AP EURO

  • Period: Dec 17, 1315 to Dec 18, 1322

    The Great Famine

  • Dec 17, 1427

    Masaccio develops linear perspective

    Masaccio develops linear perspective
  • Dec 17, 1435

    Alberti publishes On Painting

    Book on how to art--changed perspective of generation of artists
  • Dec 17, 1436

    Brunelleschi completes Il Duomo

    Brunelleschi completes Il Duomo
    Completed Il Duomo after construction began in 1296
  • Dec 17, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans

    Ottomans enter into Europe
    People fled w/stuff from Roman Empire-->sparked Renaissance
  • Dec 17, 1453

    End of 100 Years War

  • Feb 7, 1479

    Bonfire of Vanities

    Savonarola burned books, jewelry and other luxury goods
    Savonarola ended up being burned at the stake
  • Dec 17, 1485

    Botticelli paints Birth of Venus

    Botticelli paints Birth of Venus
    Attempts to depict perfect beauty
    Example of classicism
  • Dec 17, 1492

    Spain: 1492

    Unification of Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella)
    Columbus
    Expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain
  • Period: Dec 17, 1494 to

    Valois v. Habsburgs

    French v Empire
    Dispute started when Charles VII invades Italy
  • Dec 17, 1503

    da Vinci paints Mona Lisa

    da Vinci paints Mona Lisa
    Example of High Renaissance art
  • Period: Dec 17, 1508 to Dec 18, 1512

    Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel

  • Dec 17, 1511

    Rafael paints The School of Athens

    Rafael paints The School of Athens
    One point perspective
    Painting famous people in--shows move away from religion as center focus of art
  • Dec 17, 1517

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses
    95 complaints about the Roman Catholic Church
  • Dec 17, 1519

    Charles V becomes Emperor

    Charles V becomes Emperor
    Ends up inheriting Spain, Hapsburg, Burgundy, the Empire, and New World
  • Dec 17, 1521

    The Diet of Worms

    Charles V summons Luther to recant--Luther doesn't
  • Dec 17, 1525

    Peasants' War

    Charles V social problems
    Peasants attempted to apply New Testament teaching in practices in their communities
    Protestants fought back and crushed them
  • Dec 17, 1527

    Sack of Rome

    End of Renaissance
  • Dec 17, 1529

    The Marburg Colloquy

    Lutherans and Zwinglians agree on most issue but communions
  • Dec 17, 1532

    Machiavelli publishes the The Prince

    Machiavelli publishes the The Prince
    First political science book
    "Lion and a fox"
  • Dec 17, 1535

    Henry VIII splits from Catholic Church

    Henry VIII splits from Catholic Church
    In order to get divorced from Catherine needed to split from church
  • Dec 17, 1535

    The Munster Revolution

    Anabaptists take over German city
    Big fear of Catholic and Luther--common cause
    -taints view of radicals--makes them seem violent
  • Dec 17, 1536

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    Popular uprising against Henry VIII split from chruch
  • Dec 17, 1536

    The Institutes of the Christian Religion

    The Institutes of the Christian Religion
    Systematized Reformed idea
    Key ideas: sola scriptura, predestination
  • Dec 18, 1543

    Copernicus Hypothesis

    Copernicus Hypothesis
    Idea that the sun, not the earth was center of universe, used math to support hypothesis, challenging to traditional hierarchy of disciplines, destroyed Aristotelian physics
  • Dec 17, 1549

    Book of Common Prayer published

    Book of Common Prayer published
    Anglican prayer book
  • Period: Dec 18, 1550 to

    Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)

    Most important: scientific method (Bacon and Decartes), led to skepticism
  • Dec 17, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Charles V made peace with Protestant states
    Must choose between Lutherism and Catholicism
  • Dec 17, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

    Ended the Habsburg-Valois War
    Win for Spain but let French off the hook
  • Period: Dec 17, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

    Generally two sides: Guise (led Catholic in North) and Bourbon (led Hugenots in South)
    War of 3 Henri's--3 way civil war in France
  • Dec 17, 1563

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    Catholic Reformation
    Like Constitutional Convention
    Main Goals: (1) reform the Church (accomplished) (2) clarify despited doctrine--make on Catholic Bible, and condemn heresy
  • Dec 18, 1564

    Geneva

    Protestants take over, abolish all the fun stuff like dancing, church and state-John Calvin
  • Aug 23, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    25,000 dead but Henri of Navare escapes ("turns Catholic")
  • Jan 23, 1581

    Union of Utrecht

    Led by Holland--declared independence from Spain
  • Spanish Armada

    Spanish Armada
    Elizabeth I support of Dutch revolutions against occupation and pirates against Spain
    Phillip as a result tried to assassinate Elizabeth
    Fleet sent by Phillip II against England as religious crusade against Protestantism--English and weather defeated it
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Granted religious rights to Hugenots--not for all
  • Period: to

    Baroque Time Period

    Catholic reformation and absolute monarchs, a lot of gold and details, attempt to overwhelm the senses, painting were dramatic with dark contrast
    Dutch: opposite of Baroque, simplistic and daily life
  • James I comes to power

    James I comes to power
    Problems faced: large royal debt, wasn't English--didn't understand English customs, believed in divine right of kings, pro-Catholic sympathies, clashed w/Parliament
  • Protestant Union Established

    Mostly the Schmalkaldic League
  • Catholic League Established

    In defense to Protestant Union: protect Catholic interest
  • Defenestration of Prague

    Defenestration of Prague
    Threw Catholic tax collectors out of the window
    Led to full scale revolt against Church and Habsburgs
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    Bohemian Phase (1618-1622)
    Danish Phase (1622-1630)
    Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
    French Phase (1635-1648)
  • Battle of White Mountain

    Catholic League wins decisive battle in 1620
    Won back Bohemia--crushing Protestant uprisings, boosted Catholic confidence to get rid of Protestants completely
  • Charles I comes to power

    Charles I comes to power
    Like his father (James I), pro-ceremonies and rituals, uniformity of church services imposed by church court--like Philip, seen as too pro-Catholic by Puritans
  • The Petition of Rights

    The Petition of Rights
    In return for money, Charles I agrees to: no imprisonment w/out cause and other deals similar to Bill of Right, as soon as he got his money, ripped up and dissolves congress
  • Edict of Restitution

    Attempt to undo Reformation:
    Returned much land to Catholicism, allowed Lutheranism to survive in limited form, rulers get to pick religion of land (Catholic or Catholic)
  • Battle between Wallenstein and Adolphus

    Wallenstein (Catholic) wins--Adolphus (Protestant) dies (loss King and military leader), establishes Wallenstein as very dangerous, violent and disloyal
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Philosophy: tabula rasa, free will, social contract (not permanent--government's only job to protect natural rights)
  • Wallenstein assassinated

    Wallenstein assassinated
    Seen as too dangerous, violent and disloyal
  • Ship Money Assessments

    Ship Money Assessments
    Medieval tax for costal cities for defense, Charles applied them to inland counties as well (executive order), makes sense but did it to get around Parliament--didn't need to call Parliament into session
  • Short Parliament

    Short Parliament
    13 April to 5 May 1640, Charles I tried to get more money--only lasted 3 weeks, they demanded protection
  • Long Parliament called

    In session from 1640-1660, passed triennial act (Parliament must be called every 3 years)--can't be adjourned w/out its own consent, Star Chamber and High Commission abolished--> Charles enters House of Commons to end session and arrest 5 people--proved unsuccessful
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government
  • Rump Parliament

    Rump Parliament
    Led by Oliver Cromwell, army to beat royalists, arrests all parliamentary members who opposed them--leaving Rump Parliament, all of the radicals
  • Treaty of Westphalia (End of 30 Years War)

    Treaty of Westphalia (End of 30 Years War)
    Politics: German princes are free from control, 360 separate states, United Province (Dutch) independence, French wins territories, Sweden wins territory and seat on diet, Switzerland independence, Brandenburg
    Religion: add Calvinism to Peace of Augsberg
  • The Fronde (1648-1653)

    Mazarin's struggles to increase royal revenue to meet costs of war led to uprisings, civil order completely broke, violence significant later
  • Period: to

    Interregnum

    "between kings"-The Common Wealth (1649-1653), The Protectorate (1654-1660)--abolishes parliament to make military dictatorship (like Napoleon)
  • The Restoration

    The Restoration
    King Charles II--not horrible, welcomed guest by Louis XIX, had charm, poise and political skills--restored fun stuff, favored religious tolerance-takes bribes from Louis XIV
  • Period: to

    Dutch Golden Age

    Major military power, made money through shipping (thanks to geography had great access to water), modern financial system
  • Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan
    Idea of social contract--all member of society place themselves under the absolute rule of sovereign--maintain peace and order
  • Navigation Act

    Navigation Act
    Required English goods be transported on English ships, great boost of English merchant, short but successful war with Dutch
  • Period: to

    The Protectorate

    Cromwell tears up ineffective constitution, dismisses Rump Parliament and rules w/support of military, religious tolerance for all (kinda), Protestant Regime, crushed rebellion in Scotland and Ireland
  • Treaty of Pyrenees

    Ended French-Spanish conflict of Thirty Years War, Spain surrendered territories to France
  • Test Act

    Test Act
    Denied those outside of the Church of England the right to vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities or even assemble for meetings--not enforeced
  • Louis XIV constructs Versailles

    Louis XIV constructs Versailles
    Strengthens core of France, all nobility live there, Louis able to play them off of each other to control them, shows absolute power of Louis XIV
  • Ottoman's siege Vienna again

    Relieved by John Sobieski--Polish King of Poland, beginning of the end of the Ottomans
  • King James II comes to power

    King James II comes to power
    Bigot, Catholic, combines worst elements of 3 kings, standing army outside of London, surrounds himself with Catholics, daughter Mary II marries William III of Orange
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    "Early Enlightenment" (17th Century-1748): most directly influenced by Scientific Rev.
    1748-1778-the High Enlightenment: began with Montesquieu's Spirit of Law and ends with death of Voltaire and Rousseau
    1778-after-The Late Enlightenment: influenced by Rousseau
  • Sir Issac Newton publishes Principa

    Sir Issac Newton publishes Principa
    Published his findings, set down 3 laws of motion
  • The "Glorious" Revolution

    The "Glorious" Revolution
    Whig and Tory leaders offered throne jointly to Mary II and husband William of Orange--enemy of Louis XIV and a champion of Protestant cause, ask another country to invade to overthrow
  • English Bill of Rights

    Patient zero of the Enlightenment, model for the USA's Bill of Rights
  • John Locke publishes Second Treatise of Civil Government

    John Locke publishes Second Treatise of Civil Government
    Bases of representative government, government oversteps function--to protect natural rights--becomes tyranny
  • Peter comes to power in Russia

    Peter comes to power in Russia
    Starts to attempt to westernize Russia to make it powerful, turns mostly Asian country to become more European
  • The War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713)

    The War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713)
    Charles II death leaves Spain to French--Louis XIV fights war and looses--adds very little territory
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    End of Spanish War of Succession, Spain couldn't unite thrown w/French--but stays in Bourbon family, Dutch military decline, Spain looses all territories (Austrian Netherlands), British control of slave trade
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    Stated Maria Theresa would be recognized as soon as Charles VI dies, people attack--take opportunity of momentary weakness
  • Fredrick the Great of Prussia comes to power

    Fredrick the Great of Prussia comes to power
    Doubled Prussian population, established Prussia as great power in Europe, doesn't emancipate the Jews, ended censorship through Prussia, established strong judiciary, abolished torture, freed surfs in royal domains
  • War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

    War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
    Prussia attacks, Bohemia revolts, Maria Theresa needed to convince Hungary that she's their queen--does it with a Braveheart style speech with Lion King baby--Fredrick keeps Silesia but Maria Theresa keeps Austria
  • Montesquieu publishes Spirit of Laws

    Montesquieu publishes Spirit of Laws
    Idea of separations of powers ensures freedom and liberty (wants to protect rights of nobles and wealthy)
  • Encyclopedie

    Encyclopedie
    Spread Enlightenment, had practical things
  • David Hume publishes Natural History of Religion

    David Hume publishes Natural History of Religion
    Atheist, believes God rests on superstition and fear rather than on reason--religion is a social phenomenon
  • Period: to

    7 Years War (French and Indian War)

    France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Spain, German States versus Prussia and England--first truly global war
    Coalition against Prussia had different different goals/priorities so Prussia and England with specialization able to defeat coalition against them
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1758

    France and Austria go from being enemies to active allies (like US and Russia)--Marie Antionette sent to marry Louis VI
  • Voltaire publishes Candide

    Voltaire publishes Candide
    French satire of social system--very popular
  • Catherine the Great comes to power

    Catherine the Great comes to power
    Plotted to kill Peter to become tzarina
    1767: Summons Legislative Commission
    1768-1774: Russia Turko War--gets warm water port
  • Rousseau publishes Emile

    Rousseau publishes Emile
    Children should be loved, women should nurse their own children, education should be revamped, people should focus on common things
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    Ends 7 Years War--Europe largely remained status quo, massive land changed hands in N. America (Canada and Louisiana), France expelled from India--rise in Britain's global dominance
  • Beccaria publishes On Crime and Punishment

    Beccaria publishes On Crime and Punishment
    Argued for standard procedures in judicial processes, end torture and death penalty
  • Joseph II of Austria comes to power

    Joseph II of Austria comes to power
    Most enlightened out of enlightened absolutists, abolished serfs, absolute equality of taxation, punishment less cruel, emancipate the Jews but expels Jesuits, sold monasteries, partition of Poland--brother Leopold has to undo most of this
  • Moses Mendelssohn publishes On Immortality of the Soul

    Reconciles religion and reason, argued for religious tolerance and Jewish emancipation, state has no right to intervene in subjects' religious lives
  • Pugachev's Rebellion (1771-1775)

    Pugachev's Rebellion (1771-1775)
    Pugachev claims to be Catherine's dead husband, peasants revolt, nobility defeat him--proves to be a turning point in Catherine's rule, turns away from Enlightened ideas in practice--strengthens nobility
  • Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations
    Argued for economic liberalism/capitalism
  • Immanuel Kant publishes Critique of Pure Reason

    Immanuel Kant publishes Critique of Pure Reason
    Idea of dare to know, not everything needs to be based on reason, introduced idea of transcendentalism
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Ends the American Revolution
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    Members of Third Estate agree to not stop meeting until Const. is made
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Rumors spread through Paris that Louis was going to use force against National Assembly, people tear down Bastille with bare hands--killing the guards--this legitimized the violence of the French Revolution
  • The Great Fear

    The Great Fear
    Rumors continue to spread--peasants feared aristocrats were going to take their land so they stormed the manors and took land and burned papers--Lafayette saves the day
  • August Decrees

    August Decrees
    Abolished feudalism--abolished nobility--political distinctions--everyone was now the 3rd Estate, all Frenchmen subject to same laws and taxes (peasants and bourgeoisie got what they wanted)
  • Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens

    Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens
    Influenced by American Declaration of Independence
  • March of Women

    March of Women
    Spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread--stormed Versailles, killed the guards, almost killed Marie--Lafayette saves the day again--take King and Queen back to Paris
  • October Days

    Monarchy and assembly moved back to Paris--National Assembly begins to fall under radical elements of Paris--second wave of emigres leave
  • Estates General called

    Estates General called
    Called for the first since 1614--1st Estate: clergy, 2nd Estate: nobility, 3rd Estate: peasants, bourgeoisie, sans-culottes--each had one vote--only 3rd Estate taxed
  • Sieyes publishes What is the Third Estate?

    Sieyes publishes What is the Third Estate?
    Argued that the 3rd Estate is everyone in France and the 1st and 2nd are just leeches (he himself was a member of the 1st)--spurs action
  • Period: to

    National Assembly

    Liberte! Egalite! Fraternite!
    Wrote Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, still a Constitutional Monarch
  • Civil Constitution of Clergy

    National Assembly didn't like how church was reacting to the Revolution--made it so the clergy had to take an oath of allegiance to the new government--if not then become refractory--one of the most radical thing Assembly did
  • Sir Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on a Revolution

    Sir Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on a Revolution
    Conservative response to Revolution, says its too dangerous, need tradition to hold country together--change is ok but needs to be gradual
  • Mary Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of Rights of Men

    Mary Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of Rights of Men
    Direct response to Burke--slow change just causes more pain--need a revolution
  • Royal Family attempts to flee

    Head to Austrian Netherlands--get caught and taken back to Paris--seen as a traitor
  • Declaration of Pillntz

    Issued by Leopold--stated that if all of Europe joined against France, then he would intervene--lie-but emigres took him seriously and so did France--gave Girondists advantage
  • Louis XVI forced to accept Constitution of 1791

    Establishes branches--king still has power (suspensive veto--4 years)--goal to ensure country does not turn over to mob
  • Period: to

    Legislative Assembly

    Constitutional Monarch--established by Constitution of 1791--very brief rule
  • France declares war on Austria

    Prussia joins
  • Brunswick Manifesto

    Duke of Brunswick declares that if royal family is harmed, Paris will be destroyed--made monarchs look like traitors (and they were)
  • Second Revolution

    Working class storm the palace, imprison the king, declare republic--now inspired by Rousseau
  • September Massacres

    September Massacres
    Marat argues Paris will fall to prisoners after Rev.---common people stormed the prisons and killed everyone--global sympathy for French Rev. lost--discredited the Revolution
  • Monarchy abolished in France

    first act of the National Convention
  • Decree of Fraternity

    Offered French assistance to any subject people who wanted to overthrow their government
  • Period: to

    National Convetion

    Republic--things turn radical
  • Louis XVI executed

    Louis XVI executed
  • Vendee uprising begins

  • Reign of Terror begins

    Reign of Terror begins
    Led by Robespierre--executions made more to make a point
  • De-Christianization begins

    adopt new republican calendar, banned public exercise of religion, Notre Dame--> Temple of Reason
  • Festival of Supreme Being

    Festival of Supreme Being
    Robespierre comes out on top of paper mache mountain dressed in robes, people thought he was going crazy
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    Backlash to Robespierre--he went too far--arrests him and is executed--the Revolution has consumed its own child
  • The Directory Takes Office

    5 man executive committee--or oligarchy--to avoid dictatorship--proved ineffective and corrupt
  • Period: to

    Directory

    Ineffective Oligarchy
  • Coup d'etat of Fructidor

    Coup d'etat of Fructidor
    The royalists win election--as a result the members of the Directory seize power to stop a monarch from forming
  • Napoleon overthrows Directory

    Napoleon overthrows Directory
    18 Brumaire--approved by plebiscite in December--named himself First Consul
  • Concordat of 1801

    Clergy now under discipline of the pope, public Catholicism worship permitted, Catholicism ruled religion of majority of Frenchmen, papal acceptance of church lands lost during Rev., pay the clergy, disarm counterrevolution
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    reforms French legal code: all French citizens had same civil rights, repeated ban of labor unions, lower presumption of innocence than present in English Common Law, restricted women's rights, re-establish patriarchy
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    (Third Coalition) France v. Britain-->France defeated by navy--but not invaded by England
  • Continental System

    Continental System
    French attempt to blockade British from trade to starve them out--backfired--Britain blockades the rest of Europe from the world, really bad for Russia--Portugal doesn't agree to System and helps Peninsular Campaign
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    Goals:
    1) defense against France
    2) balance of power
    3) compensation
    4) legitimacy (wanted to maintain