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England in the 1600's | I Wonder | Genius Hour

  • Period: to

    Reign of Elizabeth I

  • Queen Elizabeth Dies

  • James I is crowned

    James IV of Scotland is crowned James I of England. He is the first monarch of the House of Stuart, and the first monarch to rule all of Great Britain. Scotland and England were two different countries, they just happened to be ruled by the same person.
  • Period: to

    James I's Reign

  • The Gunpowder Plot

    A plot to blow up Parliament with gunpoder. Was carried out by Guy Fawkes. It was thwarted when a lord got a letter telling him to shift his atttendance at Parliament.
  • The Great Severn Tsunami/Flood

    A flood/tsunami that killed 2000 people.
  • Guy Fawkes is Hanged

  • Union Jack was Created

    James I ordered royal heralds to make the Union Jack, a flag for Scotland and England, even though they were two different countries.
  • The Earliest Known Performance of MacBeth

    MacBeth is a Shakespearean play.
  • Jamestown Created

  • Henery Hudson Sails into Deleware Bay

    Henery Hudson is English, and worked for the Dutch East India Company. The company wanted him to find a Northwest/West route to India/China.
  • The New King James bible Publication

  • The First Preformance of "The Tempest"

    "The Tempest" is a play by William Shakespeare.
  • Salemsbury Witch Trial

    The Salemsbury witch trial was a trial to see if Jane Southworth, Jennet Bierley, and Ellen Bierley were witches. They were accused by Grace Sowerbutts. The jury was ordered to come up with this verdict: not guilty.
  • The Globe Theater Burns Down

    The Globe was where most Shakespearean plays were preformed.
  • William Shakespeare's Death

  • Walter Raleigh is Executed in the Tower of London

    Walter Raleigh was a great explorer, but he was commited to the Tower of London in 1592 for denying the hospitality of Elizabeth I. Soon after he was realeased, he was imprisoned again in the Tower for treason by James I, the same reason for why Walter was executed.
  • The Mayflower Lands

    The Mayflower carried Pilgrims to the new world.
  • James I Dies

  • Charles I is Crowned

    Charles I is a monarch of the house of Stuart. He is a monarch of Great Britain, and thought that he was a representative of God. Due to that thinking, he decided that he did not need a paraliment to rule, so he had to heavily tax citizens, which did not make very many people happy.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles I

  • Boston is Founded

  • Charles I Creates the Short Parliament

    The Short Parlaiment was a Parlaiment that was summoned by Charles I. It's purpose was to fund the military, for Charles disbanded the previous parliament.
  • Charles I abolishes the Short Parliament

    Charles abolishes the short Parliament because they refused to grant him money.
  • The Battle of Newburn

    The Battle of Newburn is a part of the Bishops' Wars, two wars fought between the Scots and Charles I. Charles I wanted to connect the Anglican Church and Scottish government, whereas the Scots wanted to abolsih episcopacy (a govenment run by a church).
  • Charles I Arrests Five Members of Parliament

    Charles arrested these five members of parliament, because he accused them of treason, and in the process, he started the English Civil war.
  • The English Civil war Starts

    The English Civil war officially begins. It was a fight between Cavaliers, supporters of Charles, and Roundheads or Parliamentarians , supporters of Parliament that were led by Oliver Cromwell.
  • The Battle of Edgehill

    The Battle of Edgehill was one of the first major battles in the English Civil war. The battle was fought between the parliamentarian army, which was under the command of the Earl of Essex, or the General, and Cavaliers, under the command of Charles I. The battle was fought in the fields between Radway and Kineton, and the outcome was in favor of the Cavaliers.
  • The Battle of Martson Moor

    The battle of Martson Moor is said to be the biggest battle in the English Civil war, with the Cavliers at 18,000 men and the Parliamentarians at 28,000 men. The battle turned to the Parliamentarians advantage, but not without struggle. In the beginning of the battle, the Cavaliers, led by Prince Rupert were looking victorious, until the Parliamentarians made a big comeback and took the battle. In the end, the Parliamentarians won.
  • The Battle of Naseby

    The Battle of Naseby is one of the most important battles in the English Civil war. With their army, the parlaimentarians defeated the cavaliers, who were completely wiped out by the blow. Because Charles suddenly didn't have an army, his control was essentialy over. Some people say that Naseby is as important of a battle as Hastings.
  • The Parliamentarians Capture Charles I

    Thus ending the English Civil war.
  • The Battle of Maidstone

    Even though Parliament controlled England, there were still some supporters of Charles, which bought on a short-lived second English Civil war. There were not many battles, for it lasted less than one year from the June of 1648, to the May of 1649. The first major Battle was in Maidstone, caused when a rebellion broke out due to a petition to bring back the monarchy. The Cavaliers were fighting the Parliamentarians, who retreated to Gabriel's Hill, where most fighting took place. Roundheads won.
  • Charles I Goes on Trial

    With the end of the second English Civil war, which turned in the Parliamentarians favor, Oliver Cromwell, the leader of the Parliamentarians, who feared the conflict would continue, decided to just go ahead and accuse Charles of treason.
  • Charles I is Executed

    When Charles is found guilty, he is executed in Whitehall after eating a fine meal, walking jis dog, and getting communion from a bishop. Charles' head is severed with one chop of the axe, which was wielded by Richard Brandon.
  • Charles I is Buried

  • Oliver Cromwell Declares England a Commonwealth

    A commonwealth is a democratic republic.
  • Period: to

    Period of the Commonwealth

  • The Battle of Dunbar

    The Battle of Dunbar is apart of the third english Civil war, when Charles I's son, Charles II fights against the commonwealth using the Scottish army. In response, Oliver Cromwell sends out his army to Scotland before they can invade. In result, the battle of Dunbar begins. The Scottish had an advantage with 25,000 men compared to England's 10,000. It was a sturggle, but in the end, Oliver Cromwell won.
  • The Battle of Kentish Knock

    The Battle of Kentish Knock is apart of a series of battles in the first Anglo-Dutch war, a war between the English and Dutch (people from the Netherlands) over trade routes and the right of the seas. Most/all of the battles were fought between the two nations' Navys. The Dutch, led by Witte de With, had 62 ships, 1900 cannons, and 7000 men, whereas the English, led by Robert Blake, had 68 ships, 2400 cannons, and 10,000 men. In the end, the English won. The Dutch learned that ships were needed.
  • Oliver Cromwell Becomes Lord Protector of England

    When Cromwell became Lord Protector, which is like a general, england turned into more of a military ruled government.
  • The Treaty of Westminster is Signed

    The Treaty of Westminster ended the first Anglo-Dutch war, by essentially giving privileges to each nation, from each nation.
  • England Capture Jamaica

  • The Restoration

    Because the Cavaliers won the third English Civil war, Charles II is restored to his throne.
  • The Regicides are Executed

    The regicides are the people who signed the death warrant of Charles I, Below is a link to the list of regicides:
    List of Regicides
  • The Royal Society is Founded

    The Royal Society is a society formed by Charles II which is officially recognised as "The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge." On their webpage, they wrote that its purpose is to "recognise, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity."
  • Oliver Cromwell's Corpse is Executed

  • Charles II is Crowned

    As the son of Charles I, Charles II is a monarch that rules all of Great Britain. He is apart of the house of Stuart, Restored.
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    Reign of Charles II

  • The Battle of Lowestoft

    The Battle of Lowestoft is apart of the second Anglo-Dutch war about trade routes and control of the seas. It is the first major battle of the second Anglo-Dutch war. Like most battles in the Anglo-Dutch wars, this battle was fought in the ocean. The English had 120 ships and 20,000 men while the Dutch had far more. The Dutch took their time, so the English started attacking. After several times passing each other and shooting their cannons, the English won.
  • Royal Marines Established

    The Royal Marines are apart of the Royal Navy.
  • The Great Plague of London at its Height

    The Great Plague of London is apart of a group of plagues starting in 1499. It is estimated that the plague killed 100,000 people of the 490,000, that is 1/5th of the population; 20%! At its height, it killed 8,000 people per week, which is 13 times the amount of children in our school!
  • Great Fire of London Starts

    During a dry summer, the king's baker, Thomas Farynor, while sleeping in his bakery/house on Pudding Street smelled smoke. The fire eventually engulfed London in flames, and it didn't help that it was dry, the city was made of almost entirely wood, and people were still recovering from the plague. Charles tried to destroy as many houses as possible, but it was no use; there was a great wind which allowed fire to jump large gaps.The fire destroyed 373 acres, 13,200 houses, and 84 churches.
  • The Raid of the Medway

    A raid of the second Anglo-Dutch war, when a fleet of Dutch boats sail up the river Medway in England and destroy/capture a fleet of English boats at dock. Which were there, contrary to the fact that the English knew the Dutch were coming, due to a shortage of money which literally coould not keep the Royal Navy afloat.
  • Signing of the Treaty of Breda

    The Treaty of Breda was a treaty to stop the second Anglo-Dutch war. The treaty included giving New Netherland to the English, who named it New York after the Duke of York who would later become James II. This peace is actually generally said to be in the favor of the Dutch, because Charles' weak position could be used to force him to sign the "Triple Alliance" which forced the King of France to give up trying to overtake some southern provinces of the Netherlands.
  • "Paradise Lost" Published

    "Paradise Lost" is a work of literature by John Milton. It is based off the book of Genesis (creation) in the bible.
  • Thomas Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

    Col Blood (Colonel Thomas Blood) stole the Crown Jewels when he went to see them in the Tower of London. Col and two other men overpowered the guard and started the process of taking the Crown Jewels; flattening the crown so it can fit in the coat, sawing the scepter to make it easier to carry, and putting an orb down your pants. They were about to leave when the guard's son caught them and had them arrested. Col Blood wanted to speak privately with Charles II, and when he did, he got pardoned.
  • The Battle of Southwold

    The Battle of Southwold (Solebay) is apart of the third Anglo-Dutch war for control of trading routes and the seas. The third Aglo-Dutch war is actually apart of the Franco-Dutch war, which the Anglo-Dutch war is apart of because Charles II secretly signed the treaty of Dover, which stated that Charles had to help the French on a war with the Dutch. In the battle at Southwold, which is a bay, the Anglo-French fleet had 71 ships while the dutch had 61 ships. The battle ended inconclusively.
  • The Treaty of Westminster is Signed

    The Treaty of Westminster, is the treaty that ended the thrid Anglo-Dutch war. It essentialy just renewed the Treaty of Breda.
  • Royal Observatory Founded

    The Royal Observatory was founded by Charles II, for use of finding longitude at sea. It is, the exact location of the Prime Meridian, for that is what defines it. Every day, year, century, etc. begins at midnight Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) at the ecact location of the Observatory.
  • Marriage of William of Orange and Mary

    William of Orange was born in the Netherlands; he is Dutch. Mary is The Duke of York's, Later James II's daughter. Their marriage was meant to mend the relationship between the Netherlands and England.
  • "Pilgrim's Progress" Published

    "Pilgrim's Progress" is a piece of literature by John Bunyan, it is about a Chritstian man's journey.
  • The Battle of Drumclog

    The Battle of Drumclog is apart of the Scottish Covenanters war, a war that had the Cavaliers on one side, and the Covenanters on the other. The covenanters are a group of people who do not respect the fact that England's kings interfered with the Scottish Presbyterian church. In respect to the battle, which followed the assassination of Archbishop Sharp, the Covenanters revolted in the town of Glasgow, and chased after the assassinaters. The Covenanters eventually stopped.
  • End of the Scottish Covenanter war

    It resulted in the Cavalier's victory.
  • Charles II Dies

  • James II is Crowned

    James II is amonarch of the house of Stuart, and Great Britain. He is Roman Catholic, which caused many problems.
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    Reign of James II

  • The Battle of Sedgemoor

    The Battle of Sedgemoor is apart of the Monmouth rebellion, a rebellion started by the Duke of Monmouth to overthrow James II. With an army of 3500 men, the rebels launched a suptise attack on a camp of royal infantry men. When the element of suprise was gone, Monmouths army was completely obliterated.
  • Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

    Because of his attempt to overthrow James II, the Duke of Monmouth was executed.
  • Issac Newton Publishes "Principa"

    "Principa" is a book by Issac Newton about the principles of mathematics and physics.
  • The Glorious Revolution Begins

    The Glorious Revolution is a revolution to force James II of the throne and Bring William of Orange and Mary to it.
  • James II Abdicates

    The pressure is too much; James II is forced of the throne by the Glorious Revolution.
  • William and Mary are Crowned as Joint Rulers

    William is now WIlliam the III and Mary is now Mary II.
  • Period: to

    Reign of William III and Mary II

  • The Siege of Derry

    The Siege of Derry is apart of the Williamite war, the war between the Protestant William III and the Catholic James II. As a siege launched by James II, no one actually stormed the walls of the town of Derry, they just waited the people out. 105 days after the beginning of the siege, it ended.
  • The Bill of Rights is Established

    The Bill of Rights reduced the amount of power that a monarch could have.
  • The Battle of Beachy Head

    The Battle of Beachy Head ended the Williamite war. The French teamed up with James II to attempt to defeat William III, who teamed up with the Dutch. In the end, James II won with no ships damaged.
  • The Battle of Boyne

    In this Battle, James is defeated and flees to France, so William III has won the Williamite war.
  • The Massacre of Glencoe

    As James II was defeated in the war, William III offered the Highland Clans a pardon if they pledged their alliegence to him before January 1st. Unfortunately, the Chief of Glencoe could not take the pledge until January 6th. So William sent 120 men to massacre the people of Glencoe.
  • Press Censorship Ended

  • The Palace of Whitehall Burns

    The Palace of Whitehall is where Charles I was executed.