was captured from the Dutch and improved English trade
  • Five Mile Act

    THEME 2
    Clergymen expelled from their parish for refusing to conform to the Act of Uniformity could not go within 5 miles of their former parish to stop them spreading their beliefs
  • The Great Plague

    THEME 3
    Led to a decrease in the Population with many deaths.
    Led to growth of professionals (Doctors) in society - higher need for them to treat illness.
  • Period: to

    The Second Anglo-Dutch War

    THEME 4
    War over trade between England and Holland/Netherlands including clashes over the East India Company, cloth trade and fishing grounds. The Anglo-Dutch Wars hindered the British economy because they were costly but ultimately improved trade as England won the majority of them.
    Charles faced a humiliating defeat when the Dutch attacked the English fleet in the river Medway and the Dutch won an Anglo-Dutch war for the first and only time.
  • The Great Fire of London

    THEME 2 + 3 +4
    With many properties destroyed, this event led to a growth in the economy with businesses taking out more insurance policies in case it was to happen again to cover the cost of reconstruction. The destruction of properties from the Great Fire would have also led to less poverty as more jobs would be made available for the reconstruction of them (increased employment rate). However, many Londoners blamed Catholics for this event.
  • The fall of Clarendon and the formation of the Cabal

    THEME 1 + 2
    Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon who was a protestant, was removed as chief minister, which led to a group of diverse ministers fulfilling his role some of which included Catholics who would have supported the religion of Charles II.
  • James, Duke of York announces his conversion to Catholicism

    THEME 2
  • Formation of the Presbyterian Academy

    THEME 2
    Education system for Presbyterians. This religion growing as more equality for them
  • Treaty of Dover

    THEME 1 + 2
    Caused England to have to enter further war with the Dutch (hence the Third Anglo-Dutch war 1672-74). It was also mentioned in the Treaty that Charles would have to announce his conversion to Catholicism.
  • Second Conventicle Act

    THEME 2
    Still meant that religious meetings outside of the C of E were banned but fact that the Act had to be renewed shows that religious stability not being achieved
  • Treaty of Madrid

    THEME 4
    Allowed English ships to travel freely between islands
  • The 2nd Declaration of Indulgence is passed

    THEME 2
    Allowed religious toleration for everyone but people didn't want to accept that this would mean Catholics too
  • Charles II reforms banking

    THEME 4
    Charles was heavily in debt to Goldsmith bankers so he confiscated funds in the Royal Treasury. Public lost faith in depositing money with the Crown. Led to growth of Private financiers.
  • Royal African Company and Triangular Trade

    THEME 4
    Showed the growth of slavery:
    North America to Europe - Raw materials (sugar, cotton, tobacco)
    Europe to Africa - Manufactured goods (cloth)
    Africa to North America - Slaves
  • Period: to

    The Third Anglo-Dutch War

    THEME 4
    War over trade between England and Holland/Netherlands including clashes over the East India Company, cloth trade and fishing grounds. The Anglo-Dutch Wars hindered the British economy because they were costly but ultimately improved trade as England won the majority of them
    England wins the Third Anglo-Dutch War
  • The Plantation Duty Act

    THEME 4
    Updated the Navigation Act again in that it ensured captains of English ships delivered specified goods to England only or faced a financial penalty.
  • Test Act

    THEME 1+2
    Catholics couldn't hold a position in public office (Government).
    Charles sympathised with these Catholics with his secret religion but was unable to stop it, despite his power
  • Treaty of Westminster

    THEME 4
    Ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. It provided for the return of the colony of New Netherland to England.
  • First Road Atlas

    THEME 4
    People could now see how roads and waters were connected for shipping
  • The Appointment of Danby

    THEME 1 + 2
    Charles appointed the Anglican Protestant, Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby as Treasurer and he issued a foreign policy which favoured the Dutch but he threatened religious toleration as he only favoured strict conformity. Appointment was positive as showed Charles could appoint Protestants and wasn't so pro-catholic but also negative as meant that the catholic Charles and advisors had to continue this Protestant policy that they didn't believe in.
  • Popish Plot

    THEME 1+2
    This was a fake Catholic plot to kill the 'Protestant' Charles II and replace him with his Catholic brother, James, The Duke of York as the new King. This fake plot was discovered by Titus Oates, an Anglican clergyman but little did the supposed plotters know, it would be an attack on their own religion as Charles was secretly Catholic. Although the plot was fabricated, it allowed Parliament to denounce the King's Catholic ministers, forcing Charles to dissolve his Cavalier Plt 1679.
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    The Exclusion Crisis

    THEME 1 + 2
    Two 'Exclusion' Plts led by Shaftesbury met in 1679 and 1681 and each proposed a bill to exclude the Catholic James, Duke of York from the succession to the throne. Charles refused to consider these proposals and dissolve each Plt after a few months (majority of Plt Tories).Whigs supported the Exclusion as believed toleration of Catholics would lead to royal absolutism but Tories supported royal power and wanted to keep James as a successor (believed Whig beliefs would lead to CW)
  • Protestant Migration

    THEME 2 + 3 + 4
    Forced conversions to Catholicism in France begin compelling many Protestants to migrate to England. Means a secretly Catholic King is now in charge of an even bigger Protestant society. New skills brought over to improve trade and markets and could mean more jobs, meaning less poverty and less poor relief to be paid.
  • A Third Exclusion Parliament

    THEME 1 + 2
    Charles II sends James, Duke of York to Scotland to avoid further attacks against him and also moves Parliament to the Royalist stronghold of Oxford instead of London. This eventually resulted in Charles dissolving this Parliament after just a few weeks (he had received a large sum of money from Louis XIV so didn't need them). In this, Charles ignores the Triennial Act to call Parliament every three years as he reigns another 4 years without them (recalls Plt 1684)
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    Charles II Personal Rule

    ALL THEMES
    Charles dissolves Parliament, angered by the actions of the 'Exclusion' Parliaments but in 1684, defies the Triennial Act that's stated that Parliament should be called every 3 years. Instead, it was recalled after 4 years.
  • Rye House Plot

    THEME 1 + 2
    A failed attempt to assassinate Charles II because of his pro-Catholic policies and the Catholic James, Duke of York (Charles' brother) and replace them with the Protestant James, Duke of Monmouth (Charles' illegitimate son). Although the plot failed, it allowed Charles to seize he opportunity to arrest leading Whigs and further weaken his opponents.
  • Death of Charles II

    THEME 1 + 2
    Charles dies of old age and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James, Duke of York who would now be crowned James II without receiving at opposition. He continued the process which Charles started of selecting Parliamentary candidates which would take time.
  • Monmouth Rebellion

    THEME 1
    James, Duke of Monmouth (Charles' illegitimate son) raised a rebellion in Dorset to overthrow James II but received little support for it. His army was poorly equipped and when he was defeated, him and his supporters faced harsh punishment. Monmouth was captured and beheaded.
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    The Rule of James II

    ALL THEMES
    Despite his Catholicism, he had a strong position on the throne when he succeeded Charles II. He had the support of Tories and the Anglican Church (the majority of the political elite). The very Tory Plt had granted him substantial funding too. However, his strong hold on the throne did not last for long and in 1688, he was forcibly removed from the throne.
  • Godden vs Hales

    THEME 1 + 2
    Sir Edward Hales, a Catholic, was prosecuted by his Protestant coachman, Arthur Godden, for holding military command without taking an oath of allegiance which was in breach of the Test Act 1673. From the case it was judged that James II should decide whether Hales was at fault but he used it to allow Catholics to become Army officers (wanted Religious freedom for Catholics but Parliament wouldn't allow it)
  • Isaac Newton presents his theory of Gravity to the Royal Society

    THEME 3
  • James II forbids anti-Catholic sermons

    THEME 2
  • Opening of Magdalen College

    THEME 2
    This was a college exclusively for Catholics so that they were able to get a good education jut like Protestants
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    The Third Declaration of Indulgence

    THEME 1 + 2
    This was passed in 1678 by James and granted freedom of worship to both catholic and Protestant dissenters - religious toleration
    It was then renewed in 1688 and James ordered it to be read from the Pulpit in every Parish. When 7 Bishops refused to obey the order, they were arrested and punished by the King, threatening the existence of Parliament and the security of the Church, sparking the invite for William of Orange and Mary to come to England.
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    The Ecclsiastical Commission

    THEME 1 + 2
    Set up to act as a court for church affairs with similar powers to Prerogative courts and create more equality for Catholics. But, people saw it as an attack on the Church and the Protestant religion.
  • The birth of James' son to Mary of Modena

    THEME 1 + 2
    Mary was James' second wife. People thought he had Protestant daughters to succeed him but now he has a catholic son who would succeed him instead. With fear of another Catholic succession, it sparks William of Orange and Mary's invitation to England.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    THEME 1 + 2
    Letter sent to Holland, signed by 7 leading political figures, representing both Whigs and Tories. It invited William of Orange, the husband of James' daughter, Mary, to intervene in England with an armed force and mount an invasion. He accepted as it showed how many factions would support him and may help him with his war in Holland against France. After his victory in Devon, he then marched to London where James fled into exile and the couple took the throne as Protestant heirs.
  • Lloyds Coffee House opened

    THEME 4
    Became common place for brokers and insurance companies to met, becoming a focal point of the insurance industries. Merchants and ship owners could also meet up and share information there. Coffee and sugar had com from Jamaica which England had captured in 1655.