General Timeline of English Poetic History

  • May 15, 1503

    The marriage of James IV, king of Scotland, to Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII

    1503 - The marriage of James IV, king of Scotland, to Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII, leads a century later to the Union of the Crowns
  • May 15, 1509

    Henry VIII crowned

    1509 England – Henry VIII crowned and married to Catherine of Aragon
  • May 15, 1509

    Henry VIII becomes king of England

    1509 On the death of his father, and as the result of the death of his elder brother Arthur, Henry VIII becomes king of England
  • May 15, 1511

    curling stone, discovered in Scotland

    1511 - The earliest surviving curling stone, discovered in Scotland, dates from this year
  • May 15, 1513

    England and Scotland at war

    1513 England and Scotland – James IV and thousands of Scots killed in defeat at Flodden
  • May 15, 1513

    James IV of Scotland dies at Flodden

    1513 - James IV of Scotland dies at Flodden, in the disastrous defeat of his army by the English
    On the death of his father at Flodden, the one-year-old James V becomes king of Scotland
  • May 15, 1514

    Thomas Wolsey begins to build himself a palace at Hampton Court

    1514 - Thomas Wolsey begins to build himself a palace at Hampton Court, but will later consider it politic to give it to Henry VIII
  • May 15, 1516

    Catherine of Aragon gives birth to a daughter

    1516 - Catherine of Aragon gives birth to a daughter, Mary, who becomes the only one of her six children to live beyond infancy
  • May 15, 1521

    Lutheran writings

    • 1521 England – Lutheran writings begin to circulate.
  • May 15, 1525

    Henry VIII seeks an annulment of his marriage

    1525 England – Henry VIII seeks an annulment of his marriage, which is refused.
  • May 15, 1526

    burning of Lutheran books

    1526 England – Cardinal Wolsey orders the burning of Lutheran books.
  • May 15, 1526

    Hans Holbein the Younger pays his first visit to England

    1526 - Hans Holbein the Younger pays his first visit to England, and stays with Thomas More in Chelsea
  • May 15, 1528

    Discussion of Henry VIII's proposed divorce

    1528 Discussion of Henry VIII's proposed divorce hinges on rival verses from the Old Testament, in Deuteronomy and Leviticus In a desperate attempt to retain royal favour, when suspected by the king of opposing his divorce, Cardinal Wolsey gives his spectacular Hampton Court Palace to Henry VIII
  • May 15, 1529

    Henry VIII severs ties with Rome

    1529 England – Henry VIII severs ties with Rome and declares himself head of the English church.
  • May 15, 1529

    Thomas More as Lord Chancellor

    1529 After the fall of Wolsey, Henry VIII appoints Thomas More as his Lord Chancellor
  • May 15, 1532

    Creation of the College of Justice

    1532 Scotland – Creation of the College of Justice and the Court of Session.
  • May 15, 1533

    Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void

    1533 Thomas Cranmer, the archbishop of Canterbury, declares Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void Anne Boleyn has a child (the future Elizabeth I) but not of the sex her husband wanted
  • May 15, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    1534 England – Act of Supremacy passed by Henry VIII
  • May 15, 1534

    1534 England – Treasons Act 1534

    1534 England – Treasons Act 1534
  • May 15, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    1534 Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy forces prominent figures in English public life to accept him on oath as head of the Church of England
  • May 15, 1535

    Execution of Thomas More and Cardinal John Fisher.

    1535 England – Execution of Thomas More and Cardinal John Fisher.
  • May 15, 1535

    Thomas Moore beheaded

    1535 Thomas More refuses to take the oath accepting the Act of Supremacy and is beheaded
  • May 15, 1536

    Execution of William Tindale in Antwerp

    1536 England – Execution of William Tindale in Antwerp
  • May 15, 1536

    Anne Boleyn is beheaded

    1536 Henry VIII begins the process of gathering in the wealth of England's monasteries Wales is merged within the English kingdom as a principality Henry VIII's queen, Anne Boleyn, is beheaded in the Tower of London on unsubstantiated charges of adultery
  • May 15, 1537

    Birth of Edward VI

    1537 Jane Seymour gives birth to Henry VIII's long-awaited male heir (the future Edward VI) Jane Seymour dies twelve days after giving birth to Henry VIII's heir, the future Edward VI
  • May 15, 1539

    The Great Bible published

    1539 The Great Bible, commissioned by Henry VIII for use in every Anglican church, is published
  • May 15, 1542

    Mary, Queen of Scots

    1542 Scotland – Mary, Queen of Scots, accedes to the Scottish throne
  • May 15, 1542

    Catherine Howard is beheaded

    1542 Henry VIII's fourth wife, Catherine Howard, is beheaded on a charge of adultery with Thomas Culpeper A one-week-old Scottish infant, daughter of James V, inherits the throne as Mary Queen of Scots
  • May 15, 1546

    David beaton is murdered

    1546 David Beaton, the archbishop of St Andrews, burns a leading Protestant, George Wishart, as a heretic and is murdered in retaliation
  • May 15, 1547

    Edward VI

    1547 England – Edward VI crowned King
  • May 15, 1547

    Edward Vi becomes king of England

    1547 On the death of Henry VIII his 10-year-old son becomes king of England as Edward VI John Knox is captured in St Andrews and is sent to serve in the French fleet as a galley slave
  • May 15, 1549

    Prayer Book rebellion

    1549 England – Prayer Book rebellion in south-west.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    professional comedy

    1550
    Commedia dell'arte flourishes in Italy and Western Europe. Literally “professional comedy,” the theater form features improvisation from a standard script and stock characters.
  • May 15, 1553

    Mary I

    1553 England – Mary I accedes to the throne.
  • May 15, 1553

    Mary I succeeds to the English throne

    1553 Mary I succeeds to the English throne, and devotes her energies to the restoration of the Catholic faith
  • May 15, 1554

    Protestant rebellion in Yorkshire

    1554 Mary I causes grave offence in England by her marriage to the Catholic heir to the king of Spain Thomas Wyatt raises a Protestant rebellion in Yorkshire and marches south in a failed attempt to depose the English queen, Mary I Mary I arrests her younger sister Elizabeth under suspicion of complicity in the Wyatt Rebellion, but she can find no proof
  • Dec 31, 1554

    the Charge of the Light Brigade

    An inconclusive battle at Balaklava includes the Charge of the Light Brigade, with British cavalry recklessly led towards Russian guns Within six weeks of the Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimea, Tennyson publishes a poem finding heroism in the disaster
  • May 15, 1555

    The Muscovy Company is granted a monopoly by the crown

    1555 The Muscovy Company is granted a monopoly by the crown to trade with Russia, as the first of the English chartered companies The Protestant martyrs, though few in number, ensure the reputation of Bloody Mary in English history
  • May 15, 1556

    Thomas Cranmer is burnt at the stake

    1556 Thomas Cranmer is burnt at the stake in Oxford, after reasserting his Protestant beliefs
  • May 15, 1558

    Elizabeth I

    1558 England – Queen Elizabeth I accedes to the throne
  • May 15, 1558

    William Cecil becomes Elizabeth's principal secretary

    1558 Elizabeth I succeeds peacefully to the throne of England, after the turmoil of Mary's Catholic reign William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, becomes Elizabeth's principal secretary - and remains in the post for forty years Mary Queen of Scots marries the heir to the French throne, who a year later succeeds as Francis II With its strong French connection, the Scottish royal name of Stewart begins to be spelt Stuart (there being no 'w' in native French words)
  • Jul 1, 1558

    The Great Stink

    Charles Darwin is alarmed to receive in his morning post a paper by Alfred Russell Wallace, outlining very much his own theory of evolution Lionel Nathan Rothschild becomes the first Jew to sit in Britain's House of Commons, taking his oath on the Old Testament The stench in central London, rising from the polluted Thames in a hot summer, creates what becomes known as the Great Stink
  • Dec 31, 1558

    Cyrus W. Field succeeds in laying a telegraph cable across the Atlantic

    US entrepreneur Cyrus W. Field succeeds in laying a telegraph cable across the Atlantic, but it fails after only a month An Irish branch of the US Fenians is established as the Irish Republican Brotherhood Speke reaches Lake Victoria and guesses that it is probably the source of the Nile
  • May 15, 1559

    Act of Supremacy 1559

    1559 England – Act of Supremacy 1559
  • May 15, 1559

    John Knox returns from Geneva

    Scotland – John Knox returns from Geneva to promote Calvinism.
  • May 15, 1559

    ohn Knox returns to Scotland

    1559 John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva and inspires the Protestants to march on Edinburgh
  • Jul 1, 1559

    Charles Dickens publishes his French Revolution novel, A Tale of Two Cities

    In On Liberty John Stuart Mill makes the classic liberal case for the priority of the freedom of the individual Samuel Smiles provides an inspiring ideal of Victorian enterprise in Self-Help, a manual for ambitious young men Tennyson publishes the first part of Idylls of the King, a series of linked poems about Britain's mythical king Arthur Charles Dickens publishes his French Revolution novel, A Tale of Two Cities
  • Dec 31, 1559

    US artist James McNeill Whistler settles in London

    Edward FitzGerald publishes The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, romantic translations of the work of the Persian poet US artist James McNeill Whistler settles in London, which he makes his home for the rest of his life
  • May 15, 1560

    reformation of the Church of Scotland

    1560:Scotland – Parliament legislates protestant reformation of the Church of Scotland.
  • May 15, 1560

    Francis II dies

    1560 A year after Mary has become queen of France, her husband Francis II dies
  • May 15, 1561

    Mary Queen of Scots returns from France

    1561 Mary Queen of Scots returns from France to Edinburgh, and to an inevitable clash with John Knox
  • May 16, 1561

    William Crookes isolates a new element, thallium

    English chemist and physicist William Crookes isolates a new element, thallium An official National Eisteddfod is held for the first time in Wales, in Aberdare Prince Albert dies of typhoid, plunging Victoria into forty years of widowhood and deep mourning Mrs Henry Wood publishes her first novel, East Lynne, which becomes the basis of the most popular of all Victorian melodramas
  • May 16, 1564

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". - Wikipedia Born: 1564, Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
    Died: April 23, 1616, Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Anne Hathaway (m. 1582–1616)
    Books: First Folio, The Rape of Lucrece
  • May 15, 1565

    Mary Queen of Scots marries Henry Darnley

    1565 Mary Queen of Scots marries her Catholic cousin, Henry Darnley
  • May 15, 1566

    Mary Queen of Scots' secretary, David Rizzio stabbed to death

    1566 Mary Queen of Scots' secretary, David Rizzio, is dragged from her presence and stabbed to death Mary Queen of Scots' husband Darnley is treacherously involved in the murder of her secretary, Rizzio
  • May 15, 1567

    uprising by Protestant lords

    1567 Scotland – The Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, abdicates and flees Scotland after an uprising by Protestant lords
  • May 15, 1567

    Darnley is murdered

    Darnley is murdered, almost certainly at the instigation of Mary Queen of Scots' lover, Bothwell, whom she marries just three months later A casket of letters seems to incriminate Mary Queen of Scots herself in the murder of her husband, Darnley The events of this year give the Protestant nobility the occasion and opportunity of deposing Mary Queen of Scots On the removal of Mary from the Scottish throne, her one-year-old son succeeds her as James VI
  • May 15, 1568

    Mary Queen of Scots flees

    1568 Mary Queen of Scots flees across the border to seek the help of her English cousin, Elizabeth, but finds herself kept under close guard
  • May 15, 1569

    Rebellion in the north of England

    1569 A rebellion in the north of England aims to put Mary Queen of Scots on the English throne
  • Jan 1, 1570

    Elizabethan masque

    1570
    Count Giovanni Bardi debuts the Elizabethan masque, an aristocratic form of entertainment that features music, dance and elaborate costuming.
  • May 15, 1570

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I

    1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates the English queen, Elizabeth I, causing a severe crisis of loyalty for her Catholic subjects
  • May 15, 1571

    Treasons Act 1571

    1571 England – Treasons Act 1571
  • May 15, 1571

    scheme to win the English throne for Mary Queen of Scots

    1571 Roberto di Ridolfi, a Florentine banker, coordinates a scheme to win the English throne for Mary Queen of Scots
  • Jan 22, 1572

    John Donne

    John Donne
    John Donne was an English poet, satirist, lawyer and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. - Wikipedia Born: January 22, 1572, London, United Kingdom
    Died: March 31, 1631, London, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Anne More (m. 1601–1617)
    Children: Elizabeth Donne, George Donne, Margaret Donne.
    Education: University of Cambridge, Hertford College, Oxford, University of Oxford
  • Period: Jan 22, 1572 to

    John Donne

    John Donne was an English poet, satirist, lawyer and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. - Wikipedia. Popular work:
    "The good morrow" (1633)
    "A valediction forbidding mournig" (1633)
    "Elegy XIX: To his mistress going to bed" (1669)
    "Holy sonnets" (1635)
  • Jun 11, 1572

    Ben Johnson (Birth)

    Ben Johnson (Birth)
    Born: 11 Ja1572
    Died: 6 August 1637
    Spouse: Ann Lewis Johnson (M. 1594).
    Burried: Westminster Abbey, London, UK
    Popular works:
    "On my first daughter" (1616);
    "On my first son" (1616);
    "Inviting a friend to supper" (1616);
    "Still to be neat" (1640)
  • Period: Jun 11, 1572 to

    Ben Johnson

    Ben Jonson was an English playwright, poet, and literary critic of the seventeenth century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "On my first daughter" (1616)
    "On my first son" (1616)
    "Inviting a friend to supper" (1616)
    "Still to be neat" (1640)
  • May 15, 1575

    John Hawkins turns the top-heavy carrack into the more seaworthy galleon

    1575 English sailor and slave-trader John Hawkins turns the top-heavy carrack into the more seaworthy galleon
  • Jan 1, 1576

    the first commercial theater

    1576
    The Theatre, the first commercial theater, opens in London. It is also the first Elizabethan playhouse.
  • May 15, 1576

    London's first theatre

    1576 James Burbage builds London's first theatre and calls it the Theatre
  • May 15, 1577

    1577 Francis Drake sails from Plymouth, heading west for the Pacific and the East Indies

    1577 Francis Drake sails from Plymouth, heading west for the Pacific and the East Indies
  • May 15, 1578

    James VI

    1578 Scotland – James VI takes over government from his regent, James Douglas.
  • May 15, 1580

    Jesuit missionaries arrive in England

    1580 The first Jesuit missionaries arrive in England, with Edmund Campion among their number Francis Drake returns to England after his three-year voyage round the world and is knighted by Queen Elizabeth on board his Golden Hind
  • May 15, 1582

    University of Edinburgh

    1582 Scotland – Establishment of the University of Edinburgh by Royal Charter.
  • 6000 troops to support the Dutch rebels against Spain

    1585 England's queen Elizabeth sends 6000 troops to support the Dutch rebels against Spain Catholics are now the martyrs in England, their numbers almost matching the Protestant martyrs of the previous reign
  • a plot to assassinate Elizabeth

    1586 Anthony Babington is involved in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary Queen of Scots on the English throne
  • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

    1587 England and Scotland – Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire on 8 February
  • nglish settlers arrives at Roanoke

    Mary Queen of Scots, implicated in the Babington plot, is beheaded in Fotheringay castle A new group of English settlers arrives at Roanoke Island and makes a second attempt at a settlement Virginia Dare becomes the first English child to be born in America, on Roanoke Island Francis Drake sails into a crowded Cadiz harbour and destroys some thirty Spanish ships Nicholas Hilliard paints the delightful miniature known simply as Young Man among Roses
  • English fleet destroys the galleons of the Spanish Armada

    1588 The more nimble English fleet destroys the galleons of the Spanish Armada, introducing a new kind of naval warfare The tactics used against the Armada reveal that the sailing ships themselves have become fighting machines, as men-of-war
  • Spanish Armada destroyed

    1588 England – Spanish Armada destroyed on 8 August
  • Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species

    Joseph Bazalgette is given the task of providing London with a desperately needed new system of sewers Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species, the result of 20 years' research Liberal leader Lord Palmerston returns to office as the British prime minister after the collapse of Derby's coalition government A 13-ton bell is installed above London's Houses of Parliament, soon giving its name (Big Ben) to both the clock and the clock-tower
  • first industrial machinery to knit stockings

    1589 An English clergyman, William Lee, develops the world's first industrial machinery, to knit stockings
  • No trace of English Settlers

    1590 An English ship, the first to arrive at Roanoke Island since 1587, finds no remaining trace of the settlers or their settlement.
  • Robert Herrick (Birth)

    Robert Herrick (Birth)
    Robert Herrick was a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for his book of poems, Hesperides. This includes the carpe diem poem To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time, with the first line Gather ye rosebuds while ye may. - Wikipedia Born: August 24, 1591, Cheapside, United Kingdom
    Died: October 15, 1674, Dean Prior, United Kingdom
    Education: St John's College, Cambridge, Westminster School,University of Cambridge, Trinity Hall, Cambridge
  • Period: to

    Robert Herrick

    Robert Herrick was a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for his book of poems, Hesperides. This includes the carpe diem poem To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time, with the first line Gather ye rosebuds while ye may. - Wikipedia. Popular Work:
    "Delight in disorder"
    "Upon Julia's breasts"
    "Upon a child that died"
  • James VI enacts the "Golden Act"

    1592 Scotland – James VI enacts the "Golden Act" recognising the power of Presbyterianism within the Scottish church
  • George Herbert (Birth)

    George Herbert (Birth)
    George Herbert was a Welsh-born English poet, orator and Anglican priest. Herbert's poetry is associated with the writings of the metaphysical poets, and he is recognized as "a pivotal figure" - Wikipedia. Born: April 3, 1593, Montgomery, United Kingdom
    Died: March 1, 1633, Bemerton, United Kingdom
    Parents: Richard Herbert of Montgomery Castle
    Siblings: Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury
    Education: Trinity College, University of Cambridge. Popular work:
    "Easter wings";
    "Jordan (1)"
  • Period: to

    George Herbert

    George Herbert was a Welsh-born English poet, orator and Anglican priest. Herbert's poetry is associated with the writings of the metaphysical poets. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "Easter wings"
    "Jordan (1)"
    "The windows"
    "The collar"
    The pulley"
    "Death"
  • The Chamberlain's Men

    1594
    The Chamberlain's Men, the leading Elizabethan and Jacobean theatrical company of the day, is formed. William Shakespeare is the chief playwright and Richard Burbage its most famous actor. After 1603 the group is known as the King's Men. The Admiral's Men, the group that performs the works of Christopher Marlowe, is also formed and rivals the Chamberlain's Men.
  • A flush toilet is illustrated in an English pamphlet

    1596 A flush toilet is illustrated in an English pamphlet, The Metamorphosis of Ajax by John Harrington
  • Opera becomes the preferred entertainment of the aristocracy

    1597
    Jacopo Peri's musical fable, Dafne, often considered the first opera, is performed at the palace of Jacopo Corsi. Opera becomes the preferred entertainment of the aristocracy.
  • Period: to

    Shakespeare

    1598–1608
    William Shakespeare writes Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, All's Well That Ends Well, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth and Anthony and Cleopatra.
  • kings, appointed by God, are above human law

    1598 A manuscript, the Guildford Book of Court, uses the word 'creckett' for a game played in a Guildford school James VI of Scotland argues in an anonymous book that kings, appointed by God, are above human law
  • The Globe is built on Bankside in London

    1599 The Globe, where many of Shakespeare's plays are first performed, is built on Bankside in London
  • William Gilbert coins the term 'magnetic pole'

    1600 William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth, concludes that the earth is a magnet and coins the term 'magnetic pole' Britain's East India Company is established when Elizabeth I grants a charter to a 'Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies' Electricity is given its name (in the Latin phrase vis electrica) by the English physician, William Gilbert
  • James I of England

    1603 James VI of Scotland inherits peacefully the crown of his English cousin Elizabeth, and becomes James I of England The accession of James I and VI to the throne of England brings the union of the crowns of England and Scotland
  • James I launches a blistering attack on the smoking of tobacco

    1604 The British king James I launches a blistering attack on the smoking of tobacco, which he considers a loathsome custom William Shakespeare's name appears among the actors in a list of the King's Men
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    1605 The Gunpowder Plot, attempting murder and treason, severely damages the Catholic cause in Britain
  • Claude Monteverdi's Orfeo

    1607
    Claude Monteverdi's Orfeo, regarded as the first masterpiece in opera history, is performed and revolutionizes music by establishing a tonal system and giving the recitative a more flexible accompaniment.
  • the Flight of the Earls

    1607 The earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel sail from Ireland with their families, in the event known as the Flight of the Earls
  • Puritans sail from Boston to seek religious freedom

    1608 A shipload of Puritans, among them some of the future Pilgrim Fathers, sail from Boston in Lincolnshire to seek religious freedom in Holland
  • John Milton (Birth)

    John Milton (Birth)
    John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.Wikipedia Born: December 9, 1608, Cheapside, United Kingdom
    Died: November 8, 1674, Chalfont St Giles, United Kingdom
    Full name: John Milton
    Education: St Paul's School, London, University of Cambridge, Christ's College, Cambridge
    Plays: Samson Agonistes, Comus, Arcades
  • Period: to

    John Milton

    John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "Paradise lost" (1652)
    "When I consider how my light is spent" (1652)
    "On the late massacre at piedmont" (1655)
    "Methought I saw" (1658)
  • Anne Bradstreet (Birth)

    Anne Bradstreet (Birth)
    Anne Bradstreet was the first poet and first female writer in the British North American colonies to be published. Her first volume of poetry was The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published in 1650. - Wikipedia. Born: March 20, 1612, Northampton, United Kingdom
    Died: September 16, 1672, Andover, Massachusetts, United States
    Spouse: Simon Bradstreet (m. 1628)
    Parents: Thomas Dudley
    Books: The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America.
  • Period: to

    Anne Bradstreet

    Anne Bradstreet was the first poet and first female writer in the British North American colonies to be published. Her first volume of poetry was The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published in 1650. Popular work:
    "Before the birth of one of her children" (1678)
    "Here follows some verses upon the burning of our house July 10th 1666" (1666)
  • establishment of a Baptist church in London

    1612 The establishment of a Baptist church in London is a defining moment for the Baptist sect within Christianity
  • The Globe catches fire

    1613 The Globe catches fire during a performance of Shakespeare's last play, Henry VIII
  • William Ahakespeare Dies

    1616 Pocahontas fascinates Londoners when she arrives with her husband to publicize Jamestown William Shakespeare dies at New Place, his home in Stratford-upon-Avon, and is buried in Holy Trinity Church
  • The proscenium arch

    1619
    Teatro Farnese in Parma, Italy, uses the proscenium arch for the first time.
  • modern philosophy of experimental science

    1620 In his Novum Organum Francis Bacon introduces a modern philosophy of experimental science
  • The Pilgrims sail in the Mayflowerto the new world

    1620 SEPTEMBER 16 The Pilgrims (or Pilgrim Fathers), a group of 102 English settlers, sail in the Mayflowerto the new world
  • Andrew Marvell (Birth)

    Andrew Marvell (Birth)
    Andrew Marvell was an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donne and George Herbert. - Wikipedia Born: March 31, 1621, Winestead, United Kingdom
    Died: August 16, 1678, London, United Kingdom
    Education: Trinity College, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, Hull Grammar School
  • Period: to

    Andrew Marvell

    Andrew Marvell was an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donne and George Herbert. - Wikipedia. Popular work:
    "Bermudas"
    "To his coy mistress"
  • The first English newspaper (Corante) appears

    1621 The first English newspaper (Corante) appears, promising reports 'from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France'
  • Margaret Cavendish

    Margaret Cavendish
    Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was an English aristocrat, a prolific writer, and a scientist. Born Margaret Lucas, she was the youngest sister of prominent royalists Sir John Lucas and Sir Charles Lucas. - Wikipedia Born: 1623, Colchester, United Kingdom
    Died: December 15, 1673
    Spouse: William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle
    Siblings: Charles Lucas
  • Period: to

    Margaret Cavendish

    Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was an English aristocrat, a prolific writer, and a scientist. Born Margaret Lucas, she was the youngest sister of prominent royalists Sir John Lucas and Sir Charles Lucas. Popular work:
    "of many worlds in this world" (1668)
  • Charles I becomes king of England and Scotland

    1625 On the death of his father, James VI and I, Charles I becomes king of England and Scotland The English parliament attempts to clip the wings of the new king, Charles I, by placing an annual limit on his power to raise taxes
  • Charles I raises taxes taxes

    1626 Charles I frustrates the English parliament's restrictions by raising taxes without summoning parliament for renewed approval
  • William Harvey publishes a short book, proving the circulation of the blood

    1628 William Harvey publishes a short book, De Motu Cordis, proving the circulation of the blood The English parliament's Petition of Right emphasizes the right of the citizen to be protected from royal tyranny
  • Charles I dismisses his parliament

    1629 Charles I dismisses his parliament in Westminster, and fails to summon another in the following eleven years
  • John Winthrop sails from England

    1630 John Winthrop, appointed governor of the new Massachusetts Bay Company, sails from England with 700 settlers
  • John Dryden (Birth)

    John Dryden (Birth)
    John Dryden was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668. - Wikipedia Born: August 9, 1631, Aldwincle, United Kingdom
    Died: May 12, 1700, London, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Elizabeth Howard (m. 1663–1700)
    Plays: All for Love, The Conquest of Granada, more
    Education: University of Cambridge, Westminster School, Trinity College, Cambridge
  • Period: to

    John Dryden

    John Dryden was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668. - Wikipedia. Popular work:
    "Mac Flecknoe" (1676)
    "Absalom and Achitophel" (1681)
  • Van Dyck moves to London

    1632 Van Dyck moves to London and becomes portrait painter to the British court and aristocracy
  • Charles I demands ship money

    1634 Charles I demands ship money to increase his revenue, albeit in the absence of its conventional justification - a crisis of national defence
  • Britain's Royal Mail

    1635 Charles I establishes Britain's Royal Mail, employing Thomas Witherings to set it up
  • A painted ceiling is installed in the Banqueting House in Whitehall

    1636 A painted ceiling by Rubens, celebrating the Stuart dynasty, is installed in the Banqueting House in Whitehall John Hampden refuses to pay ship money to Charles I, beginning a campaign that gradually wins wide support
  • The San Cassiano Theater.

    1637
    Venice becomes the home of the first public opera house, the San Cassiano Theater.
  • attempt to impose the full Anglican hierarchy on presbyterian Scotland

    1637 Charles I and his archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, attempt to impose the full Anglican hierarchy on presbyterian Scotland
  • Riots erupt in Edinburgh

    1638 A National Covenant, first signed in an Edinburgh churchyard, commits the Covenanters to oppose Charles I's reforms of the Church of Scotland Riots erupt in Edinburgh, in response to the attempt by Charles I and Laud to impose a hierarchy of Anglican bishops
  • Bishops' War

    1639 The finances of the English king, Charles I, are in crisis, with his agents able to collect each year only a fraction of his demands Covenanters seize control of Edinburgh and other Scottish towns, launching the conflict with England known as the Bishops' War
  • Charles I in Financial Crisis

    In need of funds for the Bishops' War in Scotland, Charles I summons parliament to Westminster Parliament denies Charles I's request for funds and is dismissed after three weeks (the Short Parliament) Charles I's financial crisis causes him to summon another parliament to Westminster (the Long Parliament, not dissolved until 1660) The new parliament immediately impeaches Charles I's two closest advisers, the earl of Strafford and archbishop William Laud
  • the Grand Remonstrance

    Cavalier is now in use as a term of abuse for supporters of the royal cause Roundhead is now in use as a term of abuse for supporters of parliament Under pressure from parliament, Charles I signs the death warrant of his most powerful supporter, the earl of Strafford Parliament presents Charles I with the Grand Remonstrance, a long list of grievances against his conduct of the realm
  • Charles I accusses House of Commons of Treason

    Charles I comes in person to the House of Commons, but fails in his attempt to arrest the Five Members whom he accuses of treason
    Charles I leaves London and heads for the north of England, where his support is the strongest
    Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I, travels to Holland, taking with her the English crown jewels
    Parliament sends Charles I a list of political demands, the Nineteen Propositions, which it would be impossible for him to accept
  • Period: to

    the Puritans close or burn down all English theaters and forbid acting

    1642–1660
    Following the civil war of 1642, the Puritans close or burn down all English theaters and forbid acting.
  • English Civil War

    Charles I leads his army into action at Edgehill - the first, but inconclusive, battle in the English Civil War Charles I marches to within a few miles of Westminster (to Turnham Green), but withdraws without engaging the enemy Charles I withdraws to Oxford, where he establishes his court for the rest of the war
  • Illustre Theatre

    1643
    Molière incorporates an acting troupe called Illustre Theatre. Although initially unsuccessful with his troupe, Molière goes on to be one of history's most famous and enduring playwrights. His work includes Tartuffe (1664), Misanthrope (1666) and Bourgeois Gentleman (1670).
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. - Wikipedia Born: January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom
    Died: March 31, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
    Full name: Sir Isaac Newton
    Education: Trinity College, Cambridge (1667–1668), more
    Parents: Isaac Newton Sr., Hannah Ayscough
  • the first decisive battle of the English Civil War

    1644 In the first decisive battle of the English Civil War the king's nephew, Rupert of the Rhine, is heavily defeated at Marston Moor
  • New Model Army

    1645 Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell form England's first professional army, calling it the New Model Army The royalist forces, again under the command of Rupert of the Rhine, suffer another major defeat at Naseby
  • Charles I escapes north

    1646 With a parliamentary army surrounding royalist Oxford, Charles I escapes in disguise and heads north Charles I puts himself in the hands of a Scottish army, opposed at the time to the English parliament
  • John Wilmot (Birth)

    John Wilmot (Birth)
    John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court. The Restoration reacted against the "spiritual authoritarianism" of the Puritan era. - Wikipedia Born: April 1, 1647, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Died: July 26, 1680, Woodstock, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Elizabeth Wilmot, Countess of Rochester (m. 1667)
    Education: Wadham College, Oxford, University of Oxford
    Parents: Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, Anne St. John
  • Period: to

    John Wilmot

    John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court. The Restoration reacted against the "spiritual authoritarianism" of the Puritan era. - Wikipedia. Popular work:
    "A satire against reason and mankind"
  • Charles I is held at his palace of Hampton Court

    1647 The Scottish army holding Charles I makes peace with parliament, and hands the king to parliamentary commissioners Charles I is held at his palace of Hampton Court, as a prisoner of Cromwell and parliament Charles I comes to a secret arrangement with a group of Covenanters in Scotland, winning their support
  • Scottish Covenanters invade England

    1648 Scottish Covenanters invade England in support of the English king, Charles I, in his struggle against parliament Parliamentary forces defeat the Scottish invaders and suppress other new outbreaks of royalist support Colonel Thomas Pride denies entrance to the House of Commons to about 140 opponents of Cromwell's policies
  • Charles I is beheaded

    Cromwell persuades the House of Commons, purged now of all opposition, that it is treason for a king to wage war against parliament Charles I, brought to trial before 135 commissioners in Westminster Hall, refuses to recognise the court's validity After a trial lasting a week in Westminster Hall, Charles I is convicted of treason for fighting a war against parliament Charles I is beheaded on a scaffold erected in the street in London's Whitehall
  • Parliament in London abolishes the monarchy in England

    Charles II, in the Hague, inherits the English and Scottish thrones of his executed father, Charles I Parliament in London abolishes the monarchy in England, as 'unnecessary, burdensome, and dangerous' Parliament chooses Oliver Cromwell to chair the new English Commonwealth's council of state John Milton becomes Latin secretary in Cromwell's council of state
  • creation began on Sunday

    1650 James Ussher, archbishop of Armagh, calculates that creation began on Sunday, October 23, 4004 BC
  • Charles II returns to Scotland

    1651 Charles II returns to Scotland and is crowned king of Scots in the traditional manner at Scone Parliament in England passes the first of several Navigation Acts designed to reserve international trade for English ships Charles II is defeated by Cromwell at Worcester and escapes in disguise to France
  • Scotland and England are merged under English parliamentary rule

    1652 Scotland and England are merged under English parliamentary rule, in a forced union which lasts eight years A clash at sea between English and Dutch fleets begins the first of three Anglo-Dutch wars The first coffee house opens In London and Londoners soon find such places useful to meet in and do business
  • Cromwell is appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth for life

    Cromwell uses troops to turn the members out of the House of Commons and locks the door behind them Cromwell is appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth for life, under legislation entitled the Instrument of Government The English admiral Robert Blake introduces a system of signalling at sea by means of flags John Bunyan joins a Nonconformist church in Bedford and becomes one of their preachers
  • George Fox begins preaching in England

    C. 1655 George Fox begins preaching in England, in a movement which develops into the Society of Friends - or Quakers
  • Andrew Marvell works as assistant Latin secretary

    1657 Andrew Marvell works as assistant Latin secretary to Milton in Cromwell's department for foreign affairs
  • Cromwell dies

    1658 Samuel Pepys has a two-ounce stone cut from his bladder, in an operation carried out at home in the presence of his family Cromwell dies after naming his son Richard to succeed him in the office of Lord Protector Prince Rupert of the Rhine pioneers mezzotint, the first half-tone technique in printing
  • Richard Cromwell goes into voluntary retirement

    1659 The ineffective Richard Cromwell goes into voluntary retirement, an event linked to the strong possibility of a military coup
  • Women start appearing in French and English plays.

    1660
    Women start appearing in French and English plays. Elizabeth Barry and Anne Bracegirdle are among the pioneers.
  • New Parliament, Charles II returns to England

    General George Monck marches south from Scotland to London, to intervene in England's unresolved political crisis Monck, reaching London, dissolves the Long Parliament and convenes a new one Monck persuades Charles II to sign, at Breda in Holland, a declaration of policies to heal the wounds of the Civil War The new Convention Parliament in Westminster invites Charles II to return as king Charles II lands at Dover and is given a warm welcome in London four days later
  • Daniel Defoe

    Daniel Defoe
    Daniel Defoe
    Writer
    Daniel Defoe, born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, now most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Wikipedia
    Born: September 13, 1660, London, United Kingdom
    Died: April 24, 1731, London, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Mary Tuffley (m. 1684–1731)
  • Period: to

    Life and Works of Daniel Defoe

    Daniel Defoe (/ˌdænjəl dɨˈfoʊ/; c. 1660 – 24 April 1731),[1] born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, now most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain, and, along with others such as Samuel Richardson, is among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets and journals on various
  • The Act of Indemnity

    The Act of Indemnity, pardoning all offences since 1637 except those of the regicides, is given the royal assent
  • Académie Royale de Danse

    1661
    Louis XIV officially recognizes dance instruction by establishing the Académie Royale de Danse.
  • the Clarendon Code

    1661 John Bunyan is convicted of unlicensed preaching and spends the next eleven years in Bedford Gaol The body of Oliver Cromwell is hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn The Cavalier Parliament begins to pass a series of acts, known as the Clarendon Code, containing punitive measures against Presbyterians
  • academy of English scientists

    1662 British chemist Robert Boyle defines the inverse relationship between pressure and volume in any gas (subsequently known as Boyle's Law) The Act of Uniformity demands that Anglican clergy accept all the Thirty-Nine Articles, costing many their livings An academy of English scientists is given a royal charter by Charles II and becomes the Royal Society
  • The Conventicle Act

    1664 The Conventicle Act restricts worship in England to Anglican churches if more than a few people are present
  • the first English-language play presented in the colonies

    1665
    William Darby's Ye Bare and Ye Cubb, reportedly the first English-language play presented in the colonies, is performed in Accomac County, Virginia.
  • The Great Plague of London

    The first recorded attempt at blood transfusion, at the Royal Society in London, proves that the idea is feasible The Five Mile Act prevents Nonconformist ministers in England from coming closer than five miles to any town where they have ministered The Great Plague of London causes as many as 7000 deaths in a week and perhaps a total of 100,000 by the end of the year Isaac Newton spends a creative period in Lincolnshire, at home in Woolsthorpe Manor, apples or no apples
  • Jews return to England

    C. 1656 Jews return to England after Cromwell repeals the law of 1290 forbidding their residence in the country
  • The Great Fire of London

    1666 The Great Fire of London rages for four days, destroying 13,200 houses and 81 churches
  • Michiel de Ruyter sails up the Thames

    1667 Michiel de Ruyter sails up the Thames to destroy much of the English fleet at its base in the Medway Wood-carver Grinling Gibbons arrives from Holland to begin an immensely successful career in England
  • The duke of York received into the Roman Catholic church

    C. 1669 The duke of York, heir to the English and Scottish thrones, is secretly received into the Roman Catholic church
  • Pierre Beauchamps codifies the five foot positions in ballet

    c. 1670
    Pierre Beauchamps codifies the five foot positions in ballet.
  • Declaration of Indulgence

    1672 Charles II issues a Declaration of Indulgence, suspending the restrictions on Catholics and Nonconformists Isaac Newton's experiments with the prism demonstrate the link between wavelength and colour in light
  • Parliament in England passes a Test Act

    1673 Parliament in England passes a Test Act excluding Catholics and Nonconformists from public office
  • The Popish Plot

    1678 The Popish Plot, an invented Jesuit conspiracy to kill Charles II, results in the execution of about thirty-five Roman Catholics
  • Whigs and Tories

    1679 The rival political parties in Britain find abusive names for each other - Whigs and Tories
  • successful use of the hairspring in pocket watches

    C. 1680 The English clockmaker Thomas Tompion is the first to make successful use of the hairspring in pocket watches A comet intrigues Edmund Halley, who works out that it has been around before
  • the first woman to dance professionally in a ballet

    1681
    Pierre Beauchamps and Jean Baptiste write Le Triomphe de I'Ammour, which features LaFontaine, the first woman to dance professionally in a ballet.
  • Neapolitan School of Opera

    1685
    Alessandro Scarlatti founds the Neapolitan School of Opera, which establishes the da capo, or three-part aria.
  • James II succeeds to the throne in Britain

    1685 James II succeeds to the throne in Britain and immediately introduces pro-Catholic policies Denis Papin, a French scientist working in England, demonstrates a pressure cooker fitted with a safety valve
  • Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

    1687 Newton publishes Principia Mathematica, proving gravity to be a constant in all physical systems
  • A son is born to James II

    1688 A son (the future 'Old Pretender') is born to James II, giving Britain a Catholic heir to the throne English grandees invite William III of Orange and his wife Mary, daughter of James II, to claim the British throne William III of Orange lands with an army at Torbay and marches to London with almost no opposition from supporters of James II
  • Alexander Pope (Birth)

    Alexander Pope (Birth)
    Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. - Wikipedia Born: May 21, 1688, Kingdom of England
    Died: May 30, 1744, Twickenham, United Kingdom
    Height: 1.37 m
    Education: Twyford School
    Libretti: Acis and Galatea
  • Period: to

    Alexander Pope

    Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. - Wikipedia. Popular work:
    "The rape of the lock" (1712)
  • the first English operatic masterpiece.

    1689
    The young women at Josias Priest's finishing school in Chelsea, England, perform Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, the first English operatic masterpiece.
  • the restrictive Bill of Rights

    1689 Parliament in Westminster makes the restrictive Bill of Rights the condition on which William III and Mary II are crowned Young gentlewomen in Chelsea give the first performance of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas
  • The Church of Scotland, an independent Presbyterian body

    1690 The Church of Scotland finally wins recognition as an independent Presbyterian body
  • Government soldiers massacre their MacDonald hosts in Glencoe

    1692 Government soldiers, mainly Campbells, massacre their MacDonald hosts in Glencoe
  • The Bank of England is founded

    1694 The Bank of England is founded and soon becomes the central banker for England's many private banks The joint monarch of England, Mary II, dies - leaving her husband, William III, to reign alone
  • Peter I studies western European technology

    1697 The Russian tsar, Peter I, studies western European technology, working as a ship's carpenter in Dutch and English shipyards
  • first practical steam engine

    1698 Thomas Savery creates the first practical steam engine, designed to pump water out of mines
  • East Indiamen

    C. 1700 Holland and England are now producing the magnificent ocean-going merchant vessels known as East Indiamen
  • The Act of Settlement

    1701 The Act of Settlement declares that no Catholic may inherit the English crown
  • Anne becomes queen of England and Scotland

    1702 On the death of her brother-in-law, William III, Anne becomes queen of England and Scotland
  • The first barge is pulled by a horse along Thomas Telford's cast-iron aqueduct

    The first barge is pulled by a horse along Thomas Telford's cast-iron aqueduct, high in the air at Pont Cysyllte With advice from Thomas Daniell, Samuel Pepys Cockerell builds himself a house, Sezincote, with a roof line of fanciful Indian domes Lord Castlereagh becomes secretary of state for war in William Pitt's government Walter Scott publishes The Lay of the Last Minstrel, the long romantic poem that first brings him fame
  • Great Britain

    1707 The Act of Union merges England and Scotland as 'one kingdom by the name of Great Britain', a century after the union of the crowns
  • use of coke in the smelting of pig iron

    1709 Abraham Darby at Coalbrookdale discovers the use of coke in the smelting of pig iron
  • piston steam engine

    Thomas Newcomen creates a piston steam engine, with the steam condensed in the cylinder by a jet of cold water Christopher Wren's new domed St Paul's cathedral is completed in London Machines are thrown out of the window of a Spitalfields factory, in an early protest against industrialization The Byerley Turk, Darley Arabian and Godolphin Arabian, ancestors of all thoroughbred racehorses, are imported into England
  • opera Rinaldo

    1711 Handel's success in London with his opera Rinaldo prompts him to settle in Britain
  • chronometer capable of keeping accurate time at sea

    1714 On the death of Queen Anne, the Act of Settlement delivers the British crown to the elector of Hanover, as George I The British government offers a massive £20,000 prize for a chronometer capable of keeping accurate time at sea
  • A Jacobite uprising in Scotland

    1715 A Jacobite uprising in Scotland on behalf of the Old Pretender ends in fiasco Colen Campbell creates interest in the Palladian style in Britain with the publication of his Vitruvius Britannicus
  • Piccadilly house in the Palladian style

    1717 The earl of Burlington employs Colen Campbell to remodel his Piccadilly house in the Palladian style
  • South Sea Bubble

    1720 Shares in the South Sea Company rise rapidly and collapse within the year, in the so-called South Sea Bubble
  • Robert Walpole becomes Britain's chief minister

    1721 Robert Walpole becomes Britain's chief minister and holds the post for an unrivalled span of twenty-one years
  • road construction in the Scottish Highlands

    1724 General Wade, commander-in-chief of North Britain, begins an impressive programme of road construction in the Scottish Highlands
  • George II becomes king of Great Britain

    1727 On the death of his father, George I, George II becomes king of Great Britain Handel composes Zadok the Priest for the crowning of George II, and it has been sung at every subsequent British coronation
  • Romeo and Juliet in New York

    1730
    Romeo and Juliet, the first play by Shakespeare to be presented in America, is performed in New York.
  • Methodism

    C. 1730 John and Charles Wesley form a Holy Club at Oxford which becomes the cradle of Methodism
  • the instrument which evolves into the standard sextant used at sea

    1731 The Flemish-born sculptor Michael Rysbrack creates a monument to Newton in Westminster Abbey English maker of telescopes John Hadley designs the instrument which evolves into the standard sextant used at sea
  • the English oratorio

    1732 With the performance of Esther Handel taps a rich new vein, the English oratorio
  • La Serva Padrona

    1733
    La Serva Padrona by Giovanni Pergolesi is performed in Naples, heralding the popularity of opera buffa or comic opera.
  • the flying shuttle to speed up weaving

    1733 John Kay, working in the Lancashire woollen industry, patents the flying shuttle to speed up weaving
  • French ballerina Marie Camargo stirs controversy

    1734
    French ballerina Marie Camargo stirs controversy when she raises dancing skirts above the ankle for greater freedom of movement.
  • Ballet arrives in America

    1735
    Ballet arrives in America. Englishman Henry Holt stages the first production for the amusement of the Charleston, South Carolina, elite.
    John Hippisley's Flora, the first opera performed in America, is also presented in Charleston, South Carolina.
  • Britain declares war on Spain

    1739 Britain declares war on Spain, partly in a mood of indignation over Captain Jenkins' ear
  • Jack Broughton opens an academy to teach boxing

    1740 Jack Broughton, champion of England, opens an academy to teach 'the mystery of boxing, that wholly British art'
  • rules of whist

    1742 Edmond Hoyle publishes the definitive rules of whist
  • France formally declares war on Britain

    1744 France formally declares war on Britain half way through the War of the Austrian Succession
  • Forty-Five Rebellion

    1745 Charles Edward Stuart lands at Eriskay in the Hebrides, launching the Forty-Five Rebellion Charles Edward Stuart gathers support for the Forty-Five Rebellion on his way south from the Hebrides and reaches Edinburgh Charles Edward Stuart marches as far south as Derby, but then turns back
  • Forty five rebellion ends

    1746 Charles Edward Stuart and his 5000 Scots are routed at Culloden, bringing the Forty-Five Rebellion to an abrupt end Tartan and Highland dress are banned by the British government, in a prohibition not lifted until 1782
  • Samuel Richardson's Clarissa begins the correspondence

    1747 Samuel Richardson's Clarissa begins the correspondence that grows into the longest novel in the English language
  • Tom Jones

    1749 Henry Fielding introduces a character of lasting appeal in the lusty but good-hearted Tom Jones
  • Strawberry Hill

    1750 Horace Walpole begins to create his own Strawberry Hill, a neo-Gothic fantasy, on the banks of the Thames west of London
  • temporary wooden playhouse in Williamsburg

    1751
    The first professional theater company in the colonies, the Virginia Company of Comedians, opens a temporary wooden playhouse in Williamsburg, Virginia.
  • English poet Thomas Gray publishes his Elegy

    1751 English poet Thomas Gray publishes his Elegy written in a Country Church Yard English gardener Lancelot Brown sets up in business as a freelance 'improver of grounds', and soon acquires the nickname Capability Brown
  • Gregorian calendar

    1752 Britain is one of the last nations to adjust to the more accurate Gregorian calendar, causing a suspicious public to fear they have been robbed of eleven days English obstetrician William Smellie introduces scientific midwifery as a result of his researches into childbirth
  • Joseph Black identifies the existence of a gas

    1754 Scottish chemist Joseph Black identifies the existence of a gas, carbon dioxide, which he calls 'fixed air'
  • magisterial Dictionary of the English Language

    1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his magisterial Dictionary of the English Language
  • new British neoclassicism

    Admiral John Byng is shot on the deck of a ship in Portsmouth harbour for 'neglect of duty' in failing to relieve Minorca Robert Adam returns to Britain after two years in Rome with a repertoire of classical themes which he mingles to form a new British neoclassicism William Pitt the Elder becomes secretary of state and transforms the British war effort against France in America English painter Joseph Wright sets up a studio in his home town, Derby
  • William Blake (Birth)

    William Blake (Birth)
    William Blake was an English painter, poet and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. - Wikipedia Born: November 28, 1757, Soho, United Kingdom
    Died: August 12, 1827, London, United Kingdom
    Period: Romanticism
    Series: The Great Red Dragon Paintings
    Songs: The Lamb
  • Period: to

    William Blake

    William Blake was an English painter, poet and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. - Wikipedia Born: November 28, 1757, Soho, United Kingdom
    Died: August 12, 1827, London, United Kingdom
    Period: Romanticism
    Series: The Great Red Dragon Paintings
    Songs: The Lamb
    Popular work:
    "Songs of Innocence" (1789)
    "Songs of Experience" (1794)
  • Halley's Comit returns

    Joshua Reynolds is by now the most fashionable portrait painter in London, copies with as many as 150 sitters in a year A comet returns exactly at the time predicted by English astronomer Edmond Halley, and is subsequently known by his name James Woodforde, an English country parson with a love of food and wine, begins a detailed diary of everyday life Liverpool-born artist George Stubbs sets up in London as a painter, above all, of people and horses
  • annus mirabilis

    Portrait-painter Thomas Gainsborough moves from Suffolk to set up a studio in fashionable Bath Staffordshire potter Josiah Wedgwood sets up a factory of his own in his home town of Burslem Laurence Sterne publishes the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy, beginning with the scene at the hero's conception A British defeat of the French in Quiberon Bay prompts David Garrick to write Heart of Oak A succession of victories cause 1759 to be known in Britain as annus mirabilis, the wonderful year
  • Period: to

    Industrial revolution

    between 1770 and 1850 the economy of England changed from mostly agricultural to mostly industrial
    this was the result not of one key invention but of technological progress in different fields coming together
  • George III becomes king of Great Britain

    C. 1760 German painter Johann Zoffany moves to England to find work as a painter of conversation pieces and portraits On the death of his grandfather, George II, George III becomes king of Great Britain
  • John Harrison's fourth chronometer

    1761 Scottish chemist and physicist Joseph Black observes the latent heat in melting ice John Harrison's fourth chronometer is only five seconds out at the end of a test journey from England to Jamaica
  • revolutionary changes and reform in opera seria

    1762
    Christoph Willibald von Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice premieres at the Hofburgtheater in Vienna, marking revolutionary changes and reform in opera seria.
  • Johann Christian becomes known as the English Bach

    1762 Johann Sebastian Bach's youngest son, Johann Christian, moves to London and becomes known as the English Bach Fingal, supposedly by the medieval poet Ossian, is a forgery in the spirit of the times by James MacPherson
  • End of the Seven Years' War

    A treaty signed in Paris ends the Seven Years' War between Britain, France and Spain English journalist John Wilkes is arrested for publishing seditious libel in issue no 45 of his weekly magazine The North Briton James Boswell meets Samuel Johnson for the first time, in the London bookshop of Thomas Davies American artist Benjamin West settles in London, where he becomes famous for his large-scale history scenes
  • James Watt invents the condenser

    James Watt ponders on the inefficiency of contemporary steam engines and invents the condenser Britain passes the Sugar Act, levying duty on sugar, wine and textiles imported into America Lancashire spinner James Hargreaves conceives the idea of the spinning jenny, with multiple spindles worked from a single wheel English historian Edward Gibbon, sitting among ruins in Rome, conceives the idea ofDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Horace Walpole provides an early taste of Gothic thrills

    1764 English author Horace Walpole provides an early taste of Gothic thrills in his novel "Castle of Otranto"
  • the Stamp Act

    1765 Britain passes the Stamp Act, taxing legal documents and newspapers in the American colonies
  • The first permanent American theater building

    1766
    The first permanent American theater building, Southwark Theater, is erected in Philadelphia.
  • Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen

    1766 Britain repeals the Stamp Act, in a major reversal of policy achieved by resistance in the American colonies English chemist Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen but believes that it is phlogiston
  • Work begins on Edinburgh's New Town

    1767 Work begins on Edinburgh's New Town, to the design of the 23-year-old architect James Craig The British Chancellor, Charles Townshend, passes a series of acts taxing all glass, lead, paint, paper and tea imported into the American colonies
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica

    1768 Captain James Cook sails from Plymouth, in England, heading for Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus A Society of Gentlemen in Scotland begins publication of the immensely successful Encyclopaedia Britannica The Royal Academy is established in London, with Joshua Reynolds as its first president
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814. Wikipedia. Born: August 15, 1769, Ajaccio, France
    Died: May 5, 1821, Longwood
    Height: 1.68 m
    Buried: May 9, 1821, Les Invalides, Paris, France
    Spouse: Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma (m. 1810–1821), Joséphine de Beauharnais (m. 1796–1810)
  • William Wordsworth (Birth)

    William Wordsworth (Birth)
    William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads. Wikipedia Born: April 7, 1770, Wordsworth House, Cockermouth, United Kingdom
    Died: April 23, 1850, Cumberland, United Kingdom
    Nationality: English
    Siblings: Dorothy Wordsworth, Christopher Wordsworth
    Education: Hawkshead Grammar School, University of Cambridge, St John's College.
  • Period: to

    William Wordsworth

    William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with the 1798 joint publication Lyrical Ballads. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "There was a boy"
    "The idiot boy"
    "London 1802"
    "The solitary reaper" (1805)
    "The Prelude" (1799)
    "Composed upon Westminister bridge, Sept 3, 1802" (1802)
    "She dwelt among the untrodden ways" (1799)
    "A slumber did my spirit steal" (1799)
    "I wandered lonely as a cloud" (1804)
  • The triangular trade ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves

    C. 1770 The triangular trade, controlled from Liverpool, ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves 17-year-old Thomas Chatterton, later hailed as a significant poet, commits suicide in a London garret In response to American protests, the British government removes the Townshend duties on all commodities with the exception of tea
  • cotton mill at Cromford in Derbyshire

    1771 English entrepreneur Richard Arkwright adds water power to spinning by means of the water frame Richard Arkwright pioneers the factory environment with his cotton mill at Cromford in Derbyshire
  • Captain Cook sets off on his second voyage to the southern hemisphere

    1772 Captain Cook sets off, in HMS Resolution, on his second voyage to the southern hemisphere
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Birth)

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Birth)
    Samuel Taylor Coleridge was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. - Wikipedia Born: October 21, 1772, Ottery St Mary, United Kingdom
    Died: July 25, 1834, Highgate, United Kingdom
    Education: Christ's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Jesus College, Cambridge
    Movies: Christabel, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
    Children: Sara Coleridge, Hartley Coleridge
  • Period: to

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "The Aeolian harp" (1795)
    "Christabel"
    "Kubla Khan" (1797)
    "Frost at midnight" (1798)
    "The rime of the ancient mariner" (1797)
    "To the nightingale"
    "The nightingale: an ode"
  • the Stock Exchange

    English prison reformer John Howard is shocked into action by the conditions he sees in Bedford gaol The London brokers who meet to do business in Jonathan's coffee house decide to call themselves the Stock Exchange Oliver Goldsmith's play She Stoops to Conquer is produced in London's Covent Garden theatre Samuel Johnson and James Boswell undertake a journey together to the western islands of Scotland
  • Britain's new Coercive (or Intolerable) Acts

    Britain's new Coercive (or Intolerable) Acts include the requirement that Massachusetts citizens give board and lodging to British troops Encouraged by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine emigrates to America and settles in Philadelphia Illiterate visionary Ann Lee, leader of an English sect, the 'Shaking Quakers', crosses the Atlantic to spread the word English chemist Joseph Priestley isolates oxygen, but he believes it to be 'dephlogisticated air'
  • Thomas Gainsborough sets up a studio in London

    Thomas Gainsborough moves from Bath to set up a studio in London
  • discovery of a preventive cure against scurvy

    1775 John Singleton Copley, already established as America's greatest portrait painter, moves to London Captain Cook publishes his discovery of a preventive cure against scurvy, in the form of a regular ration of lemon juice
  • Boulton and Watt engines

    1776 Two Boulton and Watt engines are installed, the first of many in the mines and mills of England's developing industrial revolution English historian Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Scottish economist Adam Smith analyzes the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations
  • The School for Scandal

    1777 Richard Brinsley Sheridan's second play, The School for Scandal, is an immediate success in London's Drury Lane theatre
  • Milan's Teatro alla Scala

    1778
    Milan's Teatro alla Scala, Italy's leading opera house and one of the world's most renowned, is built.
  • France sends a large fleet across the Atlantic

    1778 France, joining the American colonies in their fight against Britain, sends a large fleet across the Atlantic The American naval hero John Paul Jones makes successful raids around the coasts of Britain
  • The world's first iron bridge is assembled

    Joseph Banks tells a committee of the House of Commons that the east coast of Australia is suitable for the transportation of convicted felons The world's first iron bridge is assembled in a few months across the Severn at Coalbrookdale Samuel Crompton perfects the mule, a machine for spinning that combines the merits of Hargreave's jenny and Arkwright's water frame U.S.S. Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones, fights H.M.S. Serapis near England's Flamborough Head
  • Six days of riot in London

    1780 Six days of riot in London are triggered by Lord George Gordon leading a march to oppose any degree of Catholic emancipation
  • William Herschel discovers Uranus

    1781 William Herschel discovers Uranus, the first planet to be found by means of a telescope, and names it the Georgian star
  • Sarah Siddons appears in London at Drury Lane

    1782 The English actress Sarah Siddons, already well known in the province, causes a sensation when she appears in London at Drury Lane
  • the Treaty of Paris

    1783 In the Treaty of Paris, negotiated by Adams, Franklin and Jay, the British government recognizes US independence
  • The first mail coach

    1784 A 24-year-old, William Pitt the Younger, is appointed Britain's prime minister by George III English ironmaster Henry Cort patents a process for puddling iron which produces a pure and malleable metal The first mail coach leaves Bristol for London, introducing a new era of faster transport
  • Launch of the era of scientific geology

    1785 James Hutton describes to the Royal Society of Edinburgh his studies of local rocks , launching the era of scientific geology William Withering's Account of the Foxglove describes the use of digitalis for dropsy, and its possible application to heart disease
  • Mozart collaborates with Lorenzo da Ponte

    1786
    Mozart collaborates with Lorenzo da Ponte on The Marriage of Figaro, which premieres in Vienna. He completes Don Giovanni the following year, and it premieres in Prague.
  • James Watt devises the governor

    1787 The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded in London, with a strong Quaker influence The First Fleet (eleven ships carrying about 750 convicts) leaves Portsmouth for Australia Scottish engineer James Watt devises the governor, the first example of industrial automation
  • George Gordon Byron (Birth)

    George Gordon Byron (Birth)
    George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, later George Gordon Noel, 6th Baron Byron, FRS, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. - Wikipedia Born: January 22, 1788, London Borough of Harrow, London, United Kingdom
    Died: April 19, 1824, Missolonghi, Greece
    Full name: George Gordon Byron
    Children: Ada Lovelace, Allegra Byron, Elizabeth Medora Leigh
    Books: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, The Giaour
  • Period: to

    George Gordon Byron

    George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, later George Gordon Noel, 6th Baron Byron, FRS, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. - Wikipedia Born: January 22, 1788, London Borough of Harrow, London, United Kingdom
    Died: April 19, 1824, Missolonghi, Greece Popular work:
    "The destruction of Sennacherib"(1815)
    "Don Juan" (1818)
    "On this day I complete my thirty-sixth year" (1824)
    "Childe Harold's pilgrimage"
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    the revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789.
  • William Blake publishes Songs of Innocence

    1789 England's champion pugilist, the Jewish prize-fighter Daniel Mendoza, publishes The Art of Boxing William Blake publishes Songs of Innocence, a volume of his poems with every page etched and illustrated by himself In his Principles Jeremy Bentham defines 'utility' as that which enhances pleasure and reduces pain
  • Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France

    1790 Joseph Haydn sets off for England, where impresario Johann Peter Salomon presents his London symphonies Anglo-Irish politician Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France, a blistering attack on recent events across the Channel English painter J.M.W. Turner is only 15 when a painting of his, a watercolour, is first exhibited at the Royal Academy
  • The Ordnance Survey is founded in Britain

    Scottish poet Robert Burns publishes Tam o' Shanter, in which a drunken farmer has an alarming encounter with witches The Ordnance Survey is founded in Britain, to make detailed maps of the country for military purposes Naval officer George Vancouver sails from Britain on the voyage which will bring him to the northwest coast of America Thomas Paine publishes the first part of The Rights of Man, his reply to Burke'sReflections on the Revolution in France
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"

    Scottish painter Henry Raeburn depicts the Reverend Robert Walker skating on Duddingston Loch Charlotte Square in Edinburgh begins to be built to the design of Robert Adam English author Mary Wollstonecraft publishes a passionately feminist work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Thomas Paine moves hurriedly to France, to escape a charge of treason in England for opinions expressed in his Rights of Man George III sends Lord Macartney on an embassy to the Chinese emperor Qianlong
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley (Birth)

    Percy Bysshe Shelley (Birth)
    Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the major English Romantic poets and is regarded by critics as amongst the finest lyric poets in the English language. - Wikipedia Born: August 4, 1792, Horsham, United Kingdom
    Died: July 8, 1822, Lerici, Italy
    Full name: Percy Bysshe Shelley
    Spouse: Mary Shelley (m. 1816–1822), Harriet Westbrook (m. 1811–1816)
    Plays: The Cenci, Prometheus Unbound, Proserpine
  • Period: to

    Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the major English Romantic poets and is regarded by critics as amongst the finest lyric poets in the English language. - Wikipedia Born: August 4, 1792, Horsham, United Kingdom
    Died: July 8, 1822, Lerici, Italy Popular work:
    "To wordsworth" (1814)
    "Ode to the west wind" (1819)
    "To a skylark" (1820)
    "Ozymandias" (1817)
    Plays: The Cenci, Prometheus Unbound, Proserpine
  • Britain joins other European nations in war against France

    1793 Britain joins other European nations in war against France, mainly in naval engagements in the West Indies and Atlantic
  • John Jay restores some degree of friendship between the USA and Britain

    1794 The treaty agreed by US envoy John Jay restores some degree of friendship between the USA and Britain William Blake's volume Songs of Innocence and Experience includes his poem 'Tyger! Tyger! burning bright'
  • Thomas Paine publishes "Age of Reason"

    1795 Thomas Paine publishes his completed Age of Reason, an attack on conventional Christianity
  • John Keats (Birth)

    John Keats (Birth)
    John Keats was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, despite his work having been in publication for only four years before his death. - Wikipedia Born: October 31, 1795, Moorgate, London, United Kingdom
    Died: February 23, 1821, Rome, Italy
    Education: King's College London
    Buried: Protestant Cemetery, Rome, Italy
    Siblings: George Keats
  • Period: to

    John Keats

    John Keats was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, despite his work having been in publication for only four years before his death. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    "When I have fears"
    "La belle dame sans merci"
    "Ode to a nightingale"
    "Ode to a grecian urn"
    "Ode to psyche"
    "To autumn"
    "The eve of St. Agnes"
    "Meg Merilies"
    "Song of four faeries"
  • pioneering case of vaccination

    1796 In Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Edward Jenner inoculates a boy with cowpox in the pioneering case of vaccination
  • 'a person on business from Porlock'

    1797 Samuel Taylor Coleridge says that while writing Kubla Khan he is interrupted by 'a person on business from Porlock'
  • a milestone in the Romantic movement

    1798 English poets Wordsworth and Coleridge jointly publish Lyrical Ballads, a milestone in the Romantic movement Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' is published inLyrical Ballads
  • Combination Act

    1799 English surveyor William Smith compiles a manuscript, Order of the Strata, revealing chronology through fossils in rocks British prime minister William Pitt introduces income tax at 10% to pay for the war against France The British parliament passes a Combination Act, classing any association of labourers as a criminal conspiracy
  • experiment in paternalistic socialism

    1800 Welsh industrialist Robert Owen takes charge of a mill at New Lanark and develops it as an experiment in paternalistic socialism
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union comes into effect, linking Ireland with Britain to form the United Kingdom British prime minister William Pitt resigns when George III vetoes Catholic emancipation, but is recalled three years later Both France and Britain, engaged against each other in the Napoleonic Wars, take the first census of their populations The first census of the United Kingdom reveals that the population numbers approximately 9 million
  • the first Factory Act

    The British parliament passes the first Factory Act, limiting a child's working day in a factory to twelve hours A steam tug designed by William Symington, the Charlotte Dundas, goes into service on the Forth and Clyde canal The treaty agreed at Amiens between France and Britain brings a welcome lull after ten years of warfare in Europe English journalist William Cobbett launches a weekly newspaper, The Political Register, that he continues till his death in 1835
  • Britain declares war again on France

    Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick drives a steam carriage in London, from Holborn to Paddington and back The peace of Amiens comes to an abrupt end when Britain declares war again on France English chemist John Dalton reads a paper describing his Law of Partial Pressure in gases (discovered in 1801) At the end of his Partial Pressure paper, John Dalton makes brief mention of his radical theory of differing atomic weights
  • the first locomotive on rails

    1804 Richard Trevithick runs the first locomotive on rails, pulling heavy weights a distance of 9 miles (15 km) near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales William Blake includes his poem 'Jerusalem' in the Preface to his book Milton
  • Period: to

    Elizabeth Barrett Browning

    Elizabeth Barrett Browning was one of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian era. Her poetry was widely popular in both Britain and the United States during her lifetime. - Wikipedia Born: March 6, 1806, Kelloe, United Kingdom
    Died: June 29, 1861, Florence, Italy Popular work:
    "Aurora Leigh" (1835)
  • Elizabeth Barrett Browning (birth)

    Elizabeth Barrett Browning (birth)
    Elizabeth Barrett Browning was one of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian era. Her poetry was widely popular in both Britain and the United States during her lifetime. - Wikipedia Born: March 6, 1806, Kelloe, United Kingdom
    Died: June 29, 1861, Florence, Italy
    Spouse: Robert Browning (m. 1846–1861)
    Siblings: Samuel Barrett, Arabella Barrett, Mary Barrett
    Parents: Edward Barrett Moulton Barrett, Mary Graham Clarke
  • Napoleon imposes his Continental System

    1806 Napoleon imposes his Continental System, designed to strangle Britain's trade
  • Legislation abolishing the slave trade is passed in both Britain and America

    To counteract Napoleon's Continental System, Britain passes orders in council penalizing any vessel trading into French-held ports English chemist Humphry Davy uses electrolysis to isolate the elements sodium and potassium A Scottish clergyman, Alexander Forsyth, invents the percussion cap to help in his pursuit of wildfowl Legislation abolishing the slave trade is passed in both Britain and America
  • Anglo-US tensions are heightened

    Anglo-US tensions are heightened by a clash between the frigates Leopard and Chesapeake off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia George Canning is appointed British foreign secretary in the new administration of the Duke of Portland English collector Thomas Hope publishes his Greek and Egyptian designs in Household Furniture and Interior Decoration
  • The French capture of Madrid

    1808 The French capture of Madrid provokes a British response and the resulting Peninsular War
  • edgar Allan Poe (Birth)

    edgar Allan Poe (Birth)
    Edgar Allan Poe was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Wikipedia Born: January 19, 1809, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    Died: October 7, 1849, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    Spouse: Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe (m. 1835–1847)
    Buried: October 9, 1849, Westminster Hall and Burying Ground, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    Movies: The Raven, The Pit and the Pendulum
  • Period: to

    Edgar Allan Poe

    Edgar Allan Poe was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. - Wikipedia Born: January 19, 1809, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    Died: October 7, 1849, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    Spouse: Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe (m. 1835–1847)
    Buried: October 9, 1849, Westminster Hall and Burying Ground, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    Popular work:
    "The raven" (1845)
    Movies: The Raven, The Pit and the Pendulum
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    Charles Robert Darwin, FRS was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. - Wikipedia Born: February 12, 1809, The Mount, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom
    Died: April 19, 1882, Down House, Downe, United Kingdom
    Awards: Copley Medal, Royal Medal, Wollaston Medal
    Education: Christ's College, Cambridge (1828–1831), etc
  • politicians Lord Castlereagh and George Canning fight a duel

    1809 Rival British politicians Lord Castlereagh and George Canning fight a duel in which Canning is wounded
  • Alfred Tennyson (Birth)

    Alfred Tennyson (Birth)
    Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. - Wikipedia Born: August 5, 1809, Somersby, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom
    Died: October 6, 1892, Aldworth, United Kingdom
    Spouse: Emily Tennyson (m. 1850–1892)
    Songs: The Dance
    Siblings: Charles Tennyson Turner, Frederick Tennyson, Emilia Tennyson, Edward Tennyson
    Awards: Chancellor's Gold Medal
  • Period: to

    Alfred Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. - Wikipedia Born: August 5, 1809, Somersby, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom
    Died: October 6, 1892, Aldworth, United Kingdom Popular work:
    "The lady of Shallot" (1831)
    "The lotos-eaters" (1832)
    "Ulysses" (1833)
    "Crossing the bar" (1889)
  • Walter Scott - "Lady of the Lake"

    1810 Walter Scott's poem Lady of the Lake brings tourists in unprecedented numbers to Scotland's Loch Katrine
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley is expelled from Oxford university

    The British king George III, suffering from porphyria, is deemed unfit to govern and his eldest son becomes Prince Regent A 12-year-old Dorset child, Mary Anning, discovers at Lyme Regis a 21ft (6.4m) fossil of an ichthyosaur Percy Bysshe Shelley is expelled from Oxford university for circulating a pamphlet with the title The Necessity of Atheism English author Jane Austen publishes her first work in print, Sense and Sensibility, at her own expense
  • Masked Luddites smash machinery

    Masked Luddites smash machinery in night raids on factories in Nottingham
  • Britain's first primary school is established by Robert Owen

    Lord Castlereagh becomes British foreign secretary in Spencer Perceval's government Britain's first primary school is established by Robert Owen at New Lanark in Scotland The British prime minister, Spencer Perceval, is assassinated in the lobby of the House of Commons by John Bellingham After the death of Perceval, Lord Liverpool begins a 15-year spell as Britain's prime minister Damage to US trade by British orders in council prompts war (the War of 1812) between the two nations
  • Robert Browning (Birth)

    Robert Browning (Birth)
    Robert Browning was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. Wikipedia Born: May 7, 1812, Camberwell, United Kingdom
    Died: December 12, 1889, Venice, Italy
    Spouse: Elizabeth Barrett Browning (m. 1846–1861)
    Plays: The Pied Piper of Hamelin, Pippa passes
    Children: Robert Barrett Browning
  • Period: to

    Robbert Browning

    Robert Browning was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. - Wikipedia Popular work:
    Plays: The Pied Piper of Hamelin, Pippa passes
    Poetry: "My last Duchess" (1842); "The bishop orders his tomb at Saint Praxed's Church" (1844); "Andrea del Sarto" (1853)
  • War of 1812 (US vs Britain)

    The US frigate Constitution, affectionately known as 'Old Ironsides', wins successes against British warships in the Atlantic The first two cantos are published of Byron's largely autobiographical poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, bringing him immediate fame
  • Puffing Billy, the first steam locomotive running on smooth rails

    C. 1813 William Hedley's Puffing Billy, the first steam locomotive running on smooth rails, goes to work at Wylam colliery Quaker philanthropist Elizabeth Fry, appalled by the condition of female prisoners in London's Newgate gaol, begins campaigning on their behalf Pride and Prejudice, based on a youthful work of 1797 called First Impressions, is the second of Jane Austen's novels to be published
  • Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812

    A cold February freezes the Thames and makes possible the last of London's famous frost fairs English engineer George Stephenson builds his first locomotive, the Blucher, and runs it at the Killingworth colliery Robert Peel, chief secretary for Ireland, introduces a police force soon known as the 'Peelers' The Times, England's oldest daily newspaper, becomes the first to print on a steam press Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812
  • Victory at Waterloo

    English chemist Humphry Davy invents a safety lamp that shields the naked flame and prevents explosions in mines Scottish engineer John McAdam builds the first macadamized road, in the Bristol region of southwest England The first news of the victory at Waterloo is given to the British government by a private citizen, Nathan Mayer Rothschild Napoleon, held on a British warship off Torquay and hoping now to live in Britain, becomes an instant tourist attraction
  • John Nash designs the exotic Royal Pavilion

    Wellington is presented with a twice-life-size nude marble statue, by Canova, of his vanquished enemy Napoleon English architect John Nash designs the exotic Royal Pavilion in Brighton for the Prince Regent
  • Gaslighting is used for the first time in American theater

    1816
    Gaslighting is used for the first time in American theater at Philadelphia's Chestnut Street Theatre.
    Thomas Drummond invents the limelight, which is used in the same manner as the spotlight is used today.
  • the death of Princess Charlotte

    1817 On the death of Princess Charlotte, not one of seven princes has an heir to succeed to the British throne in the next generation
  • Frankenstein

    1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes probably his best-known poem, the sonnet Ozymandias Two of Jane Austen's novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, are published in the year after her death Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus, a Gothic tale about giving life to an artificial man
  • Peterloo massacre

    William Cobbett brings back to England the bones of Thomas Paine, who died in the USA in 1809 Magistrates order troops to fire on a crowd in Manchester, in what becomes known as the Peterloo massacre Byron begins publication in parts of his longest poem, Don Juan an epic satirical comment on contemporary life The United Kingdom formally adopts the gold standard for its currency, after using it on a de facto basis since 1717
  • Period: to

    Queen Victoria

    Queen Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India. - Wikipedia
    Born: May 24, 1819, Kensington Palace, London, United Kingdom
    Died: January 22, 1901, Osborne House, East Cowes, United Kingdom
    Full name: Alexandrina Victoria
    Spouse: Albert, Prince Consort (m. 1840–1861)
    Children: Edward VII, Victoria, Princess Royal
  • Walter Scott publishes Ivanhoe

    Walter Scott publishes Ivanhoe, a tale of love, tournaments and sieges at the time of the crusades
  • George IV succeeds to the Brittish throne

    The British king George III dies after 59 years on the throne – a longer reign than any of his predecessors On the death of his father, George III, the Prince Regent succeeds to the British throne as George IV English poet John Keats publishes Ode to a Nightingale, inspired by the bird's song in his Hampstead garden English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes Ode to the West Wind, written mainly in a wood near Florence French painter Théodore Géricault begins a two-year visit to Britain
  • John Constable acquires a house in Hampstead

    English painter John Constable acquires a house in Hampstead, a region of London that features frequently in his work
  • English radical William Cobbett begins his Rural Rides

    English author Thomas De Quincey publishes his autobiographical Confessions of an English Opium-Eater English poet John Keats dies in Rome at the age of twenty-five English radical William Cobbett begins his journeys round England, published in 1830 as Rural Rides English author William Hazlitt publishes Table Talk, a two-volume collection that includes most of his best-known essays During his coronation George IV has the doors of Westminster Abbey closed against his queen, Caroline
  • new craze for Highland dress

    1822 George Canning becomes the British foreign secretary for the second time, in Lord Liverpool's government George IV wears a tartan kilt when visiting Edinburgh, and launches a new craze for Highland dress Walter Scott begins to transform Abbotsford into a romantic house that he refers to as his 'conundrum castle'
  • Matthew Arnold (Birth)

    Matthew Arnold (Birth)
    Matthew Arnold was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold. - Wikipedia Born: December 24, 1822, Laleham, United Kingdom
    Died: April 15, 1888, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Parents: Thomas Arnold
    Education: University of Oxford, Balliol College, Rugby School
    Siblings: William Delafield Arnold, Tom Arnold
  • Period: to

    Matthew Arnold

    Matthew Arnold was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold. - Wikipedia Born: December 24, 1822, Laleham, United Kingdom
    Died: April 15, 1888, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Parents: Thomas Arnold
    Education: University of Oxford, Balliol College, Rugby School
    Siblings: William Delafield Arnold, Tom Arnold
    Poetry: "Dover beach" (1876)
  • Daniel O'Connell organizes Catholic Associations throughout Ireland

    1823 Daniel O'Connell organizes Catholic Associations throughout Ireland, funded by the members' penny subscriptions A Rugby schoolboy, William Webb Ellis, picks up the football and runs with it in rugby union's founding myth
  • The Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800, outlawing trade unions in Britain, are repealed

    1824 The Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800, outlawing trade unions in Britain, are repealed 12-year-old Charles Dickens works in London in Warren's boot-blacking factory
  • the first passenger railway between Stockton and Darlington

    1825 The Joint-Stock Companies Act introduces regulations to protect investors in Britain Active (later called Locomotion) is the engine on the first passenger railway, between Stockton and Darlington
  • Thomas Telford completes two suspension bridges

    1826 Scottish engineer Thomas Telford completes two suspension bridges in Wales, at Conwy and over the Menai Strait
  • George Canning becomes the British prime minister

    1827 George Canning becomes the British prime minister, but dies five months later English artist Samuel Palmer moves to Shoreham, in Kent, for the most inspired years of his career
  • Minstrel dancing debuts

    1828
    Minstrel dancing debuts with Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice appearing as Jim Crow in a song-and-dance act.
  • The Duke of Wellington becomes British prime minister

    1828 The Duke of Wellington becomes British prime minister, heading the Tory government at a time when reform is urgently needed William Burke and William Hare murder 16 victims and sell their bodies to the Edinburgh Medical School for anatomical study
  • The Emancipation Act removes the restrictions on Catholics in UK public life

    The Metropolitan Police, set up in London by Robert Peel, become known as 'bobbies' from his first name The Emancipation Act, enabling Daniel O'Connell to take his seat at Westminster, at last removes the restrictions on Catholics in UK public life German composer Felix Mendelssohn visits the Hebrides and see's Fingal's Cave, later the theme of his Hebrides Overture Oxford and Cambridge compete against each other in the first university boat race, held at Henley
  • The locomotive Rocket - built by George and Robert Stephenson

    1829 The locomotive Rocket, built by George and Robert Stephenson, defeats two rivals in the Rainhill trials, near Liverpool
  • Period: to

    The Romantic period in ballet

    1830–1850
    The Romantic period in ballet sees ballerinas making technical and artistic strides in the art form. Until this period, men dominated the stage.
  • George Stephenson's railway between Liverpool and Manchester opens

    William IV succeeds his brother George IV as the British king The death of the last infant cousin senior to her in the royal succession makes Victoria heir to the British throne Earl Grey becomes British prime minister at the head of a Whig government committed to reform George Stephenson's railway between Liverpool and Manchester opens, with passengers pulled by eight locomotives based on Rocket
  • Christina Rossetti (Birth)

    Christina Rossetti (Birth)
    Christina Georgina Rossetti was an English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional, and children's poems. - Wikipedia Born: December 5, 1830, London, United Kingdom
    Died: December 29, 1894, London, United Kingdom
    Siblings: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, Maria Francesca Rossetti
    Plays: Goblin Market and Other Poems
    Parents: Gabriele Rossetti, Frances Polidori
  • Period: to

    Christina Rossetti

    Christina Georgina Rossetti was an English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional, and children's poems. - Wikipedia Born: December 5, 1830, London, United Kingdom
    Died: December 29, 1894, London, United Kingdom
    Siblings: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, Maria Francesca Rossetti
    Plays: Goblin Market and Other Poems
    Parents: Gabriele Rossetti, Frances Polidori
    Poetry: "Song 'When I am dead my dearest" (1848); "Remember" (1849); "Up-hill" (1854)
  • Old London Bridge is demolished

    Old London Bridge is demolished after more than six centuries, ending the chance of frost fairs on the Thames Old Sarum, the most notorious of Britain's rotten boroughs, has just seven voters but returns two members to parliament The first Whig Reform Bill is carried in the British House of Commons by a single vote HMS Beagle sails from Plymouth to survey the coasts of the southern hemisphere, with Charles Darwin as the expedition's naturalist
  • English mathematician Charles Babbage builds a sophisticated calculating machine

    English scientist Michael Faraday reports his discovery of the first law of electrolysis, to be followed a year later by the second English mathematician Charles Babbage builds a sophisticated calculating machine, which he calls a 'difference engine' English author Frances Trollope ruffles transatlantic feathers with her Domestic Manners of the Americans, based on a 3-year stay After several rejections by Britain's House of Lords, the Reform Bill finally passes and receives royal assent
  • Period: to

    Victorian era

  • Lewis Carroll (Birth)

    Lewis Carroll (Birth)
    Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer. Wikipedia Born: January 27, 1832, Daresbury, United Kingdom
    Died: January 14, 1898, Guildford, United Kingdom
    Full name: Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
    Parents: Frances Jane Lutwidge, Charles Dodgson
    Education: Christ Church, Oxford (1850–1852)
  • Period: to

    Lewis Carroll

    Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer. - Wikipedia Born: January 27, 1832, Daresbury, United Kingdom
    Died: January 14, 1898, Guildford, United Kingdom
    Full name: Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
    Parents: Frances Jane Lutwidge, Charles Dodgson
    Poetry: "Jabberwocky" (1871)
    Books: Allice's Adventures in Wonderland (1871)
    Education: Christ Church, Oxford (1850–1852)
  • The Hebrides (Fingal's Cave) has its premiere in London's Covent Garden

    Mendelssohn's concert overture The Hebrides (Fingal's Cave) has its premiere in London's Covent Garden 20-year-old English artist Edward Lear publishes Family of the Psittacidae, a collection of his paintings of parrots
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Robert Stephenson appointed as chief engineers to the Great Western railway and Birmingham railway respectively

    1833 27-year-old Isambard Kingdom Brunel wins his first major appointment, as chief engineer to the Great Western railway 30-year-old Robert Stephenson is appointed chief engineer to the London and Birmingham railway
  • Lord Melbourne becomes Britain's prime minister

    The Tories in Britain adopt a reassuring name for an uncertain future – Conservatives Six farm labourers, from Tolpuddle in Dorset, are transported for seven years to Australia for administering unlawful oaths in the forming of a union Lord Melbourne becomes Britain's prime minister, at the head of the same Whig administration after the resignation of Earl Grey Prime minister Lord Melbourne has difficulties in holding his government together and is dismissed by William IV
  • a great fire destroys most of the Palace of Westminster, including the two houses of parliament

    William IV invites the Tory leader Robert Peel to form a government in place of the Whigs In London a great fire destroys most of the Palace of Westminster, including the two houses of parliament
  • Fox Talbot exposes the first photographic negatives

    English architect and designer Augustus Welby Pugin plays a major part in the second stage of the Gothic Revival Election results in Britain mean that Robert Peel is unable to form a Tory government, and Lord Melbourne returns as Britain's prime minister Fox Talbot exposes the first photographic negatives, among them a view looking out through an oriel window in Lacock Abbey English artist Edward Lear begins a series of travels, sketching around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East
  • Work begins on the suspension bridge over the river Avon

    Charles Barry wins the competition to design the new Houses of Parliament 24-year-old Charles Dickens begins monthly publication of his first work of fiction,Pickwick Papers (published in book form in 1837) The Tolpuddle Martyrs are brought back to England from Australia after public protest leads to their sentences being remitted Work begins on the suspension bridge over the river Avon, at Clifton, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel
  • HMS Beagle reaches Falmouth

    1836 HMS Beagle reaches Falmouth, in Cornwall, after a voyage of five years, and Charles Darwin brings with him a valuable collection of specimens
  • Victoria ascends to the Brittish throne

    The 18-year-old Victoria comes to the throne in Britain, beginning the long Victorian era Work begins on Charles Barry's spectacular design for London's new Houses of Parliament The Whig party in Britain begin referring to themselves as Liberals The first trains run between London and Birmingham on the railway designed by Robert Stephenson Charles Dickens' first novel, Oliver Twist, begins monthly publication (in book form, 1838)
  • the first steamship to cross the Atlantic

    An Irish packet steamer, the Sirius, becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic, completing the journey to New York in 19 days Brunel's Great Western, a wooden paddle-steamer, arrives in New York the day after the Sirius, with the record for an Atlantic crossing already reduced to 15 days The London Prize Ring rules disallow kicking, gouging, head-butting and biting in the sport of boxing The People's Charter, with its six political demands, launches the Chartist movement in England
  • the Anti-Corn Law League

    1838 J.M.W. Turner paints an icon of British art, The Fighting Téméraire Seven Manchester merchants and mill-owners found the Anti-Corn Law League
  • the Bedchamber Crisis

    1839 In the Bedchamber Crisis, Queen Victoria shows steely determination in refusing to dismiss politically committed ladies of her bedchamber
  • the world's first postage stamps

    1840 Queen Victoria gives Kew Gardens to the nation, as a botanic garden of scientific importance Rowland Hill introduces in Britain the world's first postage stamps - the Penny Black and Two Pence Blue Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and soon, with nine children, they provide the very image of the ideal Victorian family
  • Thomas Hardy (Birth)

    Thomas Hardy (Birth)
    Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, especially William Wordsworth. - Wikipedia Born: June 2, 1840, Stinsford, United Kingdom
    Died: January 11, 1928, Dorchester, Dorset, United Kingdom
    Nationality: British
    Spouse: Florence Dugdale (m. 1914–1928), Emma Lavinia Gifford (m. 1874–1912)
    Plays: The Dynasts
  • Period: to

    Thomas Hardy

    Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, especially William Wordsworth. - Wikipedia Plays: The Dynasts
    Poetry: "Neutral tones" (1867); "I look into my glass" (1898); "Drummer Hodge" (1899); "The darkling thrush" (1900); "The convergence of the twain" (1912)
  • Fox Talbot patents the 'calotype'

    1841 Robert Peel replaces Lord Melbourne as prime minister after a Conservative victory in the British general election Fox Talbot patents the 'calotype', introducing the negative-positive process that becomes standard in photography With a teetotallers' rail trip for 570 people, Thomas Cook introduces the notion of the package tour
  • Lord Shaftesbury's Mines Act

    Robert Peel's Conservative administration reintroduces income tax in Britain, at a fixed level of approximately 3% Lord Shaftesbury's Mines Act makes it illegal for boys under 13, and women and girls of any age, to be employed underground in Britain The young Friedrich Engels is sent from Germany to manage the family cotton-spinning factory in Manchester Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell pioneers mass political demonstrations, which become known as 'monster meetings'
  • Robert Browning publishes a vivid narrative poem about the terrible revenge of The Pied Piper of Hamelin

    1842 English poet Robert Browning publishes a vivid narrative poem about the terrible revenge of The Pied Piper of Hamelin English author Thomas Babington Macaulay publishes a collection of stirring ballads,Lays of Ancient Rome
  • Great Britain, the first iron steamship designed for the transatlantic passenger trade

    The Brunel engineers, father and son, finish an 18-year project tunnelling under the Thames between Wapping and Rotherhithe Henry Cole commissions 1000 copies of the world's first Christmas card, designed for him by John Calcott Horsley The statue of Nelson, by E.H. Baily, is placed on top of its column in Trafalgar Square Isambard Kingdom Brunel launches the Great Britain, the first iron steamship designed for the transatlantic passenger trade
  • The Theatre Regulation Act of 1843 bans drinking in legitimate theaters

    1843
    The Theatre Regulation Act of 1843 bans drinking in legitimate theaters. Many tavern owners take advantage of the situation and renovate their establishments to accommodate live performances.
  • Daniel O'Connell is convicted of seditious conspiracy and is sentenced to prison

    1843 Daniel O'Connell is convicted of seditious conspiracy and is sentenced to prison Ebenezer Scrooge mends his ways just in time in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol
  • The Young Men's Christian Association is founded in London

    The first great entrepreneur of the railway age, George Hudson, becomes known as the Railway King Daniel O'Connell is acquitted on appeal and released from prison In his novel Coningsby Benjamin Disraeli develops the theme of Conservatism uniting 'two nations', the rich and the poor The Young Men's Christian Association is founded in London by British drapery assistant George Williams
  • Gerard Manley Hopkins (Birth)

    Gerard Manley Hopkins (Birth)
    Reverend Father Gerard Manley Hopkins, S.J. was an English poet, Catholic convert, and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets. - Wikipedia Born: July 28, 1844, Stratford, London, United Kingdom
    Died: June 8, 1889, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
    Education: Highgate School (1854–1863), Balliol College, University of Oxford
  • Period: to

    Gerard Manley Hopkins

    Reverend Father Gerard Manley Hopkins, S.J. was an English poet, Catholic convert, and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets. - Wikipedia Born: July 28, 1844, Stratford, London, United Kingdom
    Died: June 8, 1889, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
    Poetry: "God's grandeur" (1877); "Pied Beauty" (1877); "Felix Randal" (1880); "No worst there is nine. Pitched past pitch of grief" (1885); "Thou art indeed just, Lord..." (1889)
  • the Great Famine

    English naval officer John Franklin sets off with two ships, Erebus and Terror, to search for the Northwest Passage A blight destroys the potato crop in Ireland and causes what becomes known as the Great Famine Friedrich Engels, after running a textile factory in Manchester, publishes The Condition of the Working Class in England Queen Victoria and Prince Albert follow the German custom of a family Christmas tree, immediately making it popular in Britain
  • The Irish become the main group of immigrants to the USA

    British prime minister Robert Peel carries a bill to repeal the Corn Laws, splitting his own party in the process The Irish, fleeing from the potato famine at home, become the main group of immigrants to the USA The minority of Conservatives supporting Peel become a separate faction, henceforth known as the Peelites Edward Lear publishes his Book of Nonsense, consisting of limericks illustrated with his own cartoons
  • Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett go abroad to live in Florence

    With his Conservative party split, Peel's government falls and Lord John Russell becomes British prime minister at the head of a Whig administration Mendelssohn's oratorio Elijah has its premiere in England, in the city of Birmingham After marrying secretly, the English poets Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett go abroad to live in Florence
  • The three Brontë sisters jointly publish a volume of their poems

    1846 Landlords in Scotland begin to clear crofters from Highland estates so as to provide pasture for sheep The three Brontë sisters jointly publish a volume of their poems and sell just two copies
  • ames Simpson uses anaesthetic to ease difficulty in childbirth

    A new Factory Act is passed in Britain, limiting the working day of women and children to a maximum of ten hours Scottish obstetrician James Simpson uses anaesthetic (ether, and later in the year chloroform) to ease difficulty in childbirth English author William Makepeace Thackeray begins publication of his novel Vanity Fair in monthly parts (book form 1848) At a congress in London Engels persuades a group of radical Germans to adopt the name Communist League
  • Period: to

    Thomas Edison

    Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. - Wikipedia Born: February 11, 1847, Milan, Ohio, United States
    Died: October 18, 1931, West Orange, New Jersey, United States
    Education: Cooper Union (1875–1879)
    Awards: Technical Grammy Award, Congressional Gold Medal, etc
  • Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell
    Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone. - Wikipedia Born: March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Died: August 2, 1922, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Spouse: Mabel Gardiner Hubbard (m. 1877–1922)
    Awards: Elliott Cresson Medal, IEEE Edison Medal, Hughes Medal, John Fritz Medal
    Education: University College London (1868–1870), etc
    Children: Elsie Bell, Marian Hubbard
  • George Boole describes Boolean algebra

    Charlotte becomes the first of the Brontë sisters to have a novel published — Jane Eyre English mathematician George Boole describes Boolean algebra in his pamphlet Mathematical Analysis of Logic Emily Brontë's novel Wuthering Heights follows just two months after her sister Charlotte's Jane Eyre
  • William Thomson proposes the 'absolute' scale of temperature

    Scottish physicist William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, proposes the 'absolute' scale of temperature English caricaturist George Cruikshank publishes The Drunkard's Children in support of the developing Temperance movement English art students Rossetti, Holman Hunt and Millais form the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Branwell, Emily and Anne Brontë die within a period of eight months
  • Marx makes his home in tolerant London

    Prince Albert is the driving force behind the plans for a Great Exhibition in London Charles Dickens begins the publication in monthly numbers of David Copperfield, his own favourite among his novels Scottish painter David Roberts completes publication of his 6-volume The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia Expelled from Germany after the year of revolutions, Marx makes his home in tolerant London Dante Gabriel Rossetti depicts his sister Christina in The Girlhood of Mary Virgin
  • Robert Stephenson completes a box-girder railway bridge over the Menai Strait

    Queen Victoria knights her favourite painter of animals, Edwin Landseer Alfred Tennyson's elegy for a friend, In Memoriam, captures perfectly the Victorian mood of heightened sensibility British engineer Robert Stephenson completes a box-girder railway bridge over the Menai Strait, between Anglesey and mainland Wales English cartoonist John Tenniel begins a 50-year career drawing for the satirical magazine Punch
  • Frederick Scott Archer publishes the details of his collodion process

    Thomas Cubitt completes Osborne House, designed as a quiet retreat for Victoria and Albert on the Isle of Wight English photographer Frederick Scott Archer publishes the details of his collodion process, a marked improvement on the earlier calotype negative English textile magnate Titus Salt begins to build Saltaire as a model industrial village for his workers
  • Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace

    1851 Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace, built in London in six months, is the world's first example of prefabricated architecture The Great Exhibition attracts six million visitors to London's new Crystal Palace in a period of only six months
  • Lord John Russell's Whig administration collapses

    Lord John Russell's Whig administration collapses, and Lord Derby follows him as a Conservative prime minister at the head of a coalition government Queen Victoria opens the new Houses of Parliament, designed by Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin The Crystal Palace is dismantled in Hyde Park, to be re-erected south of the river Thames at Sydenham
  • William Thomson formulates the second law of thermodynamics

    Scottish physicist William Thomson formulates the second law of thermodynamics, concerning the transfer of heat within a closed system Lord Aberdeen, leader of the 'Peelite' minority of the Conservative party, forms a new coalition government with the Liberals London physician Peter Mark Roget publishes his dictionary of synonyms, theThesaurus of English Words and Phrases
  • The hypodermic syringe

    1853 The hypodermic syringe with a plunger is simultaneously developed in France and in Scotland
  • Britain and France enter the war between Turkey and Russia

    English physician John Snow proves that cholera is spread by infected water (from a pump in London's Broad Street) Britain and France enter the war between Turkey and Russia, on the Turkish side A London editor decides to send a reporter, William Howard Russell ('Russell of The Times'), to the Crimean front Florence Nightingale, responding to reports of horrors in the Crimea, sets sail with a party of twenty-eight nurses
  • Oscar Wilde (Birth)

    Oscar Wilde (Birth)
    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Wikipedia Born: October 16, 1854, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
    Died: November 30, 1900, Paris, France
    Spouse: Constance Lloyd (m. 1884–1898)
    Plays: The Importance of Being Earnest, An Ideal Husband
  • Period: to

    Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. - Wikipedia Born: October 16, 1854, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
    Died: November 30, 1900, Paris, France
    Spouse: Constance Lloyd (m. 1884–1898)
    Plays: The Importance of Being Earnest, An Ideal Husband
    Poetry: "The ballad of Reading gaol"
  • the world's first war photographer

    Jamaican-born nurse Mary Seacole sets up her own 'British Hotel' in the Crimea to provide food and nursing for soldiers in need Roger Fenton travels out from England to the Crimea – the world's first war photographer Lord Palmerston heads the coalition government in Britain after Lord Aberdeen loses a vote of confidence on his conduct of the Crimean War Holman Hunt's The Scapegoat combines realism and symbolism in an extreme example of Pre-Raphaelite characteristics
  • muscular Christianity

    David Livingstone, moving down the Zambezi, comes upon the Victoria Falls John Everett Millais marries Effie Gray, previously the wife of John Ruskin English artist William Simpson sends sketches from the Crimea which achieve rapid circulation in Britain as tinted lithographs The Christian Socialism of F.D. Maurice and others is mocked by its opponents as 'muscular Christianity'
  • Introducing the era of colour journalism

    The Christmas issue of the Illustrated London News includes chromolithographs, introducing the era of colour journalism Tennyson publishes a long narrative poem, Maud, a section of which ('Come into the garden, Maud') becomes famous as a song English author Anthony Trollope publishes The Warden, the first in his series of six Barsetshire novels
  • The treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War

    1856 The treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War, limiting Russia's special powers in relation to Turkey Victoria and Albert complete their fairy-tale castle at Balmoral, adding greatly to the nation's romantic view of Scotland English chemist William Henry Perkin accidentally creates the first synthetic die, aniline purple (now known as mauve)
  • Nikola Tesla

    Nikola Tesla
    Nikola Tesla was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current electricity supply system. - Wikipedia Born: July 10, 1856, Smiljan, Croatia
    Died: January 7, 1943, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
    Full name: Nikola Tesla
    Awards: Elliott Cresson Medal, John Scott Legacy Medal and Premium, IEEE Edison Medal
    Education: Graz University of Technology
  • Taking 'commerce and Christianity' into Africa

    David Livingstone urges upon a Cambridge audience the high ideal of taking 'commerce and Christianity' into Africa Russian exile Alexander Herzen, publishes in London a radical newspaper called Kolokol (The Bell) Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke set off from Bagamoyo in their search for the source of the Nile
  • the Victoria Cross

    1857 In Tom Brown's Schooldays Thomas Hughes depicts the often brutal aspects of an English public school Acts of exceptional valour in the Crimean War are rewarded with a new medal, the Victoria Cross, made from the metal of captured Russian guns
  • The India Act places India under the direct control of the British government

    Palmerston's government collapses and Lord Derby heads another Conservative minority administration Burton and Speke reach Lake Tanganyika at Ujiji, a place later famous for the meeting between Livingstone and Stanley Brunel dies just before the maiden voyage of his gigantic final project, the luxury liner The Great Eastern The India Act places India under the direct control of the British government, ending the rule of the East India Company
  • George Eliot wins fame with her first full-length novel

    1859 FEBRUARY English author George Eliot wins fame with her first full-length novel, Adam Bede
  • The first great opera house in America

    1859
    The French Opera House, the first great opera house in America, is built in New Orleans.
  • Florence Nightingale opens a training school for nurses in St Thomas's Hospital

    1860 Florence Nightingale opens a training school for nurses in St Thomas's Hospital, establishing nursing as a profession Charles Dickens begins serial publication of his novel "Great Expectations" (in book form 1861) George Eliot publishes The Mill on the Floss, her novel about the childhood of Maggie and Tom Tulliver
  • Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

    1862 Oxford mathematician Lewis Carroll tells 10-year-old Alice Liddell, on a boat trip, a story about her own adventures in Wonderland
  • The Metropolitan Railway

    British architect George Gilbert Scott designs a memorial for Prince Albert in Kensington Gardens English author Charles Kingsley publishes an improving fantasy for young children,The Water-Babies The Metropolitan Railway, the world's first to go underground, opens in London using steam trains between Paddington and Farringdon Street 48-year-old Julia Margaret Cameron is given a camera by her daughter, in the Isle of Wight, and decides to concentrate on portraits
  • Discoveries in the field of electromagnetics - Maxwell's Equations

    1864 The Marylebone Cricket Club, arbiter of cricket, finally rules that overarm bowling is legitimate The First International is established in London, with Karl Marx soon emerging as the association's leader Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell presents to the Royal Society his discoveries in the field of electromagnetics, now known collectively as Maxwell's Equations
  • the first variety theater in New York.

    1865
    Former circus clown Tony Pastor opens the first variety theater in New York.
  • A committee to campaign for women's suffrage is formed in Manchester

    English surgeon Joseph Lister introduces the era of antiseptic surgery, with the use of carbolic acid in the operating theatre Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, a development of the story he had told Alice Liddell three years earlier A committee to campaign for women's suffrage is formed in Manchester, the first of many in Britain Palmerston dies in office, and is succeeded as leader of the Liberal government in Britain by his foreign secretary, Earl Russell
  • Pressure group for penal reform in Britain

    1866 A pressure group for penal reform in Britain is named after the great prison reformer John Howard Russell's government falls, and Lord Derby returns for the third time, but again briefly, as Britain's prime minister Algernon Swinburne scandalizes Victorian Britain with his first collection, Poems and Ballads
  • Unionists

    Those in Britain's Liberal party opposing Home Rule for Ireland become a separate group under the name of Unionists
  • Britain's new Reform Act extends the franchise to working men in British towns

    Britain's new Reform Act extends the franchise to working men in British towns The first volume of Das Kapital is completed by Marx in London and is published in Hamburg The world's first croquet tournament takes place in Evesham and is won by Walter Jones-Whitmore The Queensberry rules, named after the Marquess of Queensberry, introduce padded gloves in boxing, and rounds of three minutes
  • burlesque

    1868
    Lydia Thompson and her British Blondes bring burlesque to the United States.
  • Executions take place in public for the last time in London

    1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes British prime minister for the first time, at the head of a Conservative government, but only for a few months Executions take place in public for the last time in London, being moved from outside Newgate Gaol to inside the prison Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone becomes British prime minister, for the first of four times, and remains in office for six years
  • Prime minister William Gladstone introduces a bill to disestablish the Anglican church in Ireland

    1869 English author Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy, an influential collection of essays about contemporary society British prime minister William Gladstone introduces a bill to disestablish the Anglican church in Ireland The most famous of the three-masted tea-clippers, the Cutty Sark is launched at Dumbarton for service to and from China
  • French artist Claude Monet arrives in London

    1870 French artist Claude Monet, fleeing from the Franco-Prussian War, arrives in London Isaac Butt, an Irish MP at Westminster, founds the Home Rule association The all-round English cricketer W.G. Grace begins a 28-year career as captain of Gloucestershire
  • Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda

    1871
    Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda premieres in Cairo, Egypt.
    The first collaboration of W.S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan, Thespis, is performed at London's Gaiety Theatre.
  • George Eliot publishes Middlemarch

    Whistler paints his mother and calls the picture Arrangement in Grey and Black English actor Henry Irving plays what becomes one of his most famous parts, that of Mathias in the melodrama The Bells Stanley, finding Livingstone at Ujiji, greets him with four words which become famous – 'Dr Livingstone, I presume' George Eliot publishes Middlemarch, in which Dorothea makes a disastrous marriage to the pedantic Edward Casaubon
  • The Ballot Act adds to the British electoral system the essential element of secrecy in voting

    1872 The Ballot Act adds to the British electoral system the essential element of secrecy in voting Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking Glass, a second story of Alice's adventures
  • Thomas Hardy has his first success with his novel Far from the Madding Crowd

    1874 Conservative leader Benjamin Disraeli, at the age of 70, begins a 6-year term of office as Britain's prime minister Major Walter Wingfield secures a patent for Sphairistike, a game he has developed at his home in Wales, from which lawn tennis evolves English author Thomas Hardy has his first success with his novel Far from the Madding Crowd
  • William Crookes invents the radiometer

    Charles Stewart Parnell takes his seat in the House of Commons at Westminster and immediately adds zest to the campaign for Home Rule William Crookes invents the radiometer, in which light causes four vanes to rotate in a bulb containing gas at low pressure After spending much time in Europe in recent years, Henry James moves there permanently and settles first in Paris
  • An agreement is signed between France and Britain

    Benjamin Disraeli buys for Britain a controlling share in the Suez Canal, with money borrowed from Lionel Nathan de Rothschild An agreement is signed between France and Britain to cooperate in the construction of a tunnel beneath the Channel Henry James's early novel Roderick Hudson is serialized in the Atlantic Monthly and is published in book form in 1876
  • India becomes the 'jewel in the crown' of Queen Victoria

    The chaotic government finances of Egypt are placed under joint French and British control William Gladstone's pamphlet Bulgarian Horrors, protesting at massacre by the Turks, sells 200,000 copies within a month Henry James moves to London, which remains his home for the next 22 years India becomes the 'jewel in the crown' of Queen Victoria when Benjamin Disraeli secures for her the title Empress of India
  • complete production of Wagner's Ring

    1876
    The first complete production of Wagner's Ring, a titanic cycle of four musical dramas, opens the first Bayreuth Festival.
  • Gerard Manley Hopkins develops a new verse form that he calls 'sprung rhythm

    English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins develops a new verse form that he calls 'sprung rhythm' English cricketer W.G. Grace scores a record 344 runs, playing for the Marylebone Cricket Club against Kent at Canterbury Lewis Carroll publishes The Hunting of the Snark, a poem about a voyage in search of an elusive mythical creature
  • The first Test match is played in Melbourne between English and Australian cricket teams

    1877 The first Test match is played in Melbourne between English and Australian cricket teams, with victory going to Australia The first lawn-tennis championships are organized by the All-England Croquet Club at Wimbledon
  • William Crookes develops a special tube for the study of cathode rays

    On a wave of jingoism Benjamin Disraeli sends six British ironclads, in support of Turkey, to confront the Russians near Istanbul William Crookes develops a special tube, now known as the Crookes tube, for the study of cathode rays English-born US photographer Eadweard Muybridge publishes closely linked photographs revealing how a horse goes through its paces Stanley agrees to work for Leopold II in opening up the Congo river to commerce
  • Joseph Swan demonstrates a practical electric light bulb

    English physicist Joseph Swan demonstrates a practical electric light bulb, using an incandescent carbon filament in a vacuum 21-year-old Joseph Conrad, a Polish subject, goes to sea with the British merchant navy
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. He is best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc². - Wikipedia Born: March 14, 1879, Ulm, Germany
    Died: April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    Spouse: Elsa Einstein (m. 1919–1936), Mileva Marić (m. 1903–1919)
    Children: Eduard Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein, Lieserl Einstein,Margot Löwenthal, Ilse Löwenthal
  • Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House

    1879
    Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House, a revolutionary play that centers on the repression of women, deeply offends conservatives and thrills a newly awakened European conscience when it premieres at the Copenhagen's Royal Theatre.
  • A train falls into the river Tay in Scotland

    The ancient Irish game of hurling is formalized by the newly founded Irish Hurling Union English physicist Joseph Swan receives a patent for bromide paper, which becomes the standard material for printing photographs An entire train, full of passengers, falls into the river Tay in Scotland when a bridge collapses in a winter gale Henry James's story Daisy Miller, about an American girl abroad, brings him a new readership
  • Gladstone replaces Disraeli as Britain's prime minister

    1880 For the second time Gladstone replaces Disraeli as Britain's prime minister, following a Liberal election victory over the Conservatives
  • The first modern cabaret

    1881
    The first modern cabaret, Le Chat Noir (The Black Cat), opens in Paris.
    London's Savoy Theatre opens and is the first to be lit by electricity.
    Vaudeville debuts at Tony Pastor's New 14th Street Theater in New York.
  • The Aesthetic Movement and 'art for art's sake'

    1881 The Tynwald in the Isle of Man becomes the first parliament to give women the vote London's new Savoy Theatre is the first public building in the world to be lit throughout by electricity The Aesthetic Movement and 'art for art's sake', attitudes personified above all by Whistler and Wilde, are widely mocked and satirized in Britain
  • rish chief secretary Lord Frederick Cavendish and a colleague are assassinated

    1882 Eadweard Muybridge projects slow-motion images of a trotting horse as a demonstration at London's Royal Institution Irish chief secretary Lord Frederick Cavendish and a colleague are assassinated in Phoenix Park in Dublin When Australia win the second Test match, in London, the Sporting Times declares that they will take home with them 'the ashes of English cricket'
  • The Metropolitan Opera House opens in New York

    1883
    The Metropolitan Opera House opens in New York with Gounod's Faust.
  • Francis Galton developes the theme of eugenics

    1883 Lord Napier heads a Royal Commission to look into the condition of crofters after the Battle of the Braes in Skye English polymath Francis Galton publishes Inquiries in Human Faculty, developing the theme of eugenics and coining the term Robert Louis Stevenson's adventure story, Treasure Island, features Long John Silver and Ben Gunn
  • A new Reform Act in Britain further reduces the financial threshold for voters in Britain

    The British empire is first described as a 'Commonwealth of Nations', by Lord Rosebery speaking in Australia English socialists, including Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb, found the Fabian Society as part of a long-term political strategy A new Reform Act in Britain further reduces the financial threshold for voters in Britain, in effect extending the franchise to male workers in rural areas Greenwich becomes accepted internationally as the prime meridian, or 0° longitude
  • Fabian Society publishes Manifesto by George Bernard Shaw

    The newly founded Fabian Society publishes Manifesto by George Bernard Shaw The Gaelic Athletic Association is founded in Ireland to promote indigenous games such as hurling Oxford University Press publishes the A volume of its New English Dictionary, which will take 37 years to reach Z
  • Gladstone resigns as British prime minister

    Explorer and orientalist Richard Burton begins publication of his multi-volume translation from the Arabic of The Arabian Nights Gladstone resigns as British prime minister, after a defeat on the budget, and is followed by a minority government headed by Conservative leader Lord Salisbury The American portrait-painter John Singer Sargent makes London his home and begins an immensely successful career
  • Home Rule for Ireland splits the Liberal party in Britain's House of Commons

    Gladstone becomes Britain's prime minister again, after joining forces with the Irish Nationalists to defeat Lord Salisbury's government Gladstone's bill promising Home Rule for Ireland splits the Liberal party in Britain's House of Commons Robert Louis Stevenson introduces a dual personality in his novel The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde The split in the Liberal party over Home Rule results in a defeat for Gladstone and the return of Lord Salisbury as Britain's prime minister
  • publication of his Historia Plantarum

    1686 English naturalist John Ray begins publication of his Historia Plantarum, classifying some 18,600 plants in 'mutual fertility' species
  • The Crofters' Holdings Act

    The Crofters' Holdings Act provides security of tenure and other safeguards for Highland crofters in Scotland The Home Rule campaign for Ireland prompts a Scottish Home Rule Association to fight in a related cause Thomas Hardy publishes his novel The Mayor of Casterbridge, which begins with the future mayor, Michael Henchard selling his wife and child at a fair Joseph Conrad becomes naturalized as a British subject and continues his career at sea in the far East
  • Sherlock Holmes

    Sherlock Holmes features in Conan Doyle's first novel, A Study in Scarlet Queen Victoria's golden jubilee brings her back into the public's affection A gathering of leaders from the British empire holds a colonial conference in London to coincide with Queen Victoria's jubilee Eadweard Muybridge publishes Animal Locomotion, a folio volume containing 781 pages of photographs
  • Jack the Ripper

    1888 William Lever builds Port Sunlight as a model village for workers in his Sunlight Soap factory An undetected murderer, slitting the throats of seven London prostitutes, becomes known by the public as Jack the Ripper
  • The Fabian Society publishes Essays in Socialisman

    23-year-old Irish author William Butler Yeats publishes his first volume of poems, The Wanderings of Oisin English musicologist George Grove completes publication of his four-volumeDictionary of Music and Musicians Charles Steward Parnell is cited as co-respondent in a divorce case brought against Kitty O'Shea The Fabian Society publishes Essays in Socialisman influential volume of essays edited by Bernard Shaw
  • Modern dance

    1890
    Modern dance emerges when choreographers and dancers begin to rebel against traditional ballet.
  • First electric underground railway

    A vast cantilever bridge, spanning a mile of water, carries the railway across the Firth of Forth in Scotland The world's first electric underground railway passes under the Thames, linking the City of London and Stockwell Scottish anthropologist James Frazer publishes The Golden Bough, a massive compilation of contemporary knowledge about ritual and religious custom 9-year-old Daisy Ashford imagines an adult romance and high society in The Young Visiters
  • Britain cedes the tiny island of Heligoland to Germany

    Britain cedes the tiny island of Heligoland to Germany in return for vast areas of Africa A Gaelic pressure group, the Highland Association, is founded to preserve the indigenous poetry and music of Scotland Oscar Wilde publishes his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray in which the ever-youthful hero's portrait grows old and ugly Thomas Hardy publishes his novel Tess of the Durbervilles, with a dramatic finale at Stonehenge
  • Yeats founds the National Literary Society in Dublin

    Oscar Wilde's comedy Lady Windermere's Fan is a great success with audiences in London's St. James Theatre W.B. Yeats founds the National Literary Society in Dublin, with Douglas Hyde as its first president W.B. Yeats publishes a short play The Countess Cathleen, his first contribution to Irish poetic drama Bernard Shaw's first play, Widowers' Houses, deals with the serious social problem of slum landlords
  • The Falkland Islands become a British colony

    Keir Hardie wins the London seat of West Ham, becoming the first Labour member of the House of Commons Gladstone, becoming prime minister for the fourth time, is described by the queen as 'an old, wild and incomprehensible man of eighty two and a half' The Falkland Islands, by now occupied by some 2000 settlers, become a British colony Mr Pooter is the suburban anti-hero of the The Diary of a Nobody, by George and Weedon Grossmith
  • The Independent Labour Party is founded in Britain

    An aluminium statue of Eros, by English sculptor Alfred Gilbert, is unveiled in Piccadilly Circus The Independent Labour Party, later changing its name to the Labour Party, is founded in Britain by the trade unionist Keir Hardie Gladstone finally gets a Home Rule bill through the Commons, only to have it rejected in the Lords
  • Frank Hornby patents his Meccano construction system

    Frank Hornby patents in Liverpool his Meccano construction system for children The Gaelic League is founded to restore the use of Gaelic as Ireland's spoken language The Scottish game of shinty is provided with a standardized set of rules
  • London's Tower Bridge raises its roadway for the first time

    Gladstone retires as Britain's prime minister and his place is taken by his foreign secretary, Lord Rosebery French-born artist and author George du Maurier publishes his novel Trilby Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book surrounds the child Mowgli with a collection of vivid animal guardians London's Tower Bridge raises its roadway for the first time to let a ship pass up the Thames
  • William Ramsay isolates argon

    Scottish physicist William Ramsay isolates argon, following Rayleigh's discovery that an undiscovered gas combines with nitrogen in the air Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, is convicted of treason and sent to Devil's Island in French Guiana
  • Oscar Wilde is sent to Reading Gaol

    Oscar Wilde's most brilliant comedy, The Importance of Being Earnest is performed in London's St. James Theatre Oscar Wilde loses a libel case that he has brought against the marquess of Queensberry for describing him as a sodomite Oscar Wilde is sent to Reading Gaol to serve a two-year sentence with hard labour after being convicted of homosexuality Scottish chemist William Ramsay isolates the element helium
  • Rosebery's Liberal government suffers a defeat in the House of Commons

    Lord Rosebery's Liberal government suffers a defeat in the House of Commons, and Lord Salisbury returns as Britain's prime minister H.G. Wells publishes The Time Machine, a story about a Time Traveller whose first stop on his journey is the year 802701 Gwen John persuades a reluctant father to allow her to follow her younger brother to the Slade School of Art in London A promenade concert, presented by Henry Wood in London's Queen's Hall, turns out to be the beginning of a very long tradition
  • Guglielmo Marconi takes out a patent in Britain for the invention of radio

    1896 English poet A.E. Housman publishes his first collection, A Shropshire Lad 22-year-old Guglielmo Marconi takes out a patent in Britain for the invention of radio
  • Joseph John Thomson discovers the existence of the electron

    English physicist Joseph John Thomson, working at the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge, discovers the existence of the electron Diamond Jubilee bonfires and fireworks all round Britain celebrate Victoria's sixty years on the throne Turbinia, powered by the newly invented Parsons steam turbine, breaks the speed record when Queen Victoria reviews her fleet
  • Bram Stoker publishes Dracula

    Somerset Maugham publishes his first novel, Liza of Lambeth, based on the London life he has observed as a medical student English author Bram Stoker publishes Dracula, his gothic tale of vampirism in Transylvania British physician Ronald Ross identifies the Anopheles mosquito as the carrier of malaria
  • Isolated elements of Kr, neon and xenon

    British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element Kr Henry James moves from London to Lamb House in Rye, Sussex, which remains his home for the rest of his life British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element neon British chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers isolate the element xenon
  • A factory for the purpose of manufacturing radios

    H.G. Wells publishes his science-fiction novel The War of the Worlds, in which Martians arrive in a rocket to invade earth Marconi launches a factory in Chelmsford, England, for the purpose of manufacturing radios ('wirelesses' in the language of the time) English town-planner Ebenezer Howard puts forward a Utopian scheme in Tomorrow a Peaceful Path to Real Reform Henry James publishes The Turn of the Screw in a collection of short stories
  • Period: to

    The Boer War

    The Boer War breaks out, ostensibly over the rights of British settlers in the Transvaal Within a single 'Black Week' the British forces in South Africa suffer three defeats, at Stromberg, Magersfontein and Colenso
  • Guglielmo Marconi succeeds in transmitting a wireless telegraph message across the English Channel

    Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi succeeds in transmitting a wireless telegraph message across the English Channel Edward Elgar teases with the word 'enigma' printed at the head of his orchestralVariations on an Original Theme E. Nesbit publishes The Story of the Treasure Seekers, introducing the Bastable family who feature in several of her books for children
  • The Conservatives win an increased majority during the Boer War

    Isadora Duncan dances professionally for the first time in Europe in London's Lyceum Theatre Scottish music-hall artist Harry Lauder makes his first London appearance at Gatti's music hall in Westminster David Belasco's play Madame Butterfly has its premiere in New York, and is subsequently seen in London by Giacomo Puccini The Conservatives win an increased majority during the Boer War, in what becomes known as the 'khaki election'
  • Floradora sextet

    1900
    Floradora opens at Broadway's Casino Theatre. It introduces the Floradora sextet, a predecessor to the chorus line.
  • Edward Elgar writes the oratorio Dream of Gerontius

    Keir Hardie is returned to parliament for Merthyr Tydfil, beginning a long and close link between the Labour party and Wales. Charles Stewart Rolls wins the Automobile Club's Thousand Mile Trial in a 12 horse-power Panhard The Irish Parliamentary Party, which split after the Parnell divorce case, reunites under the leadership of John Redmond Edward Elgar writes the oratorio Dream of Gerontius, setting Cardinal Newman's poem of the same title
  • revolutionary Stanislavski Method of acting

    1901
    Founder of the Moscow Art Theatre, Konstantin Stanislavski formulates the revolutionary Stanislavski Method of acting, which requires actors to see and hear on stage as they do in real life, enabling them to react to theatrical situations in the same way they would in real life. He is credited with launching the age of the great director in modern theater.
  • impressionism

    1902
    Claude Debussy introduces impressionism in Pelléas and Mélisande at the Opéra Comique in Paris.
  • The London Symphony Orchestra is established

    1904
    The London Symphony Orchestra is established.
    Anton Chekhov introduces modern realism at the premiere of The Cherry Orchard at the Moscow Art Theatre.
  • first school of modern dance

    1905
    Isadora Duncan establishes the first school of modern dance in Berlin.
  • Florenz Ziegfeld introduces his Ziegfeld Follies

    1907
    Florenz Ziegfeld introduces his Ziegfeld Follies, the legendary musical extravaganzas.
  • begins the era of modern ballet

    1909
    Serge Diaghilev opens the Ballets Russes de Serge Diaghilev, which begins the era of modern ballet and his 20-year reign as ballet's leading figure. Moving away from full-length works characteristic of Romantic ballet, he creates new, shorter ballets. Mikhail Fokine is Diaghilev's choreographer and is considered the most influential choreographer of the 20th century.
  • Der Rosenkavalier

    1911
    Der Rosenkavalier, Richard Strauss's masterpiece, premieres in Dresden.
  • Darktown Follies opens in Harlem

    1913
    Darktown Follies opens in Harlem and helps to make Harlem a black cultural center.
  • Denishawn dance school

    1915
    Ruth St. Denis and her husband, Ted Shawn, establish the Denishawn dance school in Los Angeles, where Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey study.
  • beginning of modern American drama

    1920
    Eugene O'Neill's first full-length play, Beyond the Horizon, is produced on Broadway and wins a Pulitzer Prize, marking the beginning of modern American drama.
    Rising popular interest in African-American literature sparks the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • The Cleveland Playhouse opens

    1921
    The Cleveland Playhouse opens, becoming the country's first resident professional theater.
  • "robot."

    1922
    Karel Capek's play R.U.R. debuts, introducing the word "robot."
  • Harlem's Cotton Club opens

    1923
    Harlem's Cotton Club opens and presents all-black performances to white-only audiences. Entertainers include Lena Horne, the Nicholas Brothers and Cab Calloway.
  • Martha Graham gives her first New York performance

    1926
    Martha Graham, the American pioneer of the modern-dance revolt, gives her first New York performance, which features 18 barefoot, evocatively costumed dancers.
  • The Broadway musical links with opera

    1927
    The Broadway musical links with opera in Jerome Kern's revolutionary Show Boat.
    Dancer Isadora Duncan dies when her scarf gets caught in the wheel of a moving car.
  • Stage Lighting

    1930
    Jean Rosenthal, one of the greatest lighting designers in theater history, pioneers the concept of stage lighting.