Classicism & Romanticism Timeline by Randi Lee K.

By rkrasny
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Spain recaptures Granada from the Moors (Granada Day)

  • Jan 23, 1492

    "Pentateuch" (Jewish holy book) 1st printed

  • Mar 15, 1492

    Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after 1st new world voyage

  • Mar 30, 1492

    Edict of Explusion

    King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella sign decree expelling Jews from Spain.
  • Mar 31, 1492

    Queen Isabella of Castilia & Ferdinand of Aragon expels Jews

  • Apr 17, 1492

    Christopher Columbus signs contract with Spain to find Indies

  • May 15, 1492

    Cheese & Bread rebellion: German mercenaries kills 232 Alkmaarse

  • Aug 2, 1492

    Jews are expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella

  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus sets sail from Palos, Spain for "Indies"

  • Oct 2, 1492

    King Henry VII of England invades France

  • Oct 21, 1492

    Columbus discovers America

  • Oct 26, 1492

    Lead pencils 1st used

  • Oct 27, 1492

    Christopher Columbus discovers Cuba & claims it for Spain

  • Nov 9, 1492

    Peace of Etaples (Henry VII & Charles VIII)

  • Dec 26, 1492

    1st Spanish settlement in New World founded, by Columbus

  • Jan 9, 1493

    1st sight of manatees (by Christopher Columbus)

  • Dec 23, 1493

    Georg Alt's German translation of Hartmann Schedel's Nuremberg Chronicle is published.

  • May 3, 1494

    Jamaica discovered by Columbus; he names it "St Iago"

  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain & Portugal divide America

  • Nov 9, 1494

    Family de' Medici become rulers of Florence

  • Nov 18, 1494

    French king Charles VIII occupies Florence

  • Feb 22, 1495

    French King Charles VIII enters Naples to claim crown

  • May 20, 1495

    French King Charles VIII leaves Naples

  • May 31, 1495

    Anti-French Saint League

    Emperor Maximilian, Pope Alexander VI, Milan, King Ferdinand, Isabella & Venice sign anti-French Saint League.
  • Jun 1, 1495

    1st written record of Scotch Whiskey

    Appears in Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, Friar John Cor is the distiller.
  • Jul 6, 1495

    Battle at Fornovo

    French King Charles VIII beats St. League.
  • Jul 7, 1495

    King Ferdinand II returns to Naples

  • Jul 20, 1495

    French viceroy of Naples Montpensier surrenders

  • Nov 27, 1495

    Scottish king James IV receives bedrieger Perkin Warbeck

  • Jan 3, 1496

    Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine.

  • Jan 6, 1496

    Moorish fortress Alhambra, near Grenada, surrenders to the Christi

  • Feb 24, 1496

    England's Henry VII ends commercial dispute with Flanders

  • Mar 5, 1496

    English king Henry VII hires John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore

  • Mar 9, 1496

    Jews are expelled from Carintha Austria

  • Mar 12, 1496

    Jews are expelled from Syria

  • Oct 21, 1496

    Emperor Maximiliaans daughter marries Spanish crown prince Johan of Aragon/Philip de Blank marries Johanna "the Waanzinnige" of Aragon

  • Dec 5, 1496

    Jews are expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I

  • Jan 6, 1497

    Jews are expelled from Graz in Styria, Austria

  • Feb 25, 1497

    Italians troops reconquer Taranto on France

  • Mar 9, 1497

    Nicolaus Copernicus 1st recorded astronomical observation

  • May 13, 1497

    Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola

  • Jun 17, 1497

    Battle of Deptford Bridge

    Forces under King Henry VII soundly defeat troops led by Michael An Gof.
  • Jun 22, 1497

    Antitax insurrection in Cornwall suppressed at Blackheath

  • Jun 24, 1497

    John Cabot claims eastern Canada for England (believes he found Asia in Nova Scotia)

  • Jul 8, 1497

    Vasco da Gama departs for trip to India

  • Sep 7, 1497

    Sailor Perkin Warbeck becomes English King Richard IV

  • Apr 7, 1498

    Crowd storms Savonarola's convent San Marco Florence, Italy

  • May 20, 1498

    Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Calcutta India

  • May 30, 1498

    Columbus departs with 6 ships for 3rd trip to America

  • Jun 26, 1498

    Toothbrush invented

  • Jul 20, 1498

    Emperor Maximilian names Albrecht governor of Netherlands

  • Aug 1, 1498

    Christopher Columbus lands on "Isla Santa" (Venezuela)

  • Aug 26, 1498

    Michelangelo is commissioned to carve the Pietà.

  • Feb 9, 1499

    France & Venice sign treaty against Milan

  • Sep 22, 1499

    Switzerland became an independent state.

  • Nov 5, 1499

    Publication of the "Catholicon" in Treguier (Brittany).

    This Breton-French-Latin dictionary was written in 1464 by Jehan Lagadeuc. It is the first Breton dictionary as well as the first French dictionary.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Leonardo da Vinci c.1480-1520

    Leonardo da Vinci c.1480-1520
    High Renaissance: 1452-1519 The word 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth' - a rebirth of the classical ideals from Ancient Rome and Greece. The High Renaissance marks the pinnacle of artistic development in this period of Italian art. The great artists of the High Renaissance were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti from Florence, Raphael Sanzio from Umbria, and Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) from Venice. They painted artwor
  • Jun 25, 1500

    Pope Alexander VI accept Treaty of Granada

  • Jul 15, 1500

    "Blood Wedding" of Astorre Baglione & Lavinia Colonna in Perugia family Baglione massacre

  • Jul 15, 1500

    Duke Albrecht of Saxon beats Friese rebellion

  • Nov 11, 1500

    Treaty of Granada: France & Aragon divide Naples

  • Jan 14, 1501

    Martin Luther, age 17, enters the University of Erfurt.

  • May 20, 1501

    Joao da Nova Castell discovers Ascension Islands

  • Jul 27, 1501

    Copernicus formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral

  • Oct 13, 1501

    Maximilian of Austria & Louis XII sign Treaty of Trente

  • Oct 15, 1501

    English crown prince Arthur marries Catharina of Aragon

  • Jan 1, 1502

    Portuguese navigators discover Rio de Janeiro

  • Feb 12, 1502

    Granada Moslems forced to convert to Catholicism

  • Feb 25, 1502

    Austrian emperor Maximilian I reformats government machine

  • Mar 11, 1502

    Tebriz shah Ismail I of Persia crowned

  • Jun 19, 1502

    Emperor Maximilian I & England sign treaty of Antwerp

  • Aug 8, 1502

    Jacobus IV of Scotland marries Margaretha Tudor

  • Jan 20, 1503

    Casa Contratacion (Board of Trade) found (Spain) to deal with American affairs

  • Feb 13, 1503

    Disfida di Barletta

    Famous challenge between 13 Italian and 13 French knights near Barletta.
  • Feb 18, 1503

    Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales (later Henry VIII)

  • May 10, 1503

    Columbus discovers Cayman Islands

  • Sep 13, 1503

    Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David.

  • Oct 30, 1503

    Queen Isabella of Spain bans violence against indians

  • Jan 10, 1504

    King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta

  • Jan 31, 1504

    Treaty of Lyons

    French cede Naples to Ferdinand of Aragon
  • Feb 29, 1504

    Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians

  • Mar 31, 1504

    France & Spain signs ceasefire

  • Apr 1, 1504

    English guilds/corp goes under state control

  • Sep 8, 1504

    Michelangelo's David is unveiled in Florence.

    Michelangelo's David is unveiled in Florence.
  • Sep 22, 1504

    Treaty of Blois

    Philip van Bourgondie & Maximilian I & Louis XII
  • Apr 18, 1506

    The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica is laid.

    The cornerstone of the current St. Peter's Basilica is laid.
  • Jun 5, 1507

    England & Netherlands sign trade agreement

  • Feb 4, 1508

    Maximilian I assumes imperial title without being crowned

  • Feb 6, 1508

    Maximilian I crowned Holy Roman Emperor

  • Apr 7, 1509

    France declares war on Venice

  • Apr 16, 1509

    French army under Louis XII enters Alps

  • Apr 21, 1509

    Henry the VIII becomes King of England

    Henry the VIII becomes King of England
  • Apr 22, 1509

    Henry VIII ascended to throne of England

  • Jun 11, 1509

    King Henry VIII marries wife #1 Catharina of Aragon

  • Jun 24, 1509

    Henry VIII crowned King of England

  • Aug 8, 1509

    Emperor Krishnadeva Raya is crowned

    Marking the beginning of the regeneration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • Sep 27, 1509

    Storm ravages Flemish/Dutch/Friese coast, 1000s killed

  • Jan 22, 1510

    Jews are expelled from Colmar Germany

  • Feb 24, 1510

    Pope Julius II excommunicates the republic of Venice

  • Jul 19, 1510

    38 Jews are burned at stake in Berlin Prussia

  • Aug 28, 1511

    The Portuguese conquer Malacca

  • Nov 13, 1511

    England signs on to the Saint League

  • Oct 19, 1512

    Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia)

  • Nov 1, 1512

    Michelangelo's paintings on ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1st exhibited

     Michelangelo's paintings on ceiling of Sistine Chapel, 1st exhibited
  • Nov 7, 1512

    Medici's discharge Niccolo Machiavelli from Florence

  • Dec 27, 1512

    The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos

    Governing the conduct of settlers with regards to native Indians in the New World.
  • Apr 26, 1514

    Copernicus makes his 1st observations of Saturn

  • Jan 1, 1515

    King Francis I of France succeeds to the French throne.

  • Jun 1, 1515

    Francois, Duke of Angouleme succeeds Louis XII as Francois I of France

    Francois, Duke of Angouleme succeeds Louis XII as Francois I of France
  • Jul 22, 1515

    Congress of Vienna settles issues between Poland & Holy Roman Empire

  • Sep 13, 1515

    Battle at Marignano

    France beats Habsburgers & Pope Leo X.
  • Sep 14, 1515

    Battle at Marignano

    Battle at Marignano ends in French/Venetian victory.
  • Nov 15, 1515

    Thomas Cardinal Wolsey is invested as a Cardinal

  • Dec 24, 1515

    Thomas Wolsey appointed English Lord Chancellor

  • Aug 13, 1516

    The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed.

    Francis recognises Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles recognises Francis's claim to Milan.
  • Jul 1, 1517

    1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands

  • Oct 31, 1517

    Luther posts 95 theses on Wittenberg church-Protestant Reformation

  • Apr 18, 1518

    Bona Sforza is crowned as queen consort of Poland.

    Bona Sforza is crowned as queen consort of Poland.
  • Apr 27, 1518

    Treaty of St Truiden

    Anti-French Trapdoors/Bourgondisch covenant.
  • Sep 20, 1519

    Ferdinand Magellan starts 1st successful circumnavigation of world

  • Jul 10, 1520

    King Charles V & King Henry VIII signs treaty of Calais

  • Oct 7, 1520

    1st public burning of books in Netherlands, in Louvain

  • Nov 8, 1520

    Stockholm Bloodbath begins

    A successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces results in the execution of around 100 people.
  • Apr 22, 1521

    French king Francois I declares war on Spain

  • May 25, 1521

    Edict of Worms outlaws Martin Luther & his followers

  • Jan 30, 1522

    Duke of Albany takes captured French back to Scotland

  • Feb 7, 1522

    Treaty of Brussels

  • Feb 7, 1522

    Treaty of Brussels

    Habsburgers split into Spanish/Austrian Branches
  • Jul 19, 1524

    Boer War

    Begins in Germany's Black Forest.
  • Jan 21, 1525

    The Swiss Anabaptist Movement

    When Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.
  • Mar 20, 1525

    Paris' parliament begins pursuit of Protestants

  • May 15, 1525

    Battle of Frankenhausen

    Ends the Peasants War.
  • May 15, 1525

    German Boer Army

    Surrounded/slaughters 5,000; ends Boer war.
  • Jun 9, 1525

    Tax revolt in Hertogenbosch

  • Jan 14, 1526

    Charles V & Francis I sign Treaty of Madrid

  • Jan 14, 1526

    Francis I forced to give up claims in Burgundy, Italy & Flanders

  • Feb 27, 1526

    Saxony & Hesse form League of Gotha (league of Protestant princes)

  • Mar 10, 1526

    Emperor Charles V marries princess Isabella of Portugal

  • Mar 26, 1526

    King Francois I returns Spanish captivity to France

  • Nov 9, 1526

    Jews are expelled from Pressburg Hungary by Maria of Hapsburg

  • Nov 10, 1526

    John I Zapolyai of Transsylvania chosen as king of Hungary

  • Dec 17, 1526

    Ferdinand of Austria chosen as King of Bohemia

  • Feb 24, 1527

    Ferdinand of Austria crowned as king of Bohemia

  • Mar 30, 1527

    U of Marburg (Germany) founded

  • Apr 30, 1527

    England & France sign treaty of Westminster

  • May 6, 1527

    Ending of Renaissance

    Spanish & German Imperial troops sack Rome; ending Renaissance.
  • May 16, 1527

    Florence becomes a republic

  • Jun 24, 1527

    Gustaaf I begins Reformation in Sweden, taking RC possessions

  • Aug 3, 1527

    First known letter was sent from North America by John Rut while at St. John's, Newfoundland.

  • Jan 22, 1528

    England & France declare war on Emperor Charles V

  • Feb 12, 1528

    Treaty of Dordrecht

    Between Emperor & Ecclesiastical power.
  • Apr 22, 1529

    Treaty of Saragosa

    Spain & Portugal divide eastern hemisphere.
  • May 27, 1529

    30 Jews of Posing Hungary

    Charged with blood ritual, burned at stake.
  • Jun 9, 1529

    Zurich declares war on Catholic kantons

  • Jun 18, 1529

    Blackfriars begin

    Henry VIII & Catharina of Aragon
  • Jun 24, 1529

    Zurich & catholic kantons sign Peace of Kappel

  • Jun 29, 1529

    Emperor Karel V & Pope Clemens VII sign Treaty of Barcelona

  • Oct 14, 1529

    Sultan Suleiman II ceases Vienna

  • Oct 26, 1529

    Thomas More appointed English Lord Chancellor

  • Mar 7, 1530

    King Henry VIII's divorce request is denied by the Pope Henry then declares that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England's church

  • Sep 20, 1530

    Luther advises protestant monarch compromise

  • Feb 11, 1531

    Henry VIII recognized as supreme head of Church in England

  • Mar 18, 1532

    English parliament bans payments by English church to Rome

  • Jun 23, 1532

    Henry VIII & Francois I signs secret treaty against emperor Karel V

  • Nov 15, 1532

    Pope Clemens VII tells Henry VIII to end relationship with Anna Boleyn

  • Jan 25, 1533

    England's King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn

  • Jan 25, 1533

    Henry VIII divorces his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon

  • Mar 30, 1533

    Thomas Cranmer becomes archbishop of Canterbury

  • May 23, 1533

    King Henry VIII & Catherine of Aragon marriage declared null & void

  • May 28, 1533

    England's archbishop voids King Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn's marriage

  • Jun 1, 1533

    Anne Boleyn crowned queen of England

    Anne Boleyn crowned queen of England
  • Jun 11, 1533

    Pope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII

  • Mar 26, 1534

    Lubeck accept free Dutch ships into East Sea

  • May 10, 1534

    French navigator Jacques Cartier reaches Newfoundland

  • Jan 15, 1535

    Henry VIII declares himself head of English Church

  • Aug 31, 1535

    Pope Paul II deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII

  • Feb 18, 1536

    France & Turkey sign milt/trade agreement against King Karel

  • Mar 1, 1536

    "Institutes of the Christian Religion"

    John Calvin publishes the first edition of his "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
  • May 6, 1536

    King Henry VIII, orders bible be placed in every church

  • May 17, 1536

    Anne Boleyns 4 "lovers" executed

  • May 23, 1536

    Pope Paul III installs Portugese inquisition

  • May 30, 1536

    English king Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour

  • Oct 20, 1536

    Danish/Norw king Christian III leads reform in Catholic possessions

  • Mar 17, 1537

    French troops invade Flanders

  • Sep 2, 1537

    King Christian III publishes "Ordinance on the Danish Church"

  • Oct 4, 1537

    The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale.

  • May 26, 1538

    Geneva expels John Calvin and his followers from the city.

    Calvin lives in exile in Strasbourg for the next three years.
  • Jun 18, 1538

    Treaty of Nice

    Ends war between Emperor Charles V & King French I
  • Aug 28, 1538

    Turkish-Portuguese War - Battle of Wofla

    The Portuguese are scattered, their leader Christovão da Gama is captured and afterwards executed.
  • Dec 16, 1538

    King Francois I orders renewed pursuit of Protestants

  • Dec 17, 1538

    Pope Paul III excommunicated England's King Henry VIII

  • Jun 10, 1539

    Council of Trent

    Paul III sends out letters to his bishops, delaying the Council due to war and the difficulty bishops had traveling to Venice.
  • Oct 4, 1539

    King Henry VIII & Anna of Kleef marry

  • May 4, 1540

    Venice & Turkey sign Treaty of Constantinople

  • Jun 24, 1540

    Henry VIII divorces his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves

  • Jul 9, 1540

    England's King Henry VIII 6-mo marriage to Anne of Cleves annulled

  • Jul 28, 1540

    English King Henry VIII marries Catharine Howard, his 5th wife

  • Sep 27, 1540

    Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by Ignatius Loyola

  • Oct 2, 1540

    Venice/Turkey signs peace

  • Jun 18, 1541

    Irish parliament selects Henry VIII as king of Ireland

  • Jun 26, 1541

    Francisco Pizarro is assassinated in Lima

    By the son of his former companion and later antagonist, Diego Almagro the younger. Almagro is later caught and executed.
  • Oct 31, 1541

    Michelangelo Buonarroti's paints "last judgement" in 16th Chapel

    Michelangelo Buonarroti's paints "last judgement" in 16th Chapel
  • Nov 9, 1541

    Queen Catharine Howard confined in London Tower

  • Jan 21, 1542

    Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard

  • Jun 21, 1542

    Pope Paul III begins Protestant Inquisition

  • Aug 2, 1542

    French troops leave Flanders

  • Dec 14, 1542

    Princess Mary Stuart becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland.

  • Jul 1, 1543

    England & Scotland sign Peace treaty of Greenwich

  • Sep 18, 1544

    Peace of Crépy

    German emperor Charles V & French King Francois I
  • Nov 10, 1544

    Antwerps painter John Matsys banished

  • Feb 13, 1545

    Willem of Nassau becomes prince of Orange

  • Mar 15, 1545

    First meeting of the Council of Trent.

  • Jan 23, 1546

    Having published nothing for eleven years, Francois Rabelais publishes the "Tiers Livre," his sequel to Gargantua and Pantagruel.

  • Jun 7, 1546

    England signs Peace of Andres with Scotland/Ireland

  • Jan 28, 1547

    Edward VI succeeds Henry VIII as king of England

  • Feb 3, 1547

    Russian czar Ivan IV marries Anastasia Romanova

  • Mar 31, 1547

    Henry II succeeds Francois I as king of France

  • Sep 1, 1547

    Charles demands creation of Imperial League (German state)

  • Sep 10, 1547

    English demand Edward VI, 10, wed Mary Queen of Scots, 5

  • Jun 30, 1548

    Emperor Charles V orders Catholics to become Lutherans

  • Aug 15, 1548

    Mary queen of Scotland (6) arrives in France

  • Jun 9, 1549

    Book of Common Prayer is adopted by the Church of England

  • Jun 9, 1549

    England enforces Act of Supremacy

  • Aug 8, 1549

    France declares war on England

  • Mar 24, 1550

    France & England sign Peace of Boulogne

  • Apr 2, 1550

    Jews are expelled from Genoa Italy

  • Apr 28, 1550

    Powers of Dutch inquisition extends

  • Jul 7, 1550

    Chocolate introduced

  • Jul 8, 1551

    Willem of Orange weds countess Anna van Egmond & Buren

  • Jan 12, 1552

    Dutch west coast hit by heavy storm, 100s killed

  • Jan 23, 1552

    2nd version of Book of Common Prayer becomes manditory in England

  • Aug 2, 1552

    Treaty of Passau

  • Apr 29, 1553

    Flemish woman introduces practice of starching linen into England

  • Jun 26, 1553

    Christ's Hospital in England granted a charter

  • Jul 10, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey becomes queen of England

    Lady Jane Grey becomes queen of England
  • Jul 19, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey deposed

    Lady Jane Grey deposed as England's Queen after 9 days.
  • Aug 13, 1553

    Michael Servetus is arrested

    By John Calvin in Geneva as a heretic.
  • Oct 21, 1553

    Volumes of Talmud are burned

  • Oct 27, 1553

    Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.

  • Aug 23, 1555

    Calvinists are granted rights in the Netherlands.

  • Sep 25, 1555

    Freedom of Religion in Augsburg

  • Nov 12, 1555

    The English Parliament re-establishes Catholicism.

  • Nov 17, 1555

    William of Orange becomes member of Council of State

  • Jan 27, 1556

    Willem of Orange becomes knight of Guilder Flies

  • Feb 5, 1556

    Kings Henri I & Philip II sign Treaty of Vaucelles

  • Mar 28, 1556

    Karel V's son Philip II crowned king of Spain

  • Apr 13, 1556

    Portuguese Marranos who revert back to Judaism burned by order of Pope

  • Nov 23, 1556

    King Philip II confers with Dutch financial experts

  • Jun 7, 1557

    England declares war on France

  • Sep 11, 1557

    Catholic & Lutheran theology debated in Worm

  • Mar 5, 1558

    Smoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes

  • Apr 4, 1558

    Czar Ivan IV gives parts of North-Russia to fur traders

  • Aug 4, 1558

    1st printing of Zohar (Jewish Kabbalah)

  • Nov 17, 1558

    Elizabeth I ascends English throne

  • Dec 29, 1558

    Charles V, German emperor, buried

  • Jan 13, 1559

    Elizabeth I crowned queen of England in Westminster Abbey

  • Jun 22, 1559

    Jewish quarter of Prague burned & looted

  • Aug 14, 1559

    Spanish explorer de Luna lands in Pensacola Bay,Fla

  • Sep 19, 1559

    5 Spanish ships sinks in storm off Tampa, about 600 die

  • Jan 31, 1560

    Spanish king Philip II marries Elisabeth van Valois

  • Jul 6, 1560

    England/Scotland signs Treaty of Edinburgh

  • Aug 21, 1560

    Tycho Brahe becomes interested in astronomy

  • Aug 24, 1561

    Willem of Orange marries duchess Anna of Saxon

  • Sep 23, 1561

    King Philip II of Spain forbids Spanish settlements in Florida

  • Mar 1, 1562

    Blood bath at Vassy

    Gen de Guise allows 1200 Huguenots murder.
  • Mar 9, 1562

    Kissing in public banned in Naples (punishable by death)

  • Mar 19, 1563

    Peace of Amboise

    Rights for Huguenots
  • Apr 30, 1563

    Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI

  • Aug 30, 1563

    Jewish community of Neutitschlin Moravia expelled

  • Jan 26, 1564

    The Council of Trent issued its conclusions in the Tridentinum, establishing a distinction between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.

  • Apr 26, 1564

    William Shakespeare baptized

  • Jul 29, 1565

    Mary Queen of Scots marries her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley

  • Aug 10, 1566

    Iconoclasm begins

  • Aug 20, 1566

    Iconoclasm reaches Antwerp Belgium

  • Aug 25, 1566

    Iconoclastic fury begins in Dutch province Utrecht

  • Apr 11, 1567

    Dutch prince William of Orange flees from Antwerp to Breda

  • Jun 16, 1567

    Mary, Queen of Scots, imprisoned in Lochleven Castle prison Scotland

  • Jul 24, 1567

    Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate & 1-year-old James VI becomes King of Scotland

  • Jul 29, 1567

    James VI is crowned King of Scotland at Stirling.

  • Oct 6, 1567

    Duke of Alva becomes land guardian of Netherlands

  • May 8, 1568

    The 80 Years' War, Dutch Revolt begins

  • May 19, 1568

    English queen Elizabeth I arrests Scottish queen Mary

  • May 23, 1568

    The Netherlands declare their independence from Spain.

  • Jun 1, 1568

    Duke van Alva beheads 18 nobles in Brussels

  • Oct 5, 1568

    Conference of York begins

    Trial against Mary Stuart
  • Jan 11, 1569

    1st recorded lottery in England is drawn in St Paul's Cathedral

  • Jan 4, 1570

    Spanish viceroy Alva banishes Zutphen City's only physician, Joost Sweiter, "because he is a Jew"

  • Jan 23, 1570

    Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland, assassinated; civil war breaks out

  • Feb 25, 1570

    Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth, absolves her subjects from allegiance

  • Mar 4, 1570

    King Philip II bans foreign Dutch students

  • May 20, 1570

    Egidius Coppens publishes Abraham Ortelius' "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum"

  • May 22, 1570

    1st atlas, with 70 maps, published

  • Nov 2, 1570

    A tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1,000 people.

  • Jan 23, 1571

    Queen Elizabeth I opens Royal Exchange in London

  • May 16, 1571

    Johannes Kepler, by his own calculations, is conceived at 4:37 AM

  • Sep 4, 1571

    Catholic coup in Scotland

  • Apr 1, 1572

    Eighty Years' War

    The Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • Sep 29, 1573

    Caravaggio, Italy, painter birth

  • Feb 7, 1575

    University Leiden founded, and given the motto "Praesidium Libertatis"

  • Nov 8, 1575

    French Roman Catholics & Huguenots signs treaty

  • Oct 19, 1576

    Dutch provinces begin consultation about Spanish existence

  • Nov 4, 1576

    Eighty Years' War

    In Flanders, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city was nearly destroyed).
  • Nov 8, 1576

    Eighty Years' War: Pacification of Ghent

    17 Dutch provinces sign anti-Spanish covenant.
  • Nov 8, 1576

    Eighty Years' War: Pacification of Ghent

    17 Dutch provinces sign anti-Spanish covenant
  • Feb 12, 1577

    Spanish land guardian Don Juan of Habsburg signs "Eternal Edict"

  • Oct 25, 1577

    Pope Gregory XIII asks renewal of ecclesiastical hymns

  • Feb 13, 1578

    Tycho Brahe 1st sketches "Tychonic system" of solar system

  • Apr 1, 1578

    William Harvey of England discovers blood circulation

  • Apr 27, 1578

    Duel of the Mignons claims the lives of two favorites of Henry III of France and two favorites of Henry I, Duke of Guise.

  • Jan 6, 1579

    The Union of Atrecht is signed.

  • Jan 25, 1579

    Treaty of Utrecht signed, marks beginning of Dutch Republic

  • May 17, 1579

    Treaty of Parma

    Artois/Henegouwen/French-Flanders sign treaty recognizing Spanish duke van Parma as land guardian.
  • Jun 17, 1579

    Anti-English uprising in Ireland

  • Mar 17, 1580

    Prince Willem of Orange welcomed in Amsterdam

  • Jun 12, 1580

    Ostrog Bible, the first printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.

  • Jun 15, 1580

    Phillip II of Spain declares William the Silent to be an outlaw.

  • Jun 25, 1580

    Book of Concord, standards of Lutheran Church, 1st published

  • Nov 26, 1580

    French Huguenots & Roman Catholics sign peace treaty

  • Jan 16, 1581

    English parliament passes laws against Catholicism

  • Jul 24, 1581

    States of Holland/Zealand recognized by Willem van Orange

  • Oct 15, 1581

    Commissioned by Catherine De Medici, the 1st ballet "Ballet Comique de la Reine," is staged in Paris

  • Feb 24, 1582

    Pope Gregory XIII announces New Style (Gregorian) calendar

  • Aug 22, 1582

    King James IV of Scotland captured

  • Gregorian calendar introduced in Italy, other Catholic countries

  • William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway

  • 1st day of the Gregorian calendar in Holland & Flanders

  • Richard Martin of London takes out 1st life insurance policy, on William Gibbons, premium was £383

  • Richard Martin of London takes out 1st life insurance policy, on William Gibbons, premium was £383

  • William I of Orange is assassinated in his home in Delft

  • English parliament throws out Jesuits

  • The Olympic Theatre, designed by Andrea Palladio, is inaugurated in Vicenza.

     The Olympic Theatre, designed by Andrea Palladio, is inaugurated in Vicenza.
  • King Henri III & Duke De Guise signs Treaty of Nemours.

    French Huguenots lose all freedoms
  • King Henri III & Duke De Guise signs Treaty of Nemours: French Huguenots lose all freedoms

  • English secret service discovers Anthony Babingtons murder plot against queen Elizabeth I

  • Queen Elizabeth I signs Treaty of Nonsuch

    Aid to Netherland
  • Duke van Parma's troops occupy Antwerp

  • Sir Thomas Harriot introduces potatoes to Europe

  • English queen Elizabeth I signs Mary Stuarts death sentence

  • Spanish Armada sails to overthrow England's Queen Elizabeth I

  • Attacking Spanish Armada defeated & scattered by English defenders

  • Anne of Denmark is crowned Queen of Scotland.

  • Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.

  • France's Protestant King Henri IV converts to Roman Catholic

  • State of Holland grants patent on windmill with crankshaft

  • Henri IV crowned king of France

  • Fleming Pieter Stevens appointed royal painter of Rudolf II (Prague)

    Fleming Pieter Stevens appointed royal painter of Rudolf II (Prague)
  • Nicolas Poussin, French painter birth

  • Henry IV of France declares war on Spain.

  • Johannes Kepler inscribes geometric solid construction of universe

    Johannes Kepler inscribes geometric solid construction of universe
  • Catholic League disjoins Catholic League disjoins

  • England, France & Netherlands signs Drievoudig Covenant against Spain

  • David Fabricius discovers light variation of Mira (1st variable star)

  • English/French/Dutch delegates sign anti-Spanish "Drievoudig Covenant"

  • Flemish painter Frederick of Valckenborch becomes porter of Frankfurt-on-Main

  • Shakespeare's "The Merry Wives of Windsor" is 1st performed

  • 1st Dutch East India Company ships returned from Far East

  • Edict of Nantes grants political rights to French Huguenots

  • 1st theater performance in America (Spanish comedy-Rio Grande)

  • Arch duke Albrecht & Isabella become monarch of Southern Netherlands

  • King Philip II moves to Escorial palace

    King Philip II moves to Escorial palace
  • Deed of Transfers proclaims Netherlands independence

  • Seven Year War: Battle of Noryang Point

    The final battle of the Seven Year War is fought between the Korean and Japanese navies, resulting in a decisive Korean victory.
  • Battle of Curalaba

    The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelentaru, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile; all Spanish cities south of the Biobio river are eventually taken by the Mapuches, and all conquest of Mapuche territories by Europeans practically ceases, until the 1870s "Pacification of Araucania".
  • Caravaggio's 1st public commission for paintings

    Caravaggio's 1st public commission for paintings
  • Nine Years War: Battle of Curlew Pass

    Irish forces led by Hugh Roe O'Donnell successfully ambush English forces, led by Sir Conyers Clifford, sent to relieve Collooney Castle.
  • Dutch Golden Age begins

  • Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive

    At Campo de' Fiori in Rome, charged of heresy.
  • Marriage of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici.

  • Ottario Rinuccini/Giulio Caccini's opera "Euridice" published

  • British East India Company chartered

  • British East India Company chartered

  • Robert, Earl of Essex leads revolt in London against Queen Elizabeth

  • Church authorities burn hebrew books in Rome

  • France gains Bresse, Bugey, Valromey & Gex in treaty with Spain

  • John Lancaster leads 1st East India Company voyage from London

  • Giulio Caccini's "Euridice," premieres in Florence

  • Scottish king James VI becomes King James I of England

  • James VI of Scotland is crowned the first king of Great Britain.

  • 1st stones layed in Zuiderkerk Amsterdam

    1st stones layed in Zuiderkerk Amsterdam
  • Leon VII Spanish poet's first poem is published: "La Cocina."

  • Supernova "Kepler's nova" 1st sighted

  • William Shakespeare's tragedy "Othello" 1st presented

  • he controversial play Eastward Hoe by Ben Jonson, George Chapman, and John Marston is performed, landing two of the authors in prison.

  • The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid.

  • Gunpowder Plot; Catholics try to blow up English Parliament. Plot uncovered & leader Guy Fawkes hanged

  • Rembrandt van Rijn, Leiden Netherlands, painter is born

  • The first documented performance of Macbeth performed at the Great Hall at Hampton Court.

  • The Bank of Genoa fails

    After announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain.
  • Claudio Monteverdi's opera "Orfeo," premieres in Mantua

  • Mentally ill emperor Rudolf II signs Treaty of Lieben=

    Giving up Austria, Hungary & Moravia
  • Annales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published

  • "God Save the King" is 1st sung

  • Claudio Monteverdi's "Arianna," premieres in Mantua

  • Prototype of modern reflecting telescope

    Completed by Jan Lippershey
  • Wisselbank of Amsterdam established

  • Henry Hudson embarks on an exploration for Dutch East India Co

  • Shakespeare's Sonnets are first published in London, perhaps illicitly, by the publisher Thomas Thorpe.

  • Netherlands, England & France sign 12 year Covenant

  • Venetian senate examines Galileo Galilei's telescope

    Venetian senate examines Galileo Galilei's telescope
  • Galileo demonstrates his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers

  • Children's rhyme "Three Blind Mice," published in London

  • Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens

    Opens its reading room, the second public library of Europe.
  • German astronomer Simon Marius 1st discovers the Jupiter moons, but does not officially report it, Galileo does on July 1 1610

  • Galileo discovers 1st 3 Jupiter satellites, Io, Europa & Ganymede

  • Galileo Galilei discovers Callisto, 4th satellite of Jupiter

  • Assassination of Henri IV of France

  • Parliament of Paris appoints Louis XIII (8) as French king

  • George Abbot appointed archbishop of Canterbury

  • Word "telescope" is 1st used (Prince Federico Cesi)

  • Establishment of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, the oldest existing university in Asia and the largest Catholic university in the world.

  • ohn Fabricius dedicates earliest sunspot publication

  • Henry Hudson set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers on his ship Discovery & never seen again

  • Shakespeare's romantic comedy "Tempest" 1st presented

  • Simon Marius, is 1st to observe Andromeda galaxy through a telescope

  • King James I's daughter Elizabeth marries Frederik

  • Shakespeare's Globe Theater burns down

  • Amsterdam Bank of Loan forms

  • University of Groningen opens

  • Adriaen Block and 12 Amsterdam merchants petition the States General for exclusive trading rights in the New Netherland colony.

  • The first non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati, Italy.

  • 1st one-way streets open (London)

  • Francis Bacon becomes English lord chancellor

  • Johannes Kepler discovers harmonics law

  • Imperial civil servants thrown out a window of Prague Castle

  • 2nd Defenestration of Prague; beginning of 30 Years War

  • English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.

  • Theatrum Anatomicum opens in Amsterdam

    Theatrum Anatomicum opens in Amsterdam
  • Thirty Years' War: Battle of Záblatí

    A turning point in the Bohemian Revolt.
  • Remonstrant Society forms in Antwerp

  • Frederik V crowned king of Bohemia

  • René Descartes has the dreams

    That inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.
  • Construction of the oldest stone church in French North America, Notre-Dame-des-Anges, begins at Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

  • Kepler's mother arrested for witchcraft

  • Battle at Ponts-the-Ce, Poitou

    French king Louis XIII beats his mother Marie de Medici
  • 1st stones layed in Western Tower

  • 103 Mayflower pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock

  • French huguenots declare war on King Louis XIII

  • Hugo de Grote escapes in bookcase from Loevenstein castle, Neth

  • Sir Francis Bacon thrown into Tower of London

  • Galileo invents telescope

  • England declares war on Spain

  • Treaty of Vienna

    Hung King Bethlen Gabor & Emperor Ferdinand II sign treaty.
  • Jacob Willekens & Piet Heyn conquer Salvador, Civil rights activist

  • 1st submarine tested (London)

  • Charles I, King Of England, Scotland & Ireland, ascends English throne

  • Boers besiege Frankenburg estate in Upper-Austria

  • Earthquake hits Naples; 10,000 die

  • St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.

    St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.
  • St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.

    St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.
  • Spanish government goes bankrupt

  • Writs are issued in February by Charles I of England mandating that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date.

  • John Ford's "Lover's Melancholy," premieres in London

  • 1st commercial fishery established

  • An earthquake in Naples, Italy kills 10,000 people.

  • Dutch West Indies Co grants religious freedom in West Indies

  • Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi, 1st to see 2 belts on Jupiter surface

  • Failed palace revolution against Richelieu France

  • 16,000 inhabitants of Venice died this month of plague

  • Accord of Fontainebleau

    France/Maximilian van Bavarian signs.
  • Pierre Gassendi observes transit of Mercury predicted by Kepler

  • Mount Vesuvious, Italy erupts, destroys 6 villages & kills 4,000

  • Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published.

  • Foundation laid in Madrid for Buen Retiro-palace for king Philip IV

     Foundation laid in Madrid for Buen Retiro-palace for king Philip IV
  • M Rossi's opera "Erminia sul Giordano," premieres in Rome

  • Galileo Galilei is forced by Inquisition

    To "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views
  • Academie Francaise opens

  • the Burchardi flood — "the second Grote Mandrenke" killed around 15,000 men in North Friesland, Denmark and Germany.

  • Zorilla's "El Desafio de Carlos V," premieres in Madrid

  • Emperor Ferdinand II declares war on France

  • University of Utrecht opening ceremony

  • Dutch Premier Van Joost speaks of "Hostage rights of Aemstel"

  • Schouwburg Theater, the 1st in Amsterdam, opens

    Schouwburg Theater, the 1st in Amsterdam, opens
  • Rodger Ludlow publishes"Fundamental Orders of Connecticut"

  • Academie Francaise begins Dictionary of French Language

  • Pierre Corneilles "Horace," premieres in Paris

  • Uprising against Spanish king Philip IV

  • Second Bishop's War

    King Charles I's English army loses to a Scottish Covenanter force at the Battle of Newburn
  • English King Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland

  • Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641

    Anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years.
  • King Charles I & family flee London for Oxford

  • Civil War in England began between Royalists & Parliament

  • Archbishop William Laud

    Beheaded at the Tower of London.
  • Battle of Great Torrington, Devon

    The last major battle of the first English Civil War.
  • Scots agree to sell King Charles I to English Parliament for £400

  • Thirty Years' War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.

  • The Irish Confederate Wars and Wars of the Three Kingdoms: Battle of Dungans Hill - English Parliamentary forces defeat Irish forces.

  • 10,000 Jews of Polannoe murdered in Chmielnick massacre

  • Treaty of Westphalia ends 30 year war & Holy Roman Empire

  • Francesco Cavalli's opera "Giasone," premieres in Venice

  • Francesco Cavalli's opera "Giasone," premieres in Venice

  • Caravaggio: c.1600- 1700

    Caravaggio: c.1600- 1700
    Baroque: c 1571-1610 Baroque was a reaction against the artificial stylization of Mannerism. It spread throughout Europe during the 17th century. Among the great Baroque masters were the Italian painter Caravaggio and sculptor Bernini, the Flemish artist Rubens, Velazquez from Spain, and Rembrandt, the greatest of all Dutch painters.Baroque art is identified by realistic subjects that depict spectacular action and generate powerful emotions.
  • Jan Vermeer: c.1620-1670

    Jan Vermeer: c.1620-1670
    Dutch Art: 1632-1675 With the spread of Protestantism in Holland and the rejection of Catholic Baroque, Dutch artists had to focus on secular subjects to which there were no objections on religious grounds. Consequently, Dutch art has become famous for its still lifes, portraits, landscapes, interiors and genre painting. Artists tended to specialize narrowly, often in one subject. For example, Willem Kalf painted still lifes, Frans Hals portraits, Jacob van Ruisdael lan.
  • Johan de Witt installed as Dutch pension advisor of Dordrecht

  • "Leviathan" published

    Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) seminal text is published.
  • English parliament proclaims Navigation Act off

  • Prince of Condé starts blood bath in Paris

  • England declares war on Netherlands

  • First Anglo-Dutch War: the Battle of the Gabbard begins and lasts until June 13.

  • Louis XIV crowned King of France

  • Anglo-Portuguese treaty, Portugal comes under English control

  • The Delft Explosion devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100.

  • French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

  • Christiaan Huygens discovers Titan, (Saturn's largest satellite)

  • Adriana Nooseman-van de Bergh is 1st actress in Amsterdam theater

  • Biggest townhall in the world opens in Amsterdam

  • Russo-Polish War (1654-1667): the Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years.

  • Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales.

  • Rembrandt declares he is insolvent

  • Treaty of Labiau: Sweden gives Prussia, Brandenburg

  • Artificial pearls 1st manufactured by M Jacquin in Paris made of gypsum pellets covered with fish scales

  • Pierre Corneille's "Oedipe," premieres in Paris

  • France, England & Netherlands sign "Hedges Concerto" treaty

  • English king Charles II sends Declaration of Breda (freedom of religion)

  • London Royal Society forms

  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed after having been dead for two years.

  • Isaac Newton admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge

  • 1st banknotes in Europe were issued by Bank of Stockholm

  • The Treaty of The Hague is signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

  • Corporation Act enforced in England

  • Uniformity Act of England goes into effect

  • Theatre Royal in Drury Lane London opens

  • Louis XIV of France inaugurates The Palace of Versailles.

  • English king Charles II declares war on Netherlands

  • Jean Racine's "Alexandre le Grand," premieres in Paris

  • Great Fire of London

    Begins at 2am in Pudding Lane, 80% of London is destroyed
  • 1st public art exhibition (Palais-Royale, Paris)

  • John Milton sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10

  • Dr Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performs 1st blood transfusion

  • John Dryden (36) becomes 1st English poet laureate

  • 1st peace of Aken: ends French-Spanish war in The Netherlands

  • French King Louis XIV limits freedom of religion

  • Volcano Etna in Italy erupts killing 15,000

  • John Lockes Constitution of English colony Carolina approved

  • Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn

  • Isaac Newton reads 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London

  • King Charles II enacts Declaration of Indulgence

  • Former Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis are brutally murdered by an angry mob in The Hague.

  • Netherlands & England sign Peace of Westminster (NYC becomes English)

  • Court of Holland bans books of Hobbes/Spinoza/Meyer

  • John Flamsteed appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England

  • Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II

  • Portuguese-Jewish synagogue opens in Amsterdam

  • Christian Huygens patents pocket watch

  • Leibniz makes the first use of the long s, ∫, for integral.

  • Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = f(x) function.

  • John & Nicolaas van der Heyden patents fire extinguisher

  • Jean-Baptiste Lully's opera "Bellerophon," premieres in Paris

  • Habeaus Corpus Act (no false arrest & imprisonment) passes in UK

  • Hen in Rome lays an egg imprinted with comet not seen until Dec 16th

  • Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.

  • Henry Purcell appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London

  • English astronomer Edmund Halley sees his namesake comet

  • The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, opens as the world's first university museum.

  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reports existence of bacteria

  • Isaac Newton's derivation of Kepler's laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmund Halley.

  • Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes, outlaws Protestantism

  • 1st volume of Isaac Newton's "Principia" published

  • Charles Francois Felix operates on King Louis XIV of France's anal fistula after practicing the surgery on several peasants.

  • Newton's Principia Mathematica published

    Lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics.
  • Classicism (dates 1687-1707)

  • The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange's invasion of England, which became the Glorious Revolution.

  • French king Louis XIV declares war on Netherlands

  • King James II escapes back to London

  • Lord Delamere sides with King James II

  • Dutch prince William III proclaimed king of England

  • William III & Mary II crowned as joint rulers of Britain

  • Orangeman's Day-Battle of Boyne, Protestant victory in Ireland

  • Henry Purcell & Tates opera "Dido & Aeneas," premieres in Chesea

  • Locke publishes Two Treatises on Government.

  • Clarinet invented, in Nurnberg, Germany

  • Army of England's Protestant King William III defeats Roman Catholic King James II in Battle of Boyne in Ireland

  • Emperor Leopold I takes control of Transsylvania

  • Massacre of Glencoe

    About 78 Macdonalds at Glen Coe, Scotland are killed early in the morning for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.
  • Royal Hospital Founders Day 1st celebrated

  • 1st woman's magazine "Ladies' Mercury" published (London)

  • Date traditionally ascribed to Dom Perignon's invention of Champagne.

  • Jonathan Swift ordained an Anglican priest in Ireland

  • William Congreve's "Love for Love," premieres in London

  • Revolt of undertakers after funeral reforms (Amsterdam)

  • Mary Astell wrote Serious Proposal to the Ladies.

    This stated that women needed to become better educated.
  • Isaac Newton receives Jean Bernoulli's 6 month time-limit problem, solves problem before going to bed that same night

  • Stockholm's royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed by fire (in the 18th century, it is replaced by the current Royal Palace).

  • Germany signs French/English/Spanish/Neth/Brandenburgs peace treaty ending 9 year War

  • St Paul's Cathedral opens in London

  • Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine

  • The Darien scheme begins with five ships, bearing about 1,200 people, departing Leith for the Isthmus of Panama.

  • Treaty of Carlowitz signed.

  • Protestant West-Europe (except England) begin using Gregorian calendar

  • Russia replaces Byzantines with Julian calendar

  • Turkey declares war on Russia

  • Frederick I becomes King of Prussia.

  • Swedish troops under King Charles XII occupy Warsaw

  • Marlborough occupy Roermond

    English/Dutch troops under Marlborough occupy Roermond
  • The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the southern part of Great Britain, reaches its peak intensity which it maintains through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people perish in the mighty gale.

  • Bristol England damaged by hurricane, Royal Navy loses 15 warships

  • George F Handel's 1st opera "Almira," premieres in Hamburg

  • Nicholas Rowe's "Ulysses," premieres in London

  • Prosper Jolyot's "Idomenée," premieres in Paris

  • Vienna's Wiener Stadtbank established

  • Sweden & Prussia sign military treaty

  • German composer Johann S Bach marries his niece Maria Bach

  • Alexander Selkirk, Scottish seaman is rescued after 4+ years from Fernandez Island (inspiration for Daniel Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe")

  • Handel's opera Rinaldo, premieres

  • Utrecht banishes poor Jews

  • Peace of Utrecht; France cedes Maritime provinces to Britain - English, Prussian, Savoois, Portuguese & French peace treaty

  • Dutch State-Gen signs peace with France: Neth loses Orange Princedom

  • 1st performance of Georg F Handel's "Te Deum" & "Jubilate"

  • 1st performance of Georg F Handel's "Te Deum" & "Jubilate"

  • Typewriter patented by Englishman Henry Mill (built years later)

  • English Queen Anne fires premier Robert Haley

  • John Flamsteed observes Uranus for 6th time

  • Edmund Halley observes total eclipse phenomenon "Baily's Beads"

  • French manufacturer debuts 1st folding umbrella (Paris)

  • Handel's "Watermusic" premieres on Thames

  • King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch.

  • Pacification Treaty of Warsaw: Czar Peter the Great guarantees Saxon monarch August I's Polish kingdom

  • A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.

  • Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia, Peter the Great's son, mysteriously dies after being sentenced to death by his father for plotting against him.

  • Voltaires "Oedipe," premieres in Paris

  • Great Britain declares war on Spain.

  • Thomas Fleet publishes "Mother Goose's Melodies For Children"

  • French government proclaims strike on banknotes.

  • Montesquieu published Persian Letters.

    Reason used to liberate the mind.
  • Jonathan Swifts "Gullliver's Travels" is published

  • Alexander Pope's "Essay on Man" published

  • Mathematical calculations suggest that it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.

  • Georg-August University opens in Göttingen

  • Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel.

  • Bottle opener invented

  • Methodist Church forms

  • John Wesley is converted, essentially launching the Methodist movement; the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day.

  • Treaty of Nissa

    Is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian-Turkish War, 1736-1739.
  • King Frederik II of Prussia ends torture & guarantees religion & freedom of the press

  • Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary & Bohemia

  • Benjamin Franklin's General Magazine (2nd US Mag) begins publishing

  • War of the Austrian Succession: Prussia defeats Austria in the Battle of Mollwitz.

  • Royal Military Academy forms at Woolwich

  • George Frederick Handel's "The Messiah"

    Premieres in Dublin
  • 1st indoor swimming pool opens (Goodman's Fields, London)

  • Benjamin Franklin invents his Franklin stove

  • Hoyle publishes "Short Treatise"

  • Faneuil Hall opens to public

  • War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen:

    On the battlefield in Bavaria, George II personally leads troops into battle. The last time that a British monarch would command troops in the field.
  • England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia sign Treaty of Worms

  • Coordinated scientific observations of the transit of Mercury were organized by Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.

  • French King Louis XV declares war on England

  • Discovery of Earth's nutation motion (wobble)

    James Bradley announces this phenomena.
  • Frederick the Great (Prussia) defeats Austrians & Saxons

  • Treaty of Dresden gives much of Silesia to the Prussians

  • Jakobijnse troops vacate Aberdeen

  • English Naturalization Act passes granting Jews right to colonize US

  • Ruins of Pompeii found

  • Amsterdam establishes municipal postal service

  • The Kingswood School is opened by John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley in Bristol. The school later moved to Bath.

  • Riot after public execution in Amsterdam, 200+ killed

  • The Verona Philharmonic Theatre was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt in 1754.

  • 1st performance of Handel's "Fireworks Music" in London.

  • Empress Maria Theresa signs "Haugwitzschen State reform"

  • 1st edition of Henry Fieldings' "Tom Jones" published

  • Dutch Golden Age ends

  • Jean Honoré Fragonard: c.1700-1775

    Jean Honoré Fragonard: c.1700-1775
    Rococo: 1732-1806 The term ‘Rococo’ derives from the French word ‘rocaille’ which means rock-work, referring to a style of interior decoration that swirls with arrangements of curves and scrolls. The style was essentially French but spread throughout Europe. As Mannerism was a stylistic reaction to Renaissance art, so Rococo was a decorative response to the realism of Baroque. While some authorities consider Rococo to be a refined, elegaelegant, and allegorical.
  • Industrial Revolution starts

  • Voltaire published The Age of Louis XIV.

  • the great Encyclopédie (1751–72) edited Denis Diderot (1713–1784)

  • Georg Friedrich Handel completes oratorio "Jephtha"

  • Benjamin Franklins 1st tests the lightning rod

  • Premiere of Rousseau's opera "Le Devin du Village"

  • Voltaire leaves the court of Frederik II of Prussia

  • Publication of "Species Plantarum by Linnaeus"

    The formal start date of plant taxonomy adopted by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
  • King Louis XV disbands French parliament

  • George Washington becomes a master mason

  • 1st edition of Samuel Johnson's "Dictionary"

  • Great Lisbon Earthquake

    Great Lisbon Earthquake
  • Seven Years' War - French Indian War (1756 and 1763)

    Seven Years' War - French Indian War (1756 and 1763)
  • England & Prussia sign Treaty of Westminster

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born

  • Bartolomeo Rastrelli presents the Catherine Palace

    For Empress Elizabeth and her courtiers.
  • William Blake, English poet/painter (Songs of Innocence & Experience) is born

  • Voltaire's "Candide" published

  • Destructive eruption of Vesuvius

  • Rousseau published The Social Contract, Emile.

    Attempt to unite the liberty of the individual with the authority of the government. Emile was important for education.
  • Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishments.

  • William Hogarth, British painter dies

  • Mozart's opera "Apollo et Hyacinthus," premieres in Salzburg

  • Holbach published Systems of Nature.

    Stated that the universe is made up of matter and motion.
  • Holbach published Systems of Nature.

    Stated that the universe is made up of matter and motion.
  • Poet William Wordsworth is born

  • Romanticism takes place

  • Marie Antoinette (14) marries future King Louis XVI (15) of France

  • Denis Diderot's "Le Fils Naturel," premieres in Paris

  • Samuel Coleridge is born in Devonshire.

  • The Whirlpool Galaxy was discovered by Charles Messier

  • Smith published The Wealth of Nations.

  • "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine, published

  • Wolfgang von Goethes' "Stella," premieres in Hamburg

  • 1st volume of Gibbon's "Decline & Fall of Roman Empire" published

  • American Declaration of Independence

    US gains independence from Britain
  • William Herschel discovers 1st binary star, Xi Ursae Majoris

  • Andre Méchain discovers M80 (globular cluster in Scorpio)

  • 1st edition of Pieter It Hoens "Post of Neder-Rhijn" published

  • Mozart's opera "Idomeneo" premieres, Munich

  • Mozart's opera "Das Entfuhrung aus dem Serail," premieres in Vienna

  • Treaty of Paris signed (ending US Revolutionary War)

  • Premiere of Mozart's Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna)

  • Mozarts string quartet opus 10 premieres

  • Mozart's opera "Marriage of Figaro" premieres in Wien (Vienna)

  • Enlightenment Philosopher Condorcet published a treatise on the rights of women.

    He said that women have the same natural rights as men.
  • An Evening Walk by William Wordsworth is published.

  • Titania & Oberon discovered

    Moons of Uranus, discovered by William Herschel
  • Storming of Bastille

  • French Revolution stars

  • Bourbon Whiskey, 1st distilled from corn (by Elijah Craig, Bourbon Ky)

  • Jacques Louis David: c.1765-1850

    Jacques Louis David: c.1765-1850
    Neo-Classicism: 1748-1825 Neo-Classicism was a reaction against the pomposity of Rococo. This was the Age of the Enlightenment and political, social and cultural revolution were in the air. Artists needed a serious art for serious times and once again they looked back to the art of Antiquity as their model. Inspired by the archeological discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii, Neo-Classicism had a historical accuracy that earlier classical revivals lacked.
  • George Washington delivers 1st state of union address (or Jan 4)

  • Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premieres in Vienna

  • Olympe de Gouges published a Declaration of the Rights of Woman.

  • Congress establishes US Mint

  • The Treaty of Sistova

    Ends the Ottoman-Habsburg wars
  • Benjamin Banneker publishes 1st Almanac

  • The National Constituent Assembly

    Paris is dissolved; Parisians hail Maximilien Robespierre and Jérôme Pétion as incorruptible patriots.
  • D Cimarosa's opera "Il Matrimonio Segreto," premieres in Vienna

  • 1st public zoo opens in Paris

  • Eli Whitney patents his cotton gin

  • "Reign of Terror" begins

  • Louvre officially opens in Paris

  • Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason was written.

  • Beethoven (24) debuts as pianist in Vienna

  • Haydn's song "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser," premieres in Vienna

  • J M W Turner: c.1765-1850

    J M W Turner: c.1765-1850
    Romanticism 1775-1851 Romanticism valued the expression of emotion over the control of Classicism. This was achieved through spectacular painting technique and the choice of emotive and sensual subjects which often commemorated dramatic contemporary and historical events. In France, Delacroix and Géricault were the pioneers of Romanticism; in England, it was Turner and Constable; in Germany, Caspar David Friedrich and in Spain, Goya.
  • 1st president to live in white house (John Adams)

  • Johann von Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans," premieres in Leipzig

  • French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons discovers his 1st comet

  • 1st performance of Beethoven's 2nd Symphony in D

  • English scientist John Dalton started using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.

  • x Napoleon is crowned king of Italy

  • 1st performance of Ludwig von Beethoven's 4th Symphony in B

  • Aaron Burr acquitted of charges of plotting to set up an empire

  • Joseph Haydns oratorio "Die Schopfung" premieres in Vienna

  • William Henry Lane ("Juda") perfects tap dance

  • Frederic Chopin is born

  • Rossini's opera "La Cenerentola" premieres in Rome

  • "Frankenstein" is publsihed

    The first edition was published anonymously in London in 1818. Shelley's name appears on the second edition, published in France in 1823.
  • Lord Byron completes "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" (4th canto)

  • Keats writes his poem "On a Lock of Milton's Hair"

  • Greece gains independence from Turkey (National Day)

  • Franz Liszts (11) debut as pianist Isabella Colbran

  • Rossini's opera "Semiramide" premieres in Venice

  • 1st performance of Beethoven's "Missa Solemnis"

  • Goethe visits Ettersberg (Buchenwald)

  • The National Gallery in London opens

  • 1st public railroad using steam locomotive completed in England

  • Samuel Mory patents internal combustion engine

  • Weber's opera "Oberon," premieres in London

  • Johann von Goethe's "Faust, Part 1," premieres

  • Victor Hugo's "Hernani" premieres in Paris

  • William Lloyd Garrison publishes 1st issue of abolitionist journal

  • Vincenzo Bellini's opera "I Puritani," premieres in Paris

  • Foundation stone for new Palace of Westminster, London, laid

  • Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Holländer" premieres, Dresden

  • Charles Dickens publishes "A Christmas Carol," in England

  • Hector Berlioz' "Carnaval Romain," premieres in Paris

  • Edgar Allen Poe's "Raven" 1st published

  • Theophile Gautier publishes "Hashish Club" about his initiation

  • Robert von Bunsen invents the Bunsen burner

  • Romanticism ends

  • Edgar Allan Poe dies

    American author, poet and literary critic dies
  • Industrial Revolution ends