Apr 5, 1462
Ivan III of Russia-led successful military campaigns against the Tatars
-He subdued Novgorod and gained control of most of the remainder of Great Russia.
-renounced Moscow's subjection to the khan of the Golden Horde and won a final victory over the khan's sons
-impressive building program in Moscow took place
-Died from complications of a stroke.
-Son of Vasily the blind.
-A. He expanded his territory, and had some of Russia's greatest architectural achievements, and there was never a rebellion in his reign.
Apr 15, 1509
Henry VIII of England-The Act of Six Articles was issued, which reaffirmed most Catholic beliefs.
-Henry established himself as head of the Church of England and ordered the dissolution of the monasteries
-The Act in Restraint of Annates was introduced which stopped all but 5% of payments by newly appointed senior clergy to the Pope.
-published The ‘Bishops’ Book’
-Son of King Henry VII
- died of renal and liver failure, coupled with the effects of his obesity
- C. Abused his powers. Selfish ruler.
Jan 23, 1516
Charles I of Spain (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor)-Abdicated in 1556 (failure as HRE and King of Spain, went to a monastery), lSpain to son, HRE to brother
-Treaty of Madrid (1526)
-Called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms (1521)
-Became Holy Roman Emperor (1519)
-Outlawed the Protestant Schmalkaldic League (1546)
-Married to Isabella of Portugal; Habsburg Family; father of Philip II of Spain
Grade: B. From a Counter-Reformatory standpoint, he was a hero. He was also very successful militarily against the Ottomans, and abdicated on his own.
Jan 16, 1547
Ivan IV of Russia-Suspicious of advisors, killed supporters after his wife's death
-killed his own son, next czar
-Promoted military officers on merit; drew up legal code, expand borders & trade
-expanded into Poland which established a sphere of influence that lasted until the 20th century.
- Died of a stroke.
-grandson of Ivan III.
- D. improved Russia's governmental administration and contributed to the nation's culture. However he became paranoid and started killing people off
Jan 28, 1547
Edward VI of England-Edward's uncle took power and established himself as protector since edward was too young to rule.
-An English Prayer Book was issued in 1549 with an Act of Uniformity to enforce it.
-peasants in the West Country revolted in protest against the Prayer Book
-French declared war on England.
- Died of tuberculosis
- Son of King Henry VIII
-F. Did nothing in his reign because of how young he was.
Jul 19, 1553
Mary I of England-revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country
-meets with Parliament to re-establish Catholic religion.
-Over the next three years, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake
-Lost Calais in the war against France. Last possesion of England in France.
-died of cancer
-Child of Henry VIII and Catherine
-D. She lost Calais, the last english territory in france, Burned a lot of people for heresy but she did re-establish Catholic in England.
Jul 25, 1554
Philip II of Spain-Died a painful death of cancer in 1598 (throne to son, Philip III)
-Carried on father's Counter-Reformatory attitude
-Married Queen Mary I of England (1554)
-Formed an inquisition in South America (1569)
-Spanish Armada to England (1588, failed)
-Married to Mary I of England; Habsburg Family; father of Philip III
Grade: C. Philip lead a powerful Spain, with endless gold and silver from the New World. However, his support for the Counter-Reformation lead Spain to war often, hurting his people.
Nov 17, 1558
Elizabeth I of England-Return England to the Protestant faith and secured an English form of Protestantism
-England significantly expand its trade overseas
-Gave aid to the Protestant Huguenots in the French Wars of Religion
-the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130 ships - the 'Armada'.
-Died from a fatal illness
-Child of Henry the VIII and Anne Bo
-B. arts and literature flourished, defeated the spanish armada, a lot of expedition, and gave huguenots aid in french war.
Jul 24, 1567
James I of England-James and Elizabeth I became allies under the Treaty of Berwick.
-Authorised King James's Version of the bible which was the standard text for more than 250 years.
-View of absolute monarchy caused conflict with Parliament
-he ended the long-running war with Spain and tried to arrange a marriage between his son and the Spanish Infanta.
-Died of a stroke
- Child of Mary and Lord Darnley
-B. in his reign he expanded trade bringing spices from the East Authorized Version of the Bible
Henry IV of France-Assassinated by Catholic fanatic François Ravaillac (1610)
-Crowned after denying Protestantism (1589)
-Edict of Nantes (1598)
-Second marriage to Marie De Medici (1600)
-Son of King Antoine of Navarre and Queen Jeanne III; Married Marie De Medici
Grade: A. Henry was liked by his people, religiously tolerant, and tried to improve quality of life for all.
Philip III of Spain-Died on 31 March, 1621. The exaggerated story is that he was killed by the heat of a pan of charcoal because no one would remove it from his side.
-Expelled the Moriscos (Christians w/ Moorish ancestry; 1609)
-Entered the Thirty Years' War (1618)
-Temporary peace w/ Dutch (1609-1621)
-Treaty of London (1604)
-Son of Philip II; Habsburg Family; Margaret of Austria
Grade: C. Philip made many good decisions, but his style of ruling left much to councils, and resulted in many wars for the Spanish.
Louis XIII of France-Died 1643, one year after Cardinal Richelieu
-Married Anne of Austria (daughter of Philip III of Spain, 1615)
-Staged a coup d'état in order to break with his mother (1617)
-Situation at La Rochelle (1627)
-Intervened in the Thirty Years' War (1618)
-Son of Henry IV; Husband to Anne of Austria (daughter of Philip III of Spain)
Grade: D. Louis XIII's France was largely governed by Richelieu and counsels, rather than the king himself. His expansion overseas was beneficial, however.
Michael I of Russia-obtained peace with both Sweden (Treaty of Stolbovo) and Poland (Truce of Deulino).
-His involvement in the government helped increase diplomatic, commercial, and cultural contact with Western Europe.
-became Patriarch of the church and also dominated much of Michael's government
-related to the last tsar of the Rurik dynasty
- A. He helped to restore order to Russia, reduce peasantry to serfdom, and obtained peace with both Sweden and Poland.
Ferdinand II (H.R.E)-he forcibly Catholicized Bohemia and suppressed Protestantism
- Calvinist revolt began Defenestration of Prague
-Ferdinand II regained the Bohemian throne after Battle of White Mountain
-emperor's army defeated the Swedes at Nordlingen because they assassinated Wallenstein
-son of Archduke Charles
-D. Spent so much time fighting his own people because of his strong religious views that turned into a thirty year war.
Philip IV of Spain-Died 17 September, 1665
-Had a large palace constructed (1631-1635)
-Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659; peace with France)
-Patronized court painter Diego Velázquez
-Treaty of Münster (1648; peace with Dutch)
-Hapsburg; father of Charles II; Elisabeth of France
Grade: C. Philip saw major peaces and patronized the arts, but relied on advisors to rule for him.
Charles I of England-raise revenue by non-parliamentary means
-He was forced to call parliament to obtain funds to fight the Scots.
-Tried to arrest 5 members of the Parliament
- Arrested for Treason
-Son of James I
-D. His view on the monarchy and the divine right caused a lot of conflict with the parliaments and this conflict led to war.
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg-Died May 9, 1688
-Restored Hohenzollern claims after 30 Years' War
- Centralized political administration
-Granted asylum to Huguenots from France
Grade: A. Frederick William restored the Hohenzollern family to a European power. Through economic, political, and militaristic reforms, he proved to be a great leader.
Louis XIV of France-Died (1715) of gangrene
-"I am the state" (absolutism) as an 18 year-old
-Revoked the Edict of Nantes (1685)
-Issued the Edict of Fontainebleau (redundancy of protestant priveleges due to scarcity, 1685)
-Married Maria Theresa of Spain (1660)
-Son of Anne of Austria and Louis XIII of France
Grade: C. Louis XIV spent a lot of money on himself (palace at Versailles, for example). He also oppressed French Protestants after years of peace. Even so, his economy was saved, and his army was strongest.
Willam II of England-defeated James at the Battle of the Boyne.
-brought Britain into the League of Augsburg against France, transforming it into the ‘Grand Alliance’.
-Willam won a lot of territory from Louis XIV
-Set up Bank of England
-Died of pneumonia
-Married to Mary
-B. He went to war a lot and gained a lot of victories with his army. He also created the bank and they controlled the public expenditures.
Oliver Cromwell of England
- Supported Commonwealth government -led victory in which 4,000 of king’s soldiers died -House of Commons abolished House of Lords & outlawed monarchy -Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain -died from malaria -Part of Henry’s royal council
- B. His main concern was for the people. He outlawed monarchy so people could get a fair government.
Charles II of England-signed Charles I's death warrant and pursued a policy of political tolerance and power-sharing.
-Between 1665 and 1667 England was at war with the Dutch
-Charles signed a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France
-rise of trade in India, the East Indies and America and the Passage of Navigation Acts that secured Britain's future as a sea power.
-Son of Charles I
-C. There was a rise in trade which helped England grow, but he brought back the church of england and a lot of parliaments left
Charles II of Spain-Died 1700 (no heir), setting off the War of the Spanish Succession
-Married Marie Louise d'Orléans (1679)
-War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
-1680, participated in the greatest auto-da-fé (public condemnation of Protestants) in the history of the Spanish Inquisition
-Last Spanish Hapsburg; Son of Philip IV; Marie Louise d'Orléans
Grade: D. Charles' Spain saw hard economic times and he himself faced health problems, and thus his power was often ignored in favor of the courts.
Peter I of Russia
- brought in foreign experts and by 1725, Russia had 48 ships of the line and 800 galleys
- towns were allowed to elect their own officials, collect revenue and stimulate trade -brought elements of Western culture to Russia -Supported education for the children -died of bladder to be infected with gangrene -The mother of Peter came from the Naryshkin family -A.Supported education.Enlarged army and navy. He divided into three with regards to divisions of government: local, provincial and central
James II of England-James took a stand against a number of anti-Catholic moves, including the Test Act of 1673
-rebellion James II was crushed and savage punishments soon followed for rebellions
-he issued a Declaration of Indulgence
-parliament declared that James's flight constituted an abdication
-died of a brain haemorrhage
-Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria
-D. He faced many rebellions because of his religion but handled it wrong.He attempted to create religious tolerance but didn't get it going very well
Mary II of England-Glorious Revolution gave power to her and her husband
-Passed The Bill of Rights
-Passed the Toleration Act
-She ruled under a Constitutional Monarchy where monarchy was limited
-Died of the Smallpox
-Daughter of James and first wife Anne Hyde
-B. She kept the peace in england. she had the Constitutional monarchy.She would take over when the king left, but she was in the wrong when she limited catholics freedom of worship.
Philip V of Spain-Died 9 July, 1746; depressed
-Abdicated to son (Louis I of Spain); forced to re-assume after seven months upon his death
-War of the Spanish Succession
-Spain into wars of Polish/Austrian Succession for Bourbon family
-Spain declared bankrupt (1739)
-House of Bourbon; Maria Luisa of Savoy, Elisabeth of Parma
Grade: D. Philip made some reforms to govt., but the economy continued to fail and he held much interest in Bourbon affairs (almost more than he did for Spain)
Frederick I of Prussia-Died 25 February, 1713, leaving throne to Frederick William I
-First King in Prussia
-Allied with England, Holland, Austria against France
-War of the Spanish Succession (Allied with Austria, 1701-1704)
-Industry + land reclamation prospered
-Founded University of Halle, Academy of Arts, Academy of Sciences
-House Hohenzollern; Elizabeth Henrietta
Grade: A. Under Frederick, Prussia prospered and remained successful economically and politically as it did under his father, Frederick William.
Charles VI (H.R.E)-Charles' forces re-captured both Milanand Franche-Comté
-pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation.
-Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction,
-Charles called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms
-Died from malaria.
-Charles V was the oldest son of Philip the Fair of Hapsburg
-B. He always seemed to be in wars which were costly but fought for the right reason. first to circumnavigate the Earth and had non violent ways to settle problems
Frederick William I of Prussia-Died 31 May, 1740
-Manual of Regulations for State Officials (duties for public servants)
-Never started a war
-Economy rigid; surplus upon death
-Military kept strong
-House Hohenzollern; Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Grade: B. Frederick William I kept the economy and military strong, though he never oversaw any spectacular advances.
Louis XV of France-Died from smallpox (1774)
-War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
-Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
-Assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens (minor wound)
-Cardinal Fleury (exercised absolute power for the king) died (1743)
-Great-grandson of Louis XIV; Married to Marie Leszczyńska of Poland
Grade: C. The king had little interest in state affairs and kept France very involved in war. While exercising the state's power, he left France financially depleted.
-Married daughter of Poland
Maria Theresa (H.R.E.)-Invasion of Silesia
-War of the Austrian Succession
-She employed Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz, who modernised the empire by creating a standing army of 108,000 men
-reformed education in 1775.
-died of smallpox
-daughter of Charles VI
-B. She reformed education,Her efforts to transform her empire into a modern state solidified the Habsburg rule,and became increasingly involved with the problem of serf reform.
Catherine II of Russia-Reformed legal, education systems
-Russia won war, took over half of Poland, territory on Black Sea
-Catherine strengthen monarchy in rural areas
-Removed trade Restrictions
-died from a stroke.
-Mom is Romonav.
-A.Continued what Peter I started. She Influenced by Euro thinkers, Removed trade Restrictions, and Catherine strengthen monarchy in rural areas
Louis XVI-Executed publicly (by guillotine; 21 January, 1793)
-Married Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia (Marie Antoinette, 1770)
-Signed the Edict of Versailles (or the Edict of Tolerance), nullifying the Edict of Fontainebleau (1787)
-Supported the American Colonists in the American Revolution (1776-1783)
-Arrested in August of 1792, at which point the Monarchy was abolished.
Grade: C. Louis XVI was not bad, just not good enough. Revolutionaries used he and his wife as scapegoats to prove a point.