1648 - 1815

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    The Dutch Golden Age

    The Dutch started to monopolize trade with Asia through the Dutch East India Trading Company. They were able to keep it for about two full centuries. They also founded The Bank of Amsterdam, the first true central bank in 1609.
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    The Baroque Period

    A western style of music or art. Everything is a lot more detailed.
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    The "Consumer Revolution"

    The consumer revolution is the period from approximately 1600 to 1750 in England in which there was a marked increase in the consumption and variety of "luxury" goods and products by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds.
  • The Trial of Galileo

    The Galileo affair was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610. culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentricism.
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    The "Commercial Revolution"

    The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
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    The English Civil War

    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over the government. The Parliamentarians won with the beheading of King Charles 1.
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    Reign of Louis the 14th

    Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He ruled France for 72 years, the most by any one European monarch. He was best known as being an absolute monarch.
  • Peace of Wethphalia

    Ended the Thirty Years War, which was the last major European religious war.
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    Height of Mercantilism in Europe

    Mercantilism was an economic theory and practice, dominant in modernized parts of Europe during the 16th to the 18th century.
  • The Publishing of The Leviathian

    It is one of the earliest and most influential examples of the social construct theory. It is about the structure of society and legitimate government.
  • Navigation Acts

    The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted colonial trade to the mother country. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with the Netherlands, Spain, France, and their colonies.
  • Restoration of the English Monarchy

    The monarchy was restored with the crowning is King Charles 2. When he became king, strict laws were signed limiting his power and giving more power to parliamentary,
  • Test Act in England

    English laws that were meant to punish Roman Catholics or nonconformists.
  • Battle of Vienna

    Second major attempt by the Ottomans. Was unsuccessful, started the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Revocation of The Edict of Nantes

    Also known as the Edict of Fontainebleau. It was issued by Louis XIV of France.
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    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
  • Publication of Principa Mathematica

    Published by Sir Isaac Newton. It was the book that had his three laws of motion. One: An object at rest will stay at rest, unless an external force acts upon it. Two: Force = Mass * Acceleration. Three: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • The "Glorious Revolution"

    The Glorious Revolution was the overthrowing of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch leader William III of Orange.
  • The Publishing of Two Treatises of Goverment

    It is a work of political philosophy published by John Locke. He tries to attack the patriarchy.
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    Reign of Peter The Great

    Peter the Great was a Russian czar best known for the reforms me made to Russia trying to make it a major power again.
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    The "Agricultural Revolution"

    The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe.
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    Enclosure Movement

    Enclosure was the legal process in England during the 18th century of enclosing a number of small landholdings to create one larger farm. Once enclosed, use of the land became restricted to the owner, and it ceased to be common land for communal use.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession was the first world war of modern times with Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, all involved. Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir. In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip.
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    The Classical Period

    Classical art and music is less complex compared to Baroque. Everything was a lot lighter and shorter. Piano music, however, became more powerful.
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    The Rococo Period

    Rococo was even more detailed then Baroque. Rococo are also had a lot of symmetry which was something new to western Europe.
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    Reign of Frederick the Great

    Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for non-nobles to become judges and senior bureaucrats.
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    Reign of Maria Theresa

    Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized Austria's poor military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing.
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    War of Austrian Succession

    France and Prussia fought against England and Austria. Literally nothing was solved. This war also led to the Seven Years War.
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    Seven Years War

    Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America and seized hundreds of French merchant ships. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance around the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". The war ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
  • The "Diplomatic Revolution"

    The Diplomatic Revolution was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
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    Reign of Catherine the Great of Prussia

    Catherine the Great was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau publishes The Social Contract

    The Social Contract is a book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality
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    American Revolution

    The American Revolution was a political upheaval in which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
  • First Partition of Poland

    The First Partition of Poland took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
  • The Publishing of The Wealth of Nations

    An important theme that persists throughout the work is the idea that the economic system is automatic, and, when left with substantial freedom, able to regulate itself.
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    French Revolution

    The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.
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    Slave Revolt in Haiti

    The slave revolt in Haiti was the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication on the Rights of Women

    A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy
  • Edward Jenner’s Smallpox Vaccination

    The first successful vaccine to be developed was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796. He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.
  • Last appearance of Bubonic plague in Western Europe

    The last European case was in Constantinople.
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    Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815.
  • Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers which had defeated Napoleon.