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Youngblut: European Absolutism & Global Exploration

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Youngblut European Absolutism–Exploration

  • Oct 3, 1517

    Protestant Revolution Begins

  • Aug 15, 1519

    Cortes Captures Tenochtitlan: End of the Aztec Empire

    Cortes led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
  • Period: Oct 4, 1519 to Oct 4, 1556

    Charles V: HRE & Spain

    Was the Grandson of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
    Carried the title of Holy Roman Emperor – making him the ruler of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
    Was constantly at war with France, Protestants and Ottoman Empire.
  • Apr 7, 1533

    Pizarro Captures Cuzco: End of the Inca

    After the Spanish had sealed the conquest of Peru by taking Cuzco in 1533, Jauja in the fertile Mantaro Valley was established as Peru's provisional capital in April 1534. But it was too far up in the mountains and far from the sea to serve as the Spanish capital of Peru. Pizarro thus founded the city of Lima in Peru's central coast on 18 January 1535, a foundation that he considered as one of the most important things he had created in life.
  • Period: Jun 27, 1550 to May 30, 1574

    Charles IX: HRE & Spain

    Charles IX was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici. This event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, crippled the Huguenot movement.
  • Period: Jul 25, 1554 to

    Philip II: HRE & Spain

    Son of Charles V
    Ruled Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy and Americas.
    Centralized power in Spain.
    Absolute Monarch
    Considered himself the Guardian of the Catholic Church
    Was at war with the Netherlands and Ottomans
    Created the Golden Century.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg Established

    It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Oct 3, 1555

    Calvanism spreads to France

    Genevan Company of Pators arms preists with false passports and secretly spread Calvanism in Catholic France
  • Oct 3, 1559

    Death of Henry II

    Jousting Accedent
  • Period: Jun 19, 1566 to

    James I: England

    Quickly alienated Parliament
    Alienated the Puritans when he defended the Anglican Church
    Many of the Landed gentry had become Puritans.
    Made up a large part of the House of Commons
  • Period: Oct 9, 1568 to

    Spain/Netherlands: 80 years War

    Dutch War of Independence, began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against Spain Under the leadership of the exiled William of Orange, the northern provinces continued their resistance and managed to oust the Habsburg armies and, in 1581, established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas, although the heartland of the republiwas no longer threatened. The war ended with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an free nation.
  • Oct 3, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    was a battle that took place when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire in five hours of fighting on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece. The Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto met the Holy League forces, which had come from Messina. The victory of the Holy League prevented the Ottoman Empire expanding further along the European Med
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Massacre

    The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place four days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Naavarre (the future Henry IV of France).
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    Cardinal Richelieu

    Consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered.
  • Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    OOn 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. A combination of miscalculation,[116] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast defeated the Armada.[117] The Armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnantsWhen no invasion came, the nation rejoiced.
  • Edict of Nantes

    The Edict of Nantes, iissued by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. In the Edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.[1] The Edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell: England

    Officer of the Parliamentary Army “The New Model Army”
    Led the army that defeated royal forces and controlled the government.
  • Shakespeare Hamlet

  • Period: to

    Cardinal Mazarin: France

    Jules Mazarin, was an Italian Catholic cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. Mazarin was not liked by ordinary Frenchmen. In Paris in 1648, popular discontent erupted into open violence. This started the Fronde. Louis XIV disliked him and his policies.
  • Don Quixote

  • Gunpowder Plot

    The attempt by Catholics to kill King James I and most of the Protestant aristocracy
    Blew up the House of Lords during the state opening of Parliament.
    Later becomes known and celebrated as Guy Fawkes Day
  • France claims Quebec

    Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. Champlain's Habitation de Québec, built as a permanent fur trading outpost, was where he would forge a trading, and ultimately a military alliance, with the Algonquin and Huron. Natives traded their furs for many French goods.
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    Louis XIII: France

    Reduced the power of the nobility.
    Restricted local authorities
    Created intendants: individuals given to government officials, especially administrators of state affairs.
  • Spain Captures the Phillipines

    Est. of a Catholic mission and university on the island of Tagalog
  • Defenstraion in Prague

    Start of the 30 years war
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Initially, it was fought largely as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, although disputes over internal politics and the balance of power within the Empire played a significant part. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of the time.
  • Bohemian nobles revolt

    Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V. However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics, and in 1617, Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates. This eventually devolved into the 30 Years War.
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    France: Jean-Baptiste Colbert

    French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. Colbert worked to to create a favourable balance of trade and increase France's colonial holdings. Inventor of Mercantilism.
  • The Mayflower arrives in Plymouth

  • Dutch Explorers Settle Manhatten

  • Peace of Westphalia

    These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
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    Charles I: English

    Believed in elaborate ceremonies and rituals.
    Uniformity of church was imposed by a church court.
    Anglican Book of Common Prayer
    For both England and Scotland
    Constantly at war with Spain and France
    Parliament would give financial funds from taxes to fund the wars
    Periodically, Parliament would deny funds;
    Charles would dissolve Parliament and rule England with them.
    Was forced to sell aristocratic titles and positions in order to finance his war
    Believed to be pro-Catholic by the Puritans
  • Hugo Grotius: The Laws of War and Peace

    Grotius was a jurist in the Dutch Republic. he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, historiographer and poet.On the Law of War and Peace was first published in 1625, dedicated to Grotius' current patron, Louis XIII. The treatise advances a system of principles of natural law, which are held to be binding on all people and nations regardless of local custom.
  • Period: to

    France: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet

    We have seen that kings take the place of God, who is the true father of the human species. We have also seen that the rrst idea of power which exisß among men is that of the paternal power; and that kings are modeled on fathers
  • Petition of Rights

    In return form money to fund his wars, Charles I agreed to:
    No Imprisonment without due cause
    No taxation without Parliament’s consent
    No putting soldiers in private homes
    No martial law during peacetime
    He signed and then ignored by dissolving Parliament.
  • Period: to

    Charles II: England

    Restored the theatres and reopened the pubs and brothels.
    Favored religious toleration
    Had secret Catholic sympathies
  • Period: to

    James II: England

    A bigoted convert to Catholicism without any of Charles II’s ability to compromise
    Alienated the Tories
    Provoked the revolution that Charles II had avoided
    Surrounded himeself with Catholics
    Claimed the power to suspend or dispense with Acts of Parliament
    Declaration of Liberty of Consccience
    Extended religious toleration without Parliament’s approval
  • Period: to

    Franco-Spanish War

    The Franco-Spanish War was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War. After the German allies of Sweden were forced to seek terms with the Holy Roman Empire, the first French minister, Cardinal Richelieu, declared war on Spain because French territory was surrounded by Habsburg territories. The Franco-Spanish War ended in 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
  • France joins the 30 Years War

  • Period: to

    Louis XIV: France

    Effective centralization of authority into the hands of one monarch
    Had limitations and power sharing Creation of a National Army
    Makes Versailles the center of Government
    Elaborate court rules and life
    Promotes the image of “The Sun King.” – God’s representative on earth
    Centralization of Government
    Builds up royal administration
    Expanded intendant system
    Decreases other forms of authority
    Establishes Religious unification
    “One king, one law, one faith”
    Revoked the Edict of Nantes
  • The Short Parliament begins

    Parliament was not held for 20 years
    Rebellion in Scotland
    Charles needed money for war with France
    Called Parliament into session in 1640
    MPs demand more protection of property
    Charles I dismissed Parliament after 3 weeks
  • Period: to

    The Long Parliament

    Triennial Act: Stated that Parliament must be called into session at least once every 3 years
    Charles I attempts to arrest 5 MPS and fails
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    English Alliance

  • Populations in N. America on the Rise

    N. England has 50,000 settlers
    N. France has 3,000 settlers
  • Period: to

    Brandenburg-Prussia: Reign of William of Hohenzollern

    Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia
    Welded scattered lands into an absolutist state.
    Increased his army and brokered deals with the Junkers (nobility) in order to secure absolutist rule. Spread Calvanism.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    Royalists: Belonged to the House of Lords, From North and West England, Mostly Aristocracy and landowners, Church officials, Mostly rural
    Parliamentarians: Known as Roundheads, Mostly from the House of Commons, South and East England, Puritans, Merchants, townspeople and more urban
  • England: Levellers protest

    he Levellers were a political movement during the English Civil War which emphasised popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law, and religious tolerance, all of which were expressed in the manifesto "Agreement of the People". They came to prominence at the end of the First English Civil War and were most influential before the start of the Second Civil War. Leveller views and support were found in the populace of the City of London and in some regiments in the New Model Army
  • Pride's Purge

    Cromwell purges the House of Commons of moderates
    The result of the Purge was the “Rump” Parliament
    The vote by the Rump Parliament was a vote of 68 - 67
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    The Fronde: France

    The Fronde occured in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The Fronde was a civil war between the nobles who were Protestant and Cardinal Mazarin who represented the king and was Catholic. Louis XIV, impressed as a young ruler with the experience of the Fronde, came to reorganize French fighting forces under a stricter hierarchy . The Fronde finally resulted in the disempowerment of the territorial aristocracy and the emergence of absolute monarchy.
  • Charles I beheaded

    With the monarchy overthrown, England became a republic or "Commonwealth". The House of Lords was abolished by the Rump Commons, and executive power was assumed by a Council of State. All significant military opposition in Britain and Ireland was extinguished by the forces of Oliver Cromwell in the Third English Civil War. Cromwell forcibly disbanded the Rump Parliament in 1653, thereby establishing The Protectorate with himself as Lord Protector. Parliament was reinstated.
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    Commonwealth (The "Interregnum" Period)

    Cromwell ruled the Rump Parliament
    Constitutional Republic
    Created a constitution – Instrument of Government
    Created a Council of State that was annually elected from the committee of Parliament
    NO Monarch
    Most of Europe does not recognize the new government
  • New Russian Legal code enacted

    This was a legal code established in 1649 by the Zemsky Sobor under Alexis of Russia.
    The code consolidated Russia's slaves and free peasants into a new serf class and pronounced class hereditary as unchangeable (see Russian serfdom) The new code prohibited travel between towns without an internal passport. Russian nobility agreed to serve in the army, but were granted serfs. This became the last official use of feudalism in Europe.
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    England: Cromwell's Irish Campaign

    Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland from 1649–50. Parliament's key opposition was the military threat posed by the alliance of the Irish Confederate Catholics and English royalists . The Confederate-Royalist alliance was judged to be the biggest single threat facing the Commonwealth. In the wake of the Commonwealth's conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were killed when captured. All Catholic-owned land droped from 60% to 8%.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes Levitithan

    Levithan is a book written by Thomas Hobbes. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan is comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War, it argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute leader Hobbes wrote that civil war and situations identified with a state of nature could only be averted by strong central government.
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    Navigation Acts

    The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies, a process which had started in 1651. Their goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England, and stop direct colonial trade with the Netherlands, France, and other European countries. These Acts also formed the basis for British overseas trade for nearly 200 years.
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    The Protectorate (the "Interregnum" Period)

    Cromwell dissolved the “Rump” Parliament in 1653
    Declares martial law
    Establishes a Military dictator
    Religious tolerance for all except for Catholics
    Crushes a rebellion in Scotland
    Crushes a rebellion among the Catholics of Ireland – killed 40% of all ethnic Irish.
  • Treaty of the Pyrenees

    The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed to end the 1635 to 1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
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    1st Anglo-Dutch War

    The war started prematurely with a skirmish between the Dutch fleet of Maarten Tromp and Blake off Folkestone on 29 May 1652, the Battle of Goodwin Sands. The proper war started in June with an English campaign against the Dutch East Indies, Baltic and fishing trades by Blake, in command of around 60 ships. Peace with the Dutch achieved, Blake sailed in October 1654 with 24 warships to the Mediterranean, successfully deterring the Duke of Guise from conquering Naples.
  • "Cavalier" Parliament

    Filled with Royalists
    Disbanded the Puritan army and pardoned most Puritan rebels
    Restored the authority of the Church of England
  • Barbados institutes landmark slave codes

    The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados. The code's preamble, which stated that the law's purpose was to "protect the slaves as we do men's other goods and Chattels," established that black slaves would be treated as chattel property in the island's court.
  • Clarendon Code [Act of Uniformity]

    All clergy & church officials had to conform to the Anglican Book of Common Prayers
    Forbade “non-conformists” to worship publicly, teach their faith, or attend English universities.
  • Moliere: Tartuffe preformed

    Molière wrote Tartuffe in 1664. King Louis XIV almost immediately censored the play following its first performance that same year at the Versailles fêtes, probably due to the influence of the archbishop of Paris. As a result of Molière's play, contemporary French and English both use the word "tartuffe" to designate a hypocrite who ostensibly and exaggeratedly feigns virtue. especially religious virtue. An example of cultural absolutism.
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    When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarch
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    2nd Anglo-Dutch War

    The Second Anglo-Dutch War was part of a series of four Anglo-Dutch Wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade. After initial English successes, the war ended in a decisive Dutch victory.
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    War of Devolution: France

    The War of Devolution (1667–68) saw Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté, but forced to give most of it back by a Triple Alliance of England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
  • Russia: Stenka Razin's Rebellion

    Outlaws and rebels seize southern Russia and promise freedom for the serf class. Rebels are soon crushed and dismembered. Rebellion will not be tried for several hunderd years.
  • Ukraine annexed by Russia

    Ukrainian Cossacks (nobles) offer Ukraine and its capital to the Russians.
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    Peter the Great (I)

    Westernized Russia
    Had 400 years of development to catch up with
    Became an absolute monarch
    Followed in the model of European monarchs
    Attempted to make the boyars too weak to challenge him
    Removed private armies
    Required boyars into courtiers and join the government and military
    Required courtiers to dress in western fashion
    Built fabulous new churches in the western style
    Humiliated courtiers
    Imprisoned and tortured non followers
    Forced labor
  • Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet explore the Mississippi

    French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi in the 17th century. Marquette traveled with a Sioux Indian who named it Ne Tongo ("Big river" in Sioux language) in 1673. Marquette proposed calling it the River of the Immaculate Conception.
  • Test Act

    Parliament excluded all but Anglicans from civilian and military positions.
    Puritans were considered “radicals” and Catholics were seen as “traitors”
  • Louis XIV decrees absolute power to the parlements

    Louis decrees that no body in the french court can speak out against him or vote against him on pain of death.
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    3rd Anglo-Dutch War

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    Treaty of Nijmegen

    were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. The most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic, and placed the northern border of France in very nearly its modern position.
  • Madame de Layette: the Princess of Cleves published

    La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel. It is regarded by many as the beginning of the modern tradition of the psychological novel, and as a great classic work. Its author is generally held to be Madame de La Fayette. The action takes place at the royal court of Henry II of France. The novel recreates that era with remarkable precision. Nearly every character – except the heroine – is a historical figure. Events and intrigues unfold with great faithfulness to documentary record.
  • Habeas Corpus Act

    Any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus compelling the government to explain why he had lost his liberty.
  • War breaks between Austria and the Ottomans

    Turks beseige Vienna but the Poles and Transylvanian cavarly break the attack and save the country. War lasts for approx 6-7 years until Treaty of Karlowitz.
  • La Salle Claims Louisiana Territory for France

    n 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France, calling the river Colbert River after Jean-Baptiste Colbert and the region La Louisiane, for King Louis XIV. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville rediscovered the mouth of the Mississippi, following the death of La Salle. The French built the small fort of La Balise there to control passage.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes or the Edict of Fontainebleau

    The Edict of Fontainebleau was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France. The Edict of Nantes had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state. Though Protestants had lost their independence, they continued to live in comparative security and political contentment. The lack of universal adherence to his religion did not sit well with Louis XIV's vision of perfected autocracy: "Bending all else to his will, Louis XIV resented the presence of heretics
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.
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    War of the League of Augsburg

    The War of the League of Augsburg – was a major war of the late 17th century fought between King Louis XIV of France, and the Grand Alliance, le Holy Roman Empire Spain, Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire.Using a combination of aggression, annexation, and quasi-legal manoeuvres, Louis XIV immediately set about extending his gains to stabilise and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of Reunions.
  • England: William and Mary Crowned

    King William III & II and Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February 1689 after they were offered the throne by the Parliament of England following William's successful invasion of England in 1688, the Glorious Revolution.
    To end the Glorious Revolution, William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights and began a new co-operation between the Parliament and the monarchs, leading to a greater measure of personal liberty and democracy in Britain.
  • Toleration Act: England

    The Tolerance Act allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e., Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics. Nonconformists were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, if they accepted certain oaths of allegiance.
  • English Bill of Rights

    Settled major issues between the King and Parliament
    Served as a model for the U.S. Bill of Rights
    Formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18th and early 19th C in England
  • John Locke publishes An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding

    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke concerns the foundation of human knowledge and understanding. He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate filled later through experience.
    Two Treatises of Government was a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism while the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilised society based on natural rights and contract.
  • Treaty of Rijswijk

    The Treaty of Ryswick or Ryswyck was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic. The treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.
  • Treaty of Karlowitz signed

    The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe and the beginning of the empire's phase of stagnation, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in central and southeast Europe.
  • The Act of Settlement: England

    The Act of Settlement is an act that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England) and her non-Roman Catholic heirs.
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    War for Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession was fought between two alliances of European powers, including a divided Spain, over who had the right to succeed Charles II as king of Spain. It ended with the Peace of Utrecht recognising King Philip V of Spain.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht, was a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April. The treaty marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power.