Absolutism and World Exploration

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Absolutism and Global Exploration, Katie Burns

    By: Katie Burns
  • Period: Jan 1, 1517 to Jan 1, 1546

    Protestant Reformation

    The Protestant Reformation was the schism within the Western Church. It was sparked by Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1533 to

    Reign of Tsar Ivan IV (Russia)

    This makred the rule of Tsar Ivan IV (The Terrible). He tortured priests, killed numerous nobles, and murdered his own son. He initiated the expansion of Russia into Siberia.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" by Nicolaus Copernicus

    "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" was written by Nicolaus Copernicus. This book began the scientific revolution in astronomy.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1550 to

    Peak of the European Wtich Trials

    European witch hunts and trials peak.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism as an legal religion in Europe. This document maintained relative peace in the Holy Roman Empire until the early 1600s.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    Reign of Philip II (Spain)

    He was the most powerful ruler in Europe, and was originally married to Mary Tudor, but had no heir. Philip II insisted on Catholic unity.
  • Jan 1, 1558

    Death of Mary Tudor

    Mary Tudor dies, Elizabeth I succeedes her.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1558 to

    Reign of Queen Elizabeth I (England)

    She succeeded Mary Tudor as Queen of England. She solidified her personal power and authority of the Anglican church. She put down Catholics in the North. Her greatest challenges came from the Puritans and Philip II.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1560 to Jan 1, 1574

    Reign of Charles IX (France)

    Charles IX became king after his father died at 10 years-old. He was the son of Catherine de Médicis, meaning he was Italian as well. His mother was placed in charge, until he came of age. The French Civil War began during his reign over France.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

    The Hugeuenot (nobility) and Catholic armies began fighting in a series of wars that thretened to tear apart the France. This was a result of the French kings inabaility to control relgiious conflict in France.
  • Jan 1, 1563

    39 Articles of Religion

    Church of England issues 39 Articles of Religion which incorporated Catholic ritual with Calvinist doctrines. The Puritans believed that these were still too Catholic.
  • Jan 1, 1566

    Calvinists Attacks in Netherlands

    Calvinists in the Netherlands attacked Catholic churches, smashing stained-glass windows and statues of the Virgin Mary. Philip III sent an army to punish them.
  • Jan 1, 1568

    Mary of Scots Forced to Abdicate the Throne

    Mary, Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate her throne to her then one-year-old son James.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1568 to Jan 1, 1570

    Moriscos Revolt in southern Spain

    During this period of time, the Moriscos--Muslims who converted to Christianity, but secretly remained loyal to Islam--revolted in the south of Spain, killing 90 priests and 1500 Christians.
  • Jan 1, 1569

    The Anglican Prayerbook

    The Anglican (Church of England) Prayerbook was written, which included a colored print of Queen Elizabeth saying her prayers.
  • Jan 1, 1569

    Poland and Lithuania Merge

    Poland and Lithuania combine into a single commonwealth.
  • Jan 1, 1571

    Battle at Lepanto

    Battle at Lepanto
    Philip II achieved his greatest military victory during his reign when Spain joined with Venice and the papacy to defeat the Turks.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    Only days after the wedding of Charles IX's daughter, Margaret and Henry III of Navarre, there was an assasination attempt of a Hugenot sparking a bloodbath between Protestants and Catholics.
  • Jan 1, 1573

    Ottomans Take Cyprus

    Ottomans seize Cyprus. They allow Christians to stay without trying to convert them.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1574 to

    Reign of Henry III (France)

    His rule was marked by political instability in France. Henry III was stabbed to death in 1589, and because he did not have an heir, after his death Henry IV took over.
  • Jan 1, 1576

    "The Six Books of the Republic" by Jean Bodin

    "The Six Books of the Republic" was written by Jean Bodin. This book helped lay the foundation for absolutism.
  • Nov 1, 1576

    The Spanish Fury

    The Spanish Fury included 11 days in which the Spanish soldiers slaughtered 7,000 people. Philip III’s long-unpaid armies sacked Antwerp, then Europe’s wealthiest commercial city. The armies, representing the Netherlands’ seven Protestant northern provinces formally allied with the ten Catholic southern provinces led by Prince William of Orange, drove out the Spaniards.
  • Jan 1, 1578

    Painting of "The Dream of Philip II"

    "The Dream of Philip II" was painted by El Greco in 1578 or 1579.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    Death of Portugal King

    Death of Portugal King
    When the king of Portugal died without an heir, Philip II took over this neighboring realm with its rich empire in Africa, India, and the Americas.
  • Period: to

    Albrecht von Wallenstein (Bohemia)

    Albrecht von Wallenstein, He was a commander, who raised an army for Ferdinand II and employed over 125,000 thousand soldiers. He occupied much of Protestant Germany with the approval of the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Assissnation of William of Orange

    William of Orange was assassinated, and the Spanish troops never regained control in northern Netherlands.
  • Elizabeth I Helps Dutch Rebels

    After initially resisting, Elizabeth I sent funds to the Dutch rebels and dispatched 7,000 soldiers to help them, after Philip II annexed Portugal and began to interfere in French affairs.
  • Death of Mary, Queen of Scots

    Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded by Elizabeth I, after Elizabeth discovered a letter plotting her death.
  • Death of Catholic League Leaders

    Death of Catholic League Leaders
    After the Guises formed the Catholic League, which requested help from Spanish king Philip II, Henry III summoned the two Guise leaders to a meeting and had his men kill them.
  • Spanish Armanda Attacks England and Loses

    Philip II sends his armada to attack England. He loses, and the Spanish armada is forced to retreat and never fully recovers.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Henry IV (France)

    After taking throne when Henry III died, Henry IV publicly embraced Catholicism. He was a Portestant Bourbon leader, who issued the Edict of Nantes. He allowed people to buy offices in the government, which became known as the "nobility of the robe". After 19 attempts, he was finally assignated.
  • Henry IV Promotes Catholicism

    Henry IV Promotes Catholicism
    Henry IV publicly embraced Catholicism, explaining his conversion experience with this quote: "Paris is worth a Mass."
  • Period: to

    Famine in Europe

    There was a major famine in Europe. This resulted in revolts from Ireland to Muscovy.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Christian IV (Denmark)

    This marked the rule of Christian IV. He was a Lutheran king of Denmark, who responded to Wallenstein by invading northern Germany to protect the protestants.
  • Dutch Republic Allows Practice of Judaism

    Jews are allowed to worship openly in their synagogues in the Dutch Republic.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Nantes granted Huguenots a large measure of religious toleration to become a legally protected minority within the Catholic majority in France.
  • Death of Philip II

    At a point when his empire had begun to lose its luster, Philip II died.
  • Slaves Brought to New World

    At this period of time, about 9500 Africans were exported from Africa to the New World. This greatly increased over the coming years.
  • "Hamlet" by Shakespeare

    Shakespeare wrote the play, "Hamlet."
  • Period: to

    Reign of King James (Scotland and England)

    King James reigns over Scotland and England.
  • King James Bible

    King James Bible was authorized by the Church of England
  • "Don Quixote" by Miguel de Cervantes

    "Don Quixote" is written by Miguel de Cervantes.
  • "King Lear" by Shakespeare

    King Lear written by Shakespeare.
  • "In the Advancement of Learning" by Sir Francis Bacon

    "In the Advancement of Learning" was written by Sir Francis Bacon.
  • "Macbeth" by Shakespeare

    Macbeth written by Shakespeare.
  • "Orfeo" by Claudio Monteverdi

    Orfeo was written by Claudio Monteverdi.
  • France Gains Quebec

    France claims land in Quebec.
  • Philip III Expels the Moriscos

    Philip III Expels the Moriscos
    Philip III ordered the expulsion of Moriscos from Spain, in retaliation for their lack of loyalty to Christianity. The Moriscos were forced to relocated to North Africa (there were 300,000 in North Africa by 1614).
  • Period: to

    Settlement of Jamestown

    Located in Virginia, Jamestown was the first successful English settlement in the New World, and was named after King James I.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIII

    Louis XIII was a French king, who hoped to profit from the troubles of Spain in the Netherlands.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden)

    Gustavus Adolphus was the king of Sweden.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Michael Romanov (Russia)

    Russian king, Michael Romanov, established a new dynasty and restored the peace of the Muscovite Russia.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Frederick V (Bohemia)

    This marked the rule of Frederick V. He was a Calvinist who was put on the Bohemian throne in place of Ferdinand II.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Archduke Ferdinand (Bohemia)

    Archduke Ferdinand was crowned king of Bohemia. He was a Catholic Hapsburg. He later became the Holy Roman Emperor. He was thrown out of Bohemia and replaced by Frederick V
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    Eventually brings in all major European powers.
  • Protestant Protests in Bohemia

    Protestant Protests in Bohemia
    Protestants in the kingdom of Bohemia furiously protested the Holy Roman Emperor's attempts to diminish their religious freedoms. They wanted to build new churches, but the HRE wanted to stop them. They stormed the castle of Prague (although no one died..), and these revolts led to the Thirty Years' War.
  • African Slaves

    The first African slaves are transported to the colony of Virginia.
  • Founding of the Plymouth Colony

    Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts was founded.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles I (England)

    Charles I succeeds James I as king of England.
  • Petition of Right

    English Parliament forced Charles I to agree to the Petition of Right by which he promised not to levy taxes without its consent.
  • Edict of Restittution

    Ferdinand II issues the Edict of Restitution, which outlawed Calvinism in the empire and reclaimed Catholic church properties that had been confiscated by the Lutherans.
  • Period: to

    Refusal to Call Parliaent to Session

    Charles I refuses to call Parliament to session.
  • Gustavus Adolphus Attacks Germany

    Gustavus Adolphus marches into Germany, declaring his support for the Protestant cause. He also wanted to gain control of northern Europe. He defeated the army and occupied the Catholic parts of Germany.
  • Death of Gustavus Adolphus

    Gustavus Adolphus is killed at the battle of Lützen.
  • Galileo Charged With Heresy

    Galileo was found to have committed heresy against the Church for his ideas about heliocentrism.
  • France Declares War Against Spain

    France joins the fight, declaring war against Spain. They then formed an alliance with the Calvinist Dutch.
  • "Discourse on Method" by René Descartes

    "Discourse on Method" was written by René Descartes.
  • Revolt of Catalonian Peasants

    Peasants in Catalonia rebel.
  • Rebellion and Independence for Portugal

    Portugal rebels and reclaims its independence.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Frederick William ofHehenzollern (Prussia)

    Frederick William of Hehenzollern, known as the Great Elector of Brandenburg, Prussia. He successfully made Brandenburg-Prussia an absolutist state.
  • Charles I Invades Parliament

    Charles I invades Parliament and tries, unsuccessfully, to arrest those leaders who had tried to limit his power.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    English civil war are fought between Charles I (Cavaliers) and Parliament (Roundheads).
  • Spain Defeated By France

    The Spanish suffer their first major defeat against by the French.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIV (France)

    This marked the rule of Louis XIV. He was personified as the absolutist ruler who in theory shared his power with no one else. He often told the French court “I am the state.”
  • Louis XIV's Week-long Entertainment

    King Louis XIV organized a week long series of entertainments for his court at Versailles where he had just begun construction of a new castle.
  • Spain Recognizes Dutch Republic

    Spanish formally recognized Dutch independence, despite the fact that Holland had been a self-governing state for quite some time, sheltering various religious groups.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    The Peace of Westphalia served as a model for future conflicts between warring European countries. It ended the Thirty Years' War.
  • Revolt of Ukranian Cossak Warriors

    Ukrainian Cossak warriors revolted against the king of Poland-Lithuania.
  • Code of 1649

    Code of 1649 assigned all subjects in Russia to a hereditary class according to their current occupation of state needs. Slaves and peasants were merged into a serf class.
  • Death of Charles I (England)

    Charles I was beheaded before a crowd for his guilt in an unlimited and tyrannical power.
  • "Leviathan" by Thoms Hobbes

    "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes argued for unlimited authority of a ruler.
  • Russo-Poland War

    Cossacks offer Ukraine up to Russian rule which then provoked a Russo-Poland war.
  • "Black Code"

    Louis XIV promoted a “black code”, which regulated the status of slaves in French colonies and prevented non-Catholics from owning slaves
  • Period: to

    Reign of Leopold I (Holy Roman Empire)

    Leopold I is the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. He ws an Austrian Hapsburg, who gradually consolidated his power throughout the empire.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles II (Spain)

    This marked the rule of Charles II of Spain.
  • Period: to

    Metacomet Alliance

    Three tribes allied under Metacomet and threatened the survival of New England settlers.
  • Russian Church Council Reaffims Tsar's Role

    A church council in Russia reaffirmed the Tsar’s role as God’s direct representative on earth.
  • The Great Fire

    The Great Fire brought devastation to London, England. While the flames did not reach the aristocratice areas of Westminister or Charles II's palace, the city itself was destroyed.
  • Rebellion Against the Nobles

    Stenka Razin led a rebellion that promised serf liberation from the nobles. He didn’t succeed.
  • Period: to

    War of Devolution

    In the War of Devolution, Louis XIV claimed that lands in Spanish Netherlands should belong to him since the Spanish king had failed to pay the dowry of Louis’s Spanish bride. He defeated Spain but had to make peace when England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic joined the war.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle allowed Louis XIV to gain control of a few towns on the border of Spanish Netherlands.
  • Secret Agreement between England and France

    Charles II and Louis XIV made a secret agreement in which Charles II promised to announce his conversion to Catholicism in exchange for money for a war against the Dutch.
  • Period: to

    (Second) Dutch War

    The Dutch War was between Dutch Republic/Spain/Holy Roman Empire and France. Louis XIV acquires the Spanish Netherlands (controlled by Spain), in reaction to the revolts in Huguenot/Dutch Netherlands, which were the control of William of Orange. Louis XIV gains Alsace, and at this point is the height of expansion for France.
  • Louis XIV's Decree on the Passage of Laws

    Louis XIV decreed that parlements could no longer vote against his proposed laws or even speak against them.
  • Declaration of Indulgence

    The Declaration of Indulgence was characterized by Charles II's suspension of all laws against Catholics and Protestant dissenters.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Jan Sobieski (Poland)

    Jan Sobieski is elected king of Poland.
  • Hospitals in France

    Louis XIV ordered every French city to establish a hospital, and his government took charge of the finances.
  • Test Act

    The Test Act required all government officials in England to profess allegiance to the Church of England and in effect disavow Catholic doctrine. Parliament also tried to deny the throne to a Roman Catholic. Charles refused to allow this to become a law.
  • Period: to

    Treaty of Nijmegen

    The Treaty of Nijmegen ended the Dutch War and gave several Flemish towns and the Franche-Comté region to Louis XIV.
  • Luis XIV conquers Strasbourg

    Louis XIV conquers Strasbourg for France.
  • French Royal Decree on Wtichcraft

    French royal decree treated witchcraft as fraud and imposture, meaning that the law did not recognize anyone as a witch.
  • Period: to

    Battle of Hungary

    Battle for Hungary was fought between Austria and the Turks. It ended with the Ottoman Turks surrendering most of Hungary to the Austrians. This marked the decline of the Ottoman empire.
  • Louis XIV Invades Lorraine

    Louis XIV invades Lorraine for France.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles II ( England)

    With the reign of Charles II, the traditional monarchical form government is reinstated, giving Charles II full partnership with Parliament. He also attempted to extend religious tolerance to Catholics.
  • Period: to

    Glorious Revolution (England)

    James II pursued even more aggressive pro-Catholic policies. Parliament got rid of him and put his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William, on the throne as joint rulers. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
  • A Draft in France

    A militia draft is instituted in France to supplement the army in times of war. It included over 100,000 drafted men.
  • Period: to

    League of Augsburg

    The League of Augsburg, made up of England (HRE), Spain, Sweden, the Dutch Republic (center of commerce), the Austrian emperor, and various German princes, fought Louis XIV to a stalemate. England joins this league after the Glorious Revolution, when William of Orange begins his rule. This group of countries wanted to create a balance of power. Louis XIV wants to gain the trade control, power and spread Catholicism. It ended with Louis returning most of the land that he had conquered.
  • Passage of the English Bill of Rights

    English Bill of Rights is passed, in which William and Mary agreed not to raise a standing army or to levy taxes without Parliament’s consent. They also agreed to call meetings of Parliament at least every three years, to grant free elections to parliamentary seats, and to abide by Parliament’s decisions and not suspend duly passed laws. This was known as the Glorious Revolution and lead to the first constitutional monarchy
  • Toleration Act

    The Toleration Act granted all protestants freedom of worship. Non-anglicans were still not allowed to go to universities, and Catholics were given no rights.
  • Period: to

    Reign of William of Orange (England)

    William, prince of Orange, was offered the throne along with his wife, Mary, after James II is taken off the throne (beheaded).
  • Period: to

    Reign of Queen Mary (England)

    Mary, daughter of James II, was offered the throne along with her husband William, after James II is taken off the throne. She ruled alongside her husband until her death.
  • Period: to

    War of Spanish Succession

    The cause for the Spanish War of Succession was when Charles II (Hopsburg king) gives all of the Spanish territories to his grandson, Louis XIV. Spanish countries are not very happy with this idea.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    The Treaty of Utrecht were a series of peace treaties which marked the end of the Spanish Wars of Succession. This also ends France's domination and power over Europe, and this is the beginning of the dominance of the slave trade for England. France loses all of their lands that they had gained during battle.
  • Treaty of Paris

    This deals with the issues between the French and English, and begins the formation of an alliance between France and England.