Vtsl ireland

The History of Europe

  • Dec 6, 1189

    Henry II

    desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades
  • Period: Oct 8, 1277 to Oct 8, 1447

    The Visconti Family

    rose to power in Milan where several related branches still exist
  • Jun 6, 1374

    Francesco Petrarch

    Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists
  • Dec 6, 1378

    The Great Schism

    Appearnace of rival popes (up to three)
  • Dec 6, 1400

    Renaissance Art (two types)

    • Chiaroscuro perspective
    o Use of light and shadows to move objects forward
    • Linear Perspective
    o Use of objects moving into the background
  • Period: Dec 6, 1400 to

    Issues in the Catholic Church

    Indulgences, Nepotism, Simony, Clerical Immorality, and Absenteeism were all reasons that people were upset with the Catholic church before and during the protestant revolution. They inspired leaders such as John Calvin and Martin Luther and gave them issues to help convert people to thier cause.
  • Dec 6, 1420

    Brothers of Common Life

    o Roman Catholic pietistic religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ.
  • Sep 10, 1434

    Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464)

    first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'"
  • Period: Oct 8, 1450 to Oct 8, 1535

    Sforza Family

    Ruled harshly and dominated the smaller cities of the North. Left a major impact on Milan (type of government).
  • Period: Dec 7, 1450 to

    Witch Hunts

    The classical period of witchhunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America falls into the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions.
  • Period: Dec 7, 1450 to


    Fueled largely by the colonial system and plantation's need for cheap labor. thousands of African were transported from thier native lands via cramped ships. Many of these slaves ended up in America, Brazil, and the West Indies.
  • Apr 9, 1454

    Treaty of Lodi

    Peace between Naples Milan and Florence
  • Nov 13, 1460

    Henry the Navigator

    Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu, better known as Henry the Navigator was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire
  • Oct 8, 1462

    Florentine Paltonic Academy

    a group of scholars in mid-15th-century Florence who met under the leadership of the outstanding translator and promulgator of Platonic philosophy Marsilio Ficino, to study and discuss philosophy and the classics. They considered themselves as an extension of Plato's Academy in Greece
  • Dec 6, 1468

    Johann Gutenberg

    Invented and introduced the printing press to Europe
  • Apr 11, 1472

    Dante and the divine comedy

    an allegory telling of Dante's journey through Heaven, guided by Beatrice, who symbolizes theology. Very influential and popular
  • Sep 10, 1492

    lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492)

    an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance
  • Dec 6, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Spanish explorer who discovered the New World
  • Oct 8, 1495

    League of Venice

    alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy, arranged by Pope Alexander VI. League of Cambrai, anti-Venetian alliance that included Louis XII of France, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand I of Spain, created by Pope Julius II.
  • Oct 8, 1498

    Girolamo Savonarlola

    Dominican preacher convinced the most fearful Florentines that the French king's arrival was a long-delayed and fully justified vengeance on their immortality.
  • Oct 8, 1499


    o gained his power through manipulation and political corruption. However, he was known for commissioning "The Last Supper" and supporting the arts and culture in Italy. When he invited the French into Italy in hopes of extending his power, it led to the demise of the Italian Renaissance.
  • Dec 6, 1512

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer who first demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts
  • Dec 6, 1522

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
  • Oct 8, 1528

    Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier

    Very influential and widely read book discussing life in the Italian Court
  • Dec 6, 1530

    Charles V and the Diet of Augsburg

    the meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in the German city of Augsburg. There were many such sessions, but the three meetings during the Reformation and the ensuing religious wars between the Roman Catholic emperor Charles V and the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in the early 16th century are especially noteworthy.
  • Dec 6, 1530

    Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

    English political figure and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner
  • Dec 6, 1530


    French Protestants. The tide of the Reformation reached France early in the sixteenth century and was part of the religious and political fomentation of the times.
  • Feb 27, 1531

    Schmalkaldic League

    an alliance of Lutheran German princes against Charles V
  • Dec 6, 1531

    Ulrich Zwingli

    Swiss leader of the Reformation, based in Zurich. He denied the Eucharistic presence, holding that the Communion was merely a commemoration of Christ's death
  • Period: Sep 7, 1533 to

    Elizabeth I

    Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
  • Jul 6, 1535

    Thomas More

    venerated by Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist
  • Jul 12, 1536

    Desiderius Erasmus

    Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style
  • Dec 6, 1536

    William Tyndale

    English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English
  • Dec 6, 1540

    Thomas Cromwell

    1st Earl of Essex, KG, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540. Cromwell was one of the strongest and most powerful advocates of the English Reformation
  • Dec 6, 1540

    Society of Jesus (Ignatius Loyola)

    founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ.
  • May 24, 1543

    Nicholas Copernicus

  • Dec 6, 1546

    Martin Luther

    German friar, priest, professor of theology, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Initially an Augustinian friar, Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Famous for his 95 Theses
  • Period: Dec 6, 1546 to Dec 6, 1547

    Schmalkaldic Wars

    the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League within the domains of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Dec 6, 1547

    Henry VIII

    King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France
  • Dec 6, 1548

    Peace of Augsburg

    rulers of a German region can choose Catholicism of Lutheranism for their region.
  • Period: Dec 7, 1550 to

    Scientific Revolution

    the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
  • Dec 6, 1551

    Martin Bucer

    German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
  • Dec 6, 1553

    Edward VI

    King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine
  • Dec 6, 1556

    Thomas Cranmer

    a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I
  • Dec 6, 1558

    Mary I (Bloody Mary)

    Started a Catholic Reformation in Britain
  • Dec 6, 1563

    Coucil of Trent

    held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
  • Dec 6, 1564

    John Calvin

    Swiss leader of the Reformation, based in Zurich. He denied the Eucharistic presence, holding that the Communion was merely a commemoration of Christ's death
  • Oct 7, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

  • Dec 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's day massacre

  • Nov 8, 1576

    Pacification of Ghent

  • Period: Oct 8, 1581 to

    United Republic of the Netherlands

    confederation of seven provinces, which had their own governments and were very independent, and a number of so-called Generality Lands. These latter were governed directly by the States-General (Staten-Generaal in Dutch), the federal government. The States-General were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives of each of the seven provinces. Cooperated and had high religious tolerance. they also served as a central point of the capitalist European market.
  • Philip II and Spanish Armada

    During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression, "the empire on which the sun never sets," was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. Philip is also known for organising a huge naval expedition against Protestant England in 1588, known usually as the Spanish Armada, which was unsuccessful, mostly due to storms and grave logistical problems.
  • Barouque Art

    Began in Italy and included such artists as: Rembrandt, Rueben, Bernini, and Caravaggio
  • Period: to

    The Protestant Reformation

    Schism from the traditional catholic church that swept Europe throughout the 16th century
  • Aristotle

    Suggested a geocentric universe
  • Tycho Brahe

  • Elizabeth I

    Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Act of Supremacy restored England to protestantism
  • The Steam engine appears

  • Henry IV

    Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army.
  • Defenestration of Prauge

    In response, the defensors, appointed under the Letter of Majesty to safeguard Protestant rights, called an assembly of Protestants at Prague, where the imperial regents, William Slavata and Jaroslav Martinic, were tried and found guilty of violating the Letter of Majesty and, with their secretary, Fabricius, were thrown from the windows of the council room of Hradčany (Prague Castle) on May 23, 1618.
  • King James I

    King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland
  • Francis Bacon

  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

    One of the most prominent absolute monarchs, Louis XIV was the ruler of France who was responsible for many financial issues. He built the palace of Versailles, increased France's military, and controlled all of the nobles through careful manipulation.
  • Jansenists

    Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638.
  • Grand Remonstrance

    was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, but passed by the House of Commons on 22 November 1641, during the Long Parliament; it was one of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Civil War.
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei, was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. He had many disputes with the church over his thoery of a heliocentric universe despite his devotion to his faith.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army

    intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia. To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians.
  • Peace of Westphalia

  • Charles I

    King of Ireland, England, and Scotland until his execution in 1649. believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of reformed groups
  • Rene Descartes

  • Heriditary Subjugation (Prussia)

  • Blaise Pascal

  • Blaise Pascal

  • Thomas Hobbes

    Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy.
  • Jean Baptiste Colbert

    French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister.
  • Charles II and Staurt Restoration

    Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic, and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain.
  • Glorius Revolution

    also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England, VII of Scotland and II of Ireland by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
  • English Bill of Rights

    an act that the Parliament of England passed on December 16, 1689. The Bill creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech.
  • James II

    was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII,[3] from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland.
  • John Locke

    English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".
  • Pragmatic Sanction

  • Louis XIV

    Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death
  • Peter the Great

    Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, westernized, and based on The Enlightenment.
  • Wesley began preaching methodism

  • Period: to

    The War of Jenkin's Ear

  • Period: to

    The War of austrian Succesion

  • Period: to

    The seven years war

    The Seven Years' War was fought between 1755 and 1764, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763
  • Period: to

    The seven years war

    A war fought in the middle of the eighteenth century between the German kingdom of Prussia, supported by Britain, and an alliance that included Austria, France, and Russia. Prussia and Britain won, and their victory greatly increased their power.
  • Diplomatic revokution of 1756

    Reversal of longstanding European alliances following the war of Austrian succession.
  • Period: to

    The American Revolution

    The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy and overthrew British rule.
  • Boston Massacre

  • Boston Tea Party

  • Lexington and Concord

  • Turgot's Six Edicts

    Propose equl taxation and abolishments of class benefits.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking.
  • Necker's Report to the King

    Increased public interest and opinion about French financial crisis.
  • Necker Resigns

  • Yorktown

    Effectively the end of the American Revolution.
  • Calonne Appointed as Minister of finanace

  • First Meeting of the Estates General

  • Third Estate declares itself to be the national assembly

    Thia event marked the official start of the political revolution against the estates general and the royalty.
  • Tennis Court Oath

  • Louis XVI recognizes the national assembly

  • Bastille Day

    A group of Parisians marches on the bastille to obtain weapons and ammunition and are shot at which causes them to strom the baastille.
  • Beggining of the great fear

  • The Assembly accepts the Declaration of Rights and Man

    The beginning of the first republic!
  • Palace of Versailles Stormed

    Parisian women angry over the price/lack of bread stormed the palace of Versailles and brought Louis back to Paris.
  • France declares war on Austria

  • start of the radical September massacres

  • Napoleon's Coup

    After returning from Egypt without his troops Napoleon staged a coup to replace the Directory with the three consuls. Napoleon was the first consul and had almost complete approval of the people.
  • Enclosure Act

    United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.
  • Concordat of 1801

  • Napoleonic Code

    Results in Civil Code of 1804
  • Napoleon Crowns himself Emporer

  • Third Coalition is formed

  • Napoleon's invasion of Russia

    This failed invasion lead directly to Napoleon's downfall and excile to Elba.
  • The Chater is established in France

    Louis XVIII adopted the charter as a way to reconcile his regime with those who had benefitted from the revolution.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Sponsored by Metternich as a way to maintain traditional monarchy in Europe. Helped shape the next period of revolution and counter-revolution in Europe.
  • Napoleon exiciled to Elba

    Quickly began to create the same kind of efficient and passionate nation he had created in France.
  • Waterloo

    Napoleon's defeat
  • Coercion Acts

  • Decemberist Revolt

  • English Factory act of 1833

    Created new workday/labor restrictions.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles that created communism and was one of the most extreme forms of socialist movements of the time.
  • The revolutions of 1848

    A series of violent nationalist revolts erupted across Europe. The grand majority of them were unsuccessful, however they often gained concessions from, and weakened thier governments.