AP European History

  • Period: Oct 8, 1265 to Oct 8, 1321

    Dante Alighieri

    Wrote Divine Comedy as cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature
  • Period: Dec 4, 1265 to Dec 4, 1321

    Dante Alighieri

    Wrote Vita Nuova, Divine Comedy, etc. as cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature
  • Oct 8, 1278

    Visconti Family

    Came to power in Milan in 1278 because of despots
    Ruled without constitutional restraints or political competition
  • Period: Oct 8, 1300 to Oct 8, 1400

    Brothers of Common Life

    Also known as Modern Devotion
    Initially stimulated northern humanism
    Began in Netherlands
    Permitted men and women to live in shared religious life without formal vows

    Educators, copyists, sponsors of writing, etc.
    Source of humanist, Protestant, and Catholic reform movement in 16th century
    Endowed funds for preaching in local vernacular
  • Period: Oct 8, 1304 to Oct 8, 1374

    Francesco Petrarch

    "Father of Humanism"
    Involved in revolt on Rome in 1347-1349
    Served Visconti Family
    Defended personal immortality of soul against Aristotelians
  • Dec 4, 1374

    Francesco Petrarch

    Death of “father” of humanism in 1374, and Giovanni Boccaccio in 1375, author of Decameron, began Renaissance
  • Period: Oct 8, 1389 to Oct 8, 1464

    Cosimo de' Medici

    Wealthiest Florentine and statesman
    Internally controlled Florence
    Favored congenial factions and simony
  • Period: Dec 4, 1394 to Dec 4, 1460

    Henry the Navigator

    Prince Henry captured North African Muslim city of Ceuta on a quest for gold and spices and to save pagan souls
  • Jan 1, 1397

    Florentine Platonic Academy

    Evolved under patronage of Cosimo de’ Medici and was informal gathering of influential Florentine humanists;
    foundation laid in 1397 when Manuel Chrysoloras came from Constantinople to promote Greek learning
  • Period: Dec 14, 1400 to

    Witch Hunts

    Between 1400 and 1700, courts sentenced over 100,000 people to death for harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft; witches often charged with cannibalism, flying, orgies with devil, ritual acts that perverted Christianity, etc.; religious division and warfare spurred panics of witchcraft
  • Period: Oct 8, 1433 to Oct 8, 1499

    Florentine Platonic Academy

    Informal gathering of Florentine humanists
    Devoted to revival of Plato and Neoplatonists
  • Period: Oct 8, 1449 to Oct 8, 1492

    Lorenzo the Magnificent

    Grandson of Cosimo de' Medici
    Ruled Florence as totalitarian from 1478-1492
  • Oct 8, 1450

    Sforza Family and Ludovico

    Sforza Family came to power in Milan in 1450
    Ruled without constitutional restraints or political competition
    Despot Ludovico il Moro came to power in 1490
    Ludovico appealed for French aid, inviting French to invade
  • Period: Oct 8, 1450 to Oct 8, 1527

    Chiaroscuro

    Use of shading to enhance naturalness
  • Period: Oct 8, 1450 to Oct 8, 1527

    Linear Perspective

    Adjustment of size of figures to give viewer feeling of continuity with painting
  • Dec 4, 1450

    Brothers of the Common Life

    Influential religious movement in Netherlands and permitted men and women to live a shared religious life without formal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience)
  • Period: Dec 4, 1450 to Dec 4, 1527

    Chiaroscuro

    New technique in Renaissance art of shading to create perspective and depth
  • Period: Dec 4, 1450 to Dec 4, 1527

    Linear Perspective

    New technique in Renaissance art as adjustment of size of figures to give viewer feeling of continuity with painting
  • Period: Dec 4, 1451 to Dec 4, 1512

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Namesake of America; explorer
  • Period: Oct 8, 1452 to Oct 8, 1498

    Girolamo Savonarola

    Radical Dominican preacher who convinced Florentines that French king's arrival justified vengeance on immortality
    Allowed Charles to enter Florence without resistence
    Ruled Florence after Charles left but was too antipapal
    Imprisoned and executed in 1498
  • Period: Dec 4, 1452 to Dec 4, 1519

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Exhibited Renaissance ideal of universal person; painted, advised French king Francis I on military engineering, advocated scientific experimentation, dissected corpses, was self-taught botanist, foresaw modern machines (airplanes, submarines, etc.), etc.; Mona Lisa most famous work
  • Period: Oct 8, 1454 to Oct 8, 1494

    Treaty of Lodi

    Allied Milan, Naples, and Florence against Venice
    Ended conflict between Milan and Naples
    Maintained political cooperation
  • Period: Dec 4, 1466 to Dec 4, 1536

    Desiderius Erasmus

    Most famous northern humanist; through printed works, Erasmus gained fame as an educational and Catholic reformer; earned living as a tutor and patronage; aspired to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with Christian ideals of love and piety; believed disciplined study of Bible and classics was best way to reform society; translated works to reach the masses, which went into hand of Protestant and Catholic reformers; “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.”
  • Dec 4, 1468

    Johann Gutenberg

    Chinese invention expanded upon by Johann Gutenberg in 1468 in Mainz, the center of printing in Western Europe
  • Period: Oct 8, 1470 to Oct 8, 1520

    Venice and Merchant Oligarchy

    Ruled by successful merchant oligarchy
  • Period: Dec 14, 1473 to Dec 30, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Polish priest and astronomer; published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543; orthodox view was Ptolemaic System (Ptolemy’s view of Aristotle’s cosmology), that said Earth was center of universe (geocentrism); Ptolemaic System also suggested planets moved uniformly about a small circle (an epicycle) and center of epicycle moved uniformly about a larger circle (deference); Copernicus challenged Ptolemaic System with heliocentric view that declared sun as center of universe
  • Period: Oct 8, 1475 to Oct 8, 1564

    Michelangelo

    Sculptor, painter, and architect
    Exemplified symmetry, harmony, proportion, and glorification of human form
    Sistine Chapel and David
    Worked with mannerism
  • Period: Dec 4, 1475 to Dec 4, 1564

    Michelangelo

    Painter and sculptor known for 18-foot sculpture of David (example of Renaissance harmony, symmetry, proportion, and balance); painted frescos on Vatican’s Sistine Chapel commissioned by Pope Julius II (1503-1513) covered 10,000 square feet with 343 figures done in four years; later works marked passing of High Renaissance painting into new style of mannerism, which reached peak in late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries
  • Period: Dec 4, 1478 to Dec 4, 1535

    Thomas More

    Best known English humanist, especially for his Utopia (1516) work, a conservative criticism of contemporary society
  • Dec 4, 1480

    Clerical Immorality and Absenteeism

    Lack of chastity, poverty, morality, etc. in clergy of Roman Catholic Church; absenteeism was the practice of regularly staying away from work or school without good reason
  • Period: Dec 4, 1480 to Dec 4, 1521

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Explored South American coastline and circumnavigated globe
  • Period: Oct 8, 1483 to Oct 8, 1520

    Raphael

    Painter of great sensitivity
    Famous for madonnas, Vatican fresco, The School of Athens, etc.
    Used great Renaissance technique
  • Period: Dec 4, 1483 to Dec 4, 1520

    Raphael

    Great kindness and sensitivity in paintings; most famous for tender madonnas and fresco in Vatican, The School of Athens (depicts Plato and Aristotle with scientists and philosophers)
  • Period: Dec 4, 1484 to Dec 4, 1531

    Ulrich Swingli

    Chaplain with Swiss mercenaries, was against sale of indulgences and religious superstition, encouraged clerical marriages, and became people’s priest in Zurich; Zwingli led Swiss Reformation by stating whatever lacked support in Scripture wasn’t to be practiced; new regime imposed harsh discipline that made Zurich one of first examples of puritanical Protestantism
  • Period: Dec 4, 1491 to Dec 4, 1556

    Ignatius of Loyola

    Formed Society of Jesus in 1530s (recognized in 1540); underwent religious conversion as soldier of Christ after impressed by methods of overcoming mental anguish and pain
  • Period: Dec 4, 1491 to Dec 4, 1551

    Marin Bucer

    Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influence Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices
  • Dec 4, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador on October 12, 1492 in Bahamas; thought he was in East Indies, and in Japan, specifically; Met by Taino Indians who spoke Arawak and willingly gave food and favors; spurred colonial ventures, began globalization, introduced disease, produce, and animals to New World, etc.
  • Period: Dec 4, 1492 to Dec 4, 1536

    William Tyndale

    Translated New Testament into English in 1524-1525 and began circulation in 1526
  • Oct 8, 1495

    League of Venice

    Brought Venice, Papal States, and Emperor Maxmilian I in 1495
    together with Ferdinand of Aragon against French Charles VIII
    Sent Charles into retreat, out of Italy
  • Dec 4, 1500

    Great Schism

    Monumental challenges to medieval church during “exile” in Avignon, Great Schism, Conciliar period, and Renaissance papacy that helped stimulate Reformation
  • Dec 4, 1500

    Humanism

    Outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters; humanist beliefs stressed the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasized common human needs, and sought solely rational ways of solving human problems
  • Period: Dec 14, 1500 to

    Agricultural Inventions

    Dutch landlords and farmers devised better ways to build dikes and drain land to farm more, and also experimented with new crops that would increase supply of animal doffer and restore the soil; Tull did come up with using iron plows and planting wheat by a drill, which were excellent ideas (permitted land to by cultivated for longer periods without having to leave it fallow); Charles “Turnip” Townsend learned how to cultivate sandy soil with fertilizers and instituted crop rotation of wheat
  • Period: Dec 14, 1500 to

    Growth of Cities

    Cities that grew most vigorously were capitals and ports; this reflects success of monarchical state building and burgeoning of bureaucracies, armies, courts, and others that lived in capital; growth of port cities reflects expansion of European overseas trade (especially Atlantic routes); new urban conglomerates were nonindustrial cities; but smaller cities declined in populations, which included landlocked trading centers, industrial cities, and religious centers
  • Period: Dec 14, 1500 to

    Plantation System

    From sixteenth century onward, slave labor became fundamental social and economic factor; development of plantation economies based on slave labor led to interaction between Europeans and Africans and between settlers and Africans
  • Period: Dec 4, 1509 to Dec 4, 1542

    King Henry VIII

    First marriage produced no heir by wife was Catholic political move with Spain; recognized as Head of Church of England in 1531; married Boleyn in 1533; Act of Supremacy in 1534; children were Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward VI
  • Period: Oct 8, 1515 to Oct 8, 1547

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Perfect universal Renaissance man (painter, scientist, inventor, engineer, botanist, etc.)
    Could convey great human emotion, especially in Mona Lisa
  • Dec 4, 1520

    Sales of Indulgences, Nepotism, Simony

    Sale of indulgences and salvation brought money to clergy and nobility but drained local revenues
  • Dec 4, 1525

    Martin Luther

    Educated by Brothers of Common Life and had university degrees; hated “righteousness of God” because of unattainable perfection but believed in faith plus charity or service; Luther challenged infallibility of pope and inerrancy of church councils (appealing to sovereign authority of Scripture along for first time) in 1519, and also defended teachings of John Huss (who had been condemned for heresy)
  • Oct 8, 1528

    Book of the Courtier

    Published by Baldassare Castiglione
    Guide for nobility of Urbino
    Embodied Italian humanistic ideals
  • Dec 4, 1529

    Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

    In charge of securing royal annulment and when failed, was dismissed in 1529 (Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell then became King’s closest advisers, both harboring Lutheran sympathies)
  • Dec 4, 1530

    Charles V and Diet of Augsburg

    Charles V directed the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 as part of pursuit of politics and military campaigns outside empire; Assembly of Protestant and Catholic representatives address growing religious division within empire in wake of Reformation’s success; terms dictated by Catholic emperor and diet adjourned with order to Lutherans to revert to Catholicism; Reformation was too firmly established for Lutherans to revert to Catholicism
  • Dec 4, 1530

    Schmalkaldic League (Wars and Peace of Augsburg)

    Elector of Saxony and prince of Hesse (most powerful German Protestant rulers) led politicization of religious reform in territories, formed Schmaldkaldic League, formed alliances, and prepared for war with Catholic emperor
  • Dec 4, 1531

    John Calvin

    Heinrich Bullinger became new leader and eventually led Switzerland to Calvinism
  • Period: Dec 4, 1533 to

    Netherlands and William of Orange (Wailliam of Nassau)

    Netherlands were largely wealthy and independent (especially merchant towns); William of Nassau, Prince of Orange led opposition to Spanish overlords and attempted to impose traditional rule on Netherlands; Netherlands almost rebelled after enforcement of decrees of Trent and Inquisition but kept down by nobility, who wouldn’t support such; Spanish imposed taxes on Netherlands so they could pay for their suppression of own revolt; William of Orange was leader of movement; Spanish Fury
  • Dec 4, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Declared Henry “the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England” and future monarchs
  • Dec 4, 1540

    Society of Jesus

    Jesuits; formed by Ignatius of Loyola; applied lessons learned in Spiritual Exercises (devotional guide that contained mental and emotional exercises designed to teach spiritual self-mastery over feelings); instrumental to success of Counter-Reformation
  • Dec 4, 1542

    Thomas Cromwell

    King Henry VIII's advisor; Protestant; suggested Anne of Cleves marriage (marriage annulled and Cromwell executed); Protestant
  • Dec 14, 1543

    Aristotle Geocentric Theory

    Orthodox view was Ptolemaic System (Ptolemy’s view of Aristotle’s cosmology), that said Earth was center of universe (geocentrism)
  • Dec 4, 1545

    Council of Trent

    General council called by Pope Paul III in response to broad success of Reformation; Council met in Trent, Italy in 1545 and was strictly under pope’s control with voting limited to high clergy and theologians; most important reforms targeted internal church discipline (better educated and celibate clergy) and strengthened authority of local bishops to effectively discipline; no doctrinal concession made to Protestants, though
  • Period: Dec 14, 1546 to

    Tycho Brahe

    Danish astronomer who took major step in science; believed in geocentricism for most of life but advocated for new instruments and tools
  • Dec 4, 1547

    King Edward VI

    Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; directly corresponded with John Calvin and enacted Protestant Reformation in England (Henry’s Six articles repealed, Eucharist sanctioned, etc.); Act of Uniformity in 1549
  • Dec 4, 1549

    Thomas Cranmer

    Act of Uniformity imposed Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer on all English churches and again in 1552 with Second Act of Uniformity; close advisor to King Henry VIII
  • Dec 4, 1551

    Henry II

    Established new measures against Protestants in Edict of Chateaubriand; son Henry III was last to wear French crown
  • Dec 4, 1553

    Mary I

    Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon; women allowed to take throne but unstable to do so; transformed England back into Catholicism; murdered many Protestants and known as "Bloody Mary"
  • Period: Dec 4, 1553 to Dec 4, 1558

    Catholic Restoration

    Mary I transformed England back into Catholic nation from Protestantism; Jusuits served as missionaries and new orders formed
  • Period: Dec 4, 1553 to

    Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)

    Led Protestantism in France; was last son of Henry II to wear French crown; assassinated by Catholic fanatic; ended up adopting Catholicism to end religious wars in France
  • Dec 4, 1558

    Elizabeth

    Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; never married; encouraged the arts (Shakespeare); improved economy and borders; strengthened ally relationships
  • Period: Dec 4, 1558 to

    Elizabeth I's Reign

    Controlled Protestant doctrine and Catholic ritual (resulting Anglican Church); in 1559, Act of Supremacy passed Parliament and repealed all anti-Protestant legislation; in 1563, issuance of Thirty-Nine Articles made moderate Protestantism official religion within Church of England; executed Mary, Queen of Scots in 1587 because of her Catholic threat and unblemished lineage to her reign; privateering and piracy, especially in foreign shipping, were dangers (not controlled)
  • Dec 4, 1560

    Catherine de Médicis

    Regent of France for son Charles IX in 1560; tried unsuccessfully to reconcile Protestant and Catholic factions at meeting in Poissy; first concern to preserve monarchy, Catherine feared Guises and sought allies among Protestants; in 1562, she issued January Edict that granted Protestants freedom to worship and hold synods (ended few months later when Protestants massacred in Vassy, marking beginning of French wars of religion); issued Saint Bartholomew’s Day in 1572
  • Dec 4, 1561

    Huguenots

    French Protestants; merged with military organization of Condé and Coligny; Saint Bartholomew’s Day on August 24, 1572 hosted massacre of Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots in Paris and 20,000 elsewhere by Queen Catherine; gave Protestants a reason for international struggle for survival against enemy cruelty that justified any means of resistance
  • Period: Dec 14, 1561 to

    Francis Bacon

    English philosopher, lawyer, royal official, author, and moralist; father of empiricism; wrote The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620), and The New Atlantis (1627), all of which attacked belief that most truth was already known and only required explanation and scholastic reverence for authority in intellectual life; believed scholastic thinkers were too traditional and dependent upon knowledge of the ancients; encouraged contemporaries
  • Dec 4, 1562

    January Edict

    Granted Protestants freedom to worship and hold synods (ended few months later when Protestants massacred in Vassy, marking beginning of French wars of religion)
  • Period: Dec 14, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Italian mathematician and natural philosopher; improved upon Dutch telescope and viewed the previously unknown complexities of heavens; wrote Starry Messenger (1610) and Letters on Sunspots (1613) to argue observed physical evidence, like Venus’s phases; philosopher and mathematician to Grand Duke of Tuscany (Medici) while studying at University of Padua in Florence (where dependent upon princely patronage to fund work); named moons of Jupiter after Medicis; high profile advocate of Copernicus
  • Dec 4, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Naval battle between allied Christian forces (Venetians, Pope Pius V, and Philip II of Spain together in Holy League of Spain) and Ottoman Turks in 1571 during Ottoman campaign to acquire Cyprus; Don John of Austria (Philip II’s brother) commanded Christina forces while Ali Pasha commanded Ottomans; Venetians win but Turks maintained base on Cyprus and rebuilt navy
  • Dec 4, 1571

    Philip II and Spanish Armada

    Spanish Armada defeated Turks in Battle of Lepanto in 1571 under Philip II and dispersed the Moors in Granada during Charles V’s reign
  • Period: Dec 4, 1571 to

    Peter Paul Rubens

    Great Catholic artist during Baroque era
  • Period: Dec 4, 1571 to

    Caravaggio

    Famous for use of darkness to convey images
  • Aug 24, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew’s Day

    Hosted massacre of Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots in Paris and 20,000 elsewhere; gave Protestants a reason for international struggle for survival against enemy cruelty that justified any means of resistance; issued by Queen Catherine
  • Dec 4, 1572

    United Providence of the Netherlands

    United Provinces of the Netherlands became nation after revolting against Spain; engaged in naval wars with England; Prince William III of Orange rallied Dutch and led entire European coalition against France (as part of strategy, answered invitation of Protestant English aristocrats in 1688 to assume English throne); became republic in 1714
  • Dec 4, 1576

    Peace of Beaulieu

    Granted Huguenots complete religious and civil freedom (but this was truncated in 1577)
  • Dec 4, 1576

    Pacification of Ghent

    Spanish Fury unified Netherlands against Spain in union called Pacification of Ghent, accomplished in 1576 (declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion)
  • 1588 Spanish Armada

    In 1587, Sir Francis Drake of England attacked port of Cádiz, inflicting heavy damages on Spanish ships and interrupting their war preparations; in 1588, Spanish Armada ventured to English Channel for stunning defeat that gave hope to Protestants; Spanish weren’t unified like opponents
  • Period: to

    Thomas Hobbes

    Most original political philosopher of seventeenth century; published first English translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War; published Leviathan in 1651 after English Civil War, a book that provided philosophical justification for central political authority; portrayed humans and society as mechanical and materialistic and regarded all motives as egoistical; humans will always be in conflict
  • Period: to

    René Descartes

    Mathematician who invented analytic geometry; developed scientific method that relied on deduction rather than empirical observation and induction; published Discourse on Method in French (not Latin; for wide circulation and application) 1637 where he rejected scholastic philosophy and education, advocating for mathematical model; believed God guaranteed existence of clear ideas
  • Period: to

    Gianlorenzo Bernini

    Catholic Baroque artist
  • Period: to

    Agricultural and Women

    Once married, earning money and producing farm goods to ensure enough to eat was chief priority, with child-rearing subordinate to these economic pressures (couples attempted primitive contraception to limit child production)
  • Period: to

    Philosophes

    Achievements of Scientific Revolution from Copernicus to Newton persuaded natural philosophers that inherited traditions were incorrect and needed to be challenged
  • Dutch Capital System

    Dutch fishermen dominated market with herring and supplied much of continent’s dried fish; harbors and seas supported shipping and shipbuilding industries; Dutch traders were established in East Asia, spice islands of Java, Moluccas, and Sri Lanka, powered by Dutch East Indies Company (chartered 1602) that eventually displaced Portuguese
  • King James I

    Succeeded from King of Scotland (had been since 1567) to King of England as James I; inherited royal debt and divided church and expected to rule with minimum consultation beyond own royal court; Parliament only met when summoned by monarch, which was rare with James I; at Hampton Court Conference of 1604, rebuffed Puritans and their desire for bishops appointed by king with representative Presbyterian form and declared Anglican episcopacy; scandal and corruption
  • Period: to

    Rembrandt van Rijn

    Protestant artists who was retrained, seen in gentle portraits; Dutch Mennonite; Baroque artist
  • Period: to

    12 Years Truce and Peace of Westphalia

    Twelve Years’ Truce was cessation of between Spain and Netherlands as agreed in 1609; Truce formally recognized Netherlands as independent and gave Spain time to deal with Counter-Reformation and internal strife; Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ended all hostilities within Holy Roman Empire; first general peace in Europe after such unprecedented war was Peace of Westphalia; Peace written in Latin, not French, and reasserted ideas of Peace of Augsburg; France and Spain remained at war outside empire
  • Period: to

    Bohemian Period

    After ascent of Habsburg Ferdinand to Bohemian throne in 1618, war broke out; Ferdinand was determined to restore Catholicism to Habsburg lands; Ferdinand revoked religious freedoms of Bohemian Protestants so in Prague, the Protestant nobility threw Ferdinand’s regents out the window of royal palace (event known as “defenestration of Prague”; Became Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II in 1619 but Prague claimed Frederick V as their king
  • Puritan Separatists

    Religious dissenters, Separatists began leaving England in 1620 to found Plymouth Colony in North America; truly reformed church founded in new world
  • Period: to

    Blaise Pascal

    French mathematician and physical scientist; surrendered wealth to pursue self-disciplined life and reconcile faith and new science; aspired to write a work that refuted dogmatism and skepticism; rejected skeptics of time because were either atheists or deists; allied with Jansenists (seventeenth-century Catholic opponents of Jesuits)
  • Charles I

    Challenged local political influence of nobles and landowners; Petition of Right (required no forced loans or taxation without consent of Parliament, due cause for imprisonment, and troops to be billeted in private homes) in 1628; tried to impose episcopal system on Presbyterian Scotland and Puritan England against Parliament’s wishes in 1637; Scots rebelled in 1640
  • Period: to

    Danish Period

    Lutheran king Christian IV of Denmark had territory in region as duke of Holstein but wanted to extend Danish influence over North Sea; entered Germany with army in 1626 but was forced to retreat after defeat by Maximilian; Mercenary Albrecht of Wallenstein served as Emperor Ferdinand’s more pliant tool for his policies and carried Ferdinand’s Protestant campaign into Denmark; Edict of Restitution in 1629 reasserted Catholic safeguards of Peace of Augsburg and reaffirmed illegality of Calvanism
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    Swedish Period

    Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden ruled unified Lutheran nation and became new leader of Protestant forces within empire; controlled by French minister Cardinal Richelieu (whose foreign policy was to protect French interest by keeping Habsburg armies tied down in Germany) and Dutch (who remembered Spanish Habsburg rule in 1500s; Swedish king won victory at Breitenfeld in 1630 with alliance with electors of Brandenburg and Saxony; Peace of Prague in 1635 reached compromise with Ferdinand
  • Jansenists

    Roman Catholic movement that arose in 1630s in opposition to Jesuits; adhered to St. Augustine teachings that also influence Protestant doctrines, very moral, etc.; Cornelius Jansen was a Flemish theologian and bishop of Ypres who published Augustinus that assailed Jesuit teaching on grace and salvation as morally lax; resembled Calvinists
    • Jansenists resembled Calvinists and therefore Puritans so had negative association with prominent French families (but Jansenist sympathies were often
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    Major intellectual forerunners of Enlightenment; in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke argued humans enter world as blank pages (tabula rasa) and that personality was product of individual and sensations of external world (thus, only experienced shaped character)
    • Locke had reformer psychology that suggested improvement of society for improvement of human condition and rejected Christian doctrine
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    Most influential philosophical and political thinker of seventeenth century; political writings were major source of criticism of absolutism and provided foundation for liberal political philosophy in Europe and America; philosophical works with human knowledge were most important work of psychology for eighteenth century; came from Puritan family and was entrenched in politics of English Restoration period; wrote First and Second Treatise of Government in 1690
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    Swedish-French Period

    French openly entered war in 1635 on behalf of Sweden; French, Swedish, and Spanish all looted Germany (which was too disunited to fight back); peace talks began at Münster and Osnabrück in Westphalia in 1644; war killed 1/3 of German population and was most devastating catastrophe since Black Death
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

    Known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death
  • Grand Remonstration

    List of grievances presented to King Charles I by Parliament in 1641 (during the Long Parliament); divided Parliament and was precursor to English Civil War; strong anti-Catholic tone; King waited while to respond to document so was therefore already in circulation in public by time addressed
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    Isaac Newton

    Newton’s formulation of law of universal gravitation exemplified power of human mind; Newtonian physics had portrayed pattern of mechanical and mathematical rationality in physical world; during eighteenth century, writers began applying rationality to society (avoided metaphysics and supernaturalism); major intellectual forerunners of Enlightenment
  • Period: to

    Isaac Newton

    English mathematician; addressed issue of celestial body orbits and motion; established basis for physics; in 1687, published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia Mathematica) that discussed planetary mutual attraction (gravity); proved gravity mathematically but used empirical data and observation
  • New Model Army

    Alliance with Scotland in 1643 that committed Parliament to Presbyterian system of church government and reorganization of parliamentary army (New World Army) under Oliver Cromwell led to Parliament’s victory
  • Oliver Cromwell

    Defeated militarily in 1645, Charles took advantage of Parliament divisions but Cromwell fooled him (members sympathetic to monarch were expelled in 1648 and Charles executed in 1649, with monarchy, House of Lords, and Anglican Church abolished)
  • Treaty of Westphalia

    Ended all hostilities within Holy Roman Empire; written in French (international diplomatic language); rescinded Ferdinand’s Edict of Restitution and reasserted major feature of religious settlement of Peace of Augsburg (ruler of land determined official religion); confirmed territorial sovereignties of Germany’s political entities; gave Calvinists legal recognition; proclaimed legal independence of Swiss Confederacy and United Provinces of the Netherlands; France emerged as most dominant power
  • Religious Toleration in Netherlands

    Haven for Jews in Netherlands, as well as other religions; Calvinist Reformed Church was official church of Netherlands (yet not established church)
  • English Rational God

    Two books of divine revelation, Bible and nature (shared same author so must be compatible); natural universe became realm of law and regularity, adding physical nature to God, who must also therefore be lawful and regular; to study nature was to better understand God; physico-theology was associated with deduction of religious conclusions from nature (allowed new science to spread rapidly)
  • Cunning Folk

    In village societies, feared and respected “cunning folk” helped people cope with natural disasters and disabilities via magic
  • Priest and Magic

    Popular belief in magical power was essential foundation of witch-hunts; when Church spread to semipagan rural cultures, clashed with folk religions (and Eucharist, power to cast out demons, etc. seen as dangerous by locals); in thirteenth century, Church magic declared to be only true magic (witch-hunts demonstrated authority)
  • Stuart Restoration

    Charles II returned to England and returned England to status quo with Parliament, monarchy, and Anglican Church
  • Divine Right of Kings

    Political theorist Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet was source of Louis’s concept of royal authority; Old Testament used to justify “divine right of kings” and that only God could judge king; absolutism of Louis existed primarily in making war/peace, regulation of religion, economic activity, etc.
  • Jean-Baptiste Colbert

    Economic policies Louis to have powerful army
  • Mercantilism

    National economic policy that says that a nation benefits by accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods; dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from the 16th to late-18th centuries
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    Louis XIV

    Death of Mazarin in 1661 gave Louis XIV personal control of government; Louis appointed no single chief minister so the nobles could be challenging king directly; ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, army, domestic administration, economic regulations, etc.; made sure nobility would benefit from growth of his authority; crown conferred informally with parlements (religious judicial bodies); clashed with Parlement of Paris, who registered royal laws; Versailles
  • Charles II

    Catholic sympathies and favored religious toleration and wanted to allow Catholics and Puritans to freely worship; Treaty of Dover made England and France allied against Netherlands in 1670; Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 suspended all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglicans Protestants
  • Period: to

    Game Laws

    English landowners had exclusive legal right to hunt game; game laws prime example of legislation related directly to economic and social status (gentry who benefited and whose parliamentary representatives had passed them served as local justices of peace who enforced the laws); small industry arose to circumvent game laws (poor people would kill game for food and believed game belonged to community); Parliament rewrote game laws, giving landowners’ possession of game but permitting others
  • Period: to

    Versailles

    Louis and advisors became propaganda masters by displaying his wealth and grandeur; Palace of Versailles was largest secular structure in Europe when completed (built between 1676 and 1708) was Louis’s permanent residence after 1682 but cost half of annual revenues; rooms rented out or given after patronage; great honor to perform basic household activities with Louis
  • Northwestern European Household

    Consisted of married couples, children, and servants; high mortality and late marriage prevented formation of families of several generations; practice of marrying and moving away from home called neolocalism; servants usually hired to work for household in exchange for room, board, and wages; years of young people being servants to save up for own household accounted for late marriage ages
  • Neolocalism

    Practice of marrying and moving away from home
  • Eastern European Household

    Marriages occurred at young ages and larger households; landholding accounted for large families (lords wanted to ensure their land’s cultivation to receive rents so forbade marriage between own serfs); Polish landlords frowned on hiring free laborers and used other serfs, which inhibited formation of independent households; in Russia, lords discouraged single-generation family households because death of one person would mean land would go out of cultivation
  • Period: to

    British Domestic Stability

    Newton’s physics and Locke’s psychology provided theoretical basis for reformist approach to society; domestic stability after Revolution of 1688 furnished an example of society that benefited everyone; England permitted religion toleration for all except Unitarians and Roman Catholics (but not actively persecuted); relative freedom of press and free speech; authority of monarchy was limited and political sovereignty resided in Parliament; small army
  • James II

    Demanded repeal of Test Act; issued Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious tests and permitting free worship in 1687; James imprisoned Anglican bishops who hadn’t published suspension of laws against Catholics in 1688; Toleration Act of 1689 permitted worship of all religions except Roman Catholicism; Act of Settlement of 1701 provided English crown to go to Protestant House of Hanover in Germany if Anne (heir to childless William III) died without issues
  • Glorious Revolution

    When James II became king, immediately demanded repeal of Test Act
  • Revocation of Edict of Nantes

    Relations between Catholic majority and Protestant minority remained hostile; after Peace of Nijmwegen, Louis launched campaign against Huguenots to unify France religiously; used financial incentives to get Protestants to convert, bullied with quartering troops in 1681, and revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685; any left France to form resistances with England, Germany, Netherlands, etc.
  • English Bill of Rights

    Recognized that limited powers of monarchy and guaranteed civil liberties and prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying throne
  • Deism

    Set of ideas of combined religious and reason (based upon Newtonian worldview of rational God); Christianity Not Mysterious was one of first deist works in 1696 by John Toland; regarded God as divine watchmaker; publicly anticlerical and therefore seen as politically radical; creed had two main points of belief in existence of God (empirically justified by contemplation of nature) and belief in life after death; hoped wide acceptance of their faith would end Christian rivalries and clergy
  • Flota System

    Fleet of commercial vessels (the flota), controlled by merchants and escorted by warships, carried merchandise from Spain to American ports every year
  • Period: to

    European Jews

    Jewish population concentrated in Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine; in 1762, Catherine the Great specifically excluded Jews from manifesto that welcomed foreigners into Russia; Jews regarded as resident alien whose residence might well be temporary or changed by rulers; ghettos were distinct districts of cities or Jewish villages in the countryside; Jews treated differently religiously and legally; “Court Jews” were Jews who had financed wars and become close with monarchy
  • Period: to

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Directly challenged social fabric of his time in both his books, questioning concepts of morality in a society of commerce and industry regarded as most important human activities (most believed people enjoyed life more when could use things of earth or produce more goods); wrote The Social Contract in 1762 to outline a king of political structure that Rousseau believed would overcome evils of contemporary politics and society
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Established boundaries of empire during eighteenth century
  • Philosphes

    Writers and critics who flourished in print culture and took lead in making change, championing reform, and advocating toleration; most were free agents of monarchs, royal bureaucrats, etc.; not organized group (disagreed often but functioned similar to a family with quarrels but still united); drew bulk of readership from prosperous commercial and professional urban classes, aristocrats, reformers, etc. in coffee houses, Freemason lodges, clubs, etc.; generally supported expansion of trade
  • Period: to

    Print Culture

    Mid-century witnessed publication of Encyclopedia, greatest monuments of Enlightenment and most monumental undertaking in real of print culture; under leadership of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, first volume appeared in 1751; Encyclopedia was collective plea for freedom of expression and product of collective effort of hundreds of authors and editors; Encyclopedia had articles from all major French philosophes; to avoid censure, ideas had to be hidden in articles or irony
  • Catherine II of Russia

    Forged political constituencies to support policies and understand fragility of Romanov base of power; after death of Peter the Great in 1725, court nobles and army repeatedly determined Russian succession so crown feel to untalented people because of birth; after inconsistent and weak rulers, until Catherine, a German princess who was friends with nobles and well-read, ascended after murder of her husband; Catherine’s familiarity with Enlightenment and culture of Western Europe led to many r
  • Period: to

    War of Jenkins's Ear

    Spanish government took own trading monopoly and maintained coastal patrols that searched English vessels for contraband; in 1731, during a boarding operation, there was a fight and Spanish cut off English captain Robert Jenkins’s ear, which Robert carried in jar of brandy thereafter; in 1738, Jenkins appeared with his ear in front of British Parliament to protest Spanish atrocities of British merchants and West Indian planters
    • Sir Robert Walpole, the prime minister, went to war with Spai
  • Methodism

    Originated in middle of eighteenth century as revolt against deism and rationalism in Church of England; important part of background of English Romanticism; John Wesley was leader of Methodist movement; Wesley organized religious group called Holy Club; on ship over to Georgia as missionary in 1735, Wesley was impressed by German Moravian faith and confidence during a storm, so when returned to England in 1738, worshipped with Moravians; Wesley was preaching in open fields, organized Methodism
  • Baron de Montesquieu

    Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), was a noble, lawyer, member of Parlement, and belonged to Bordeaux Academy of Science; wrote The Persian Letters in 1721 to satirize contemporary institutions with criticisms to irrationality of European life; most endearing work was Spirit of the Laws in 1748 which held British constitution as wisest model for regulating power of government and exhibited internal tensions of Enlightenment; pursued empirical method
  • English Nobility

    Smallest, wealthiest, best defined, and most socially responsible aristocracy; wldest male members of each family (“peerage”) sat in House of Lords (through corruption, also controlled House of Commons); nobles owned ¼ of all arable land and invested in commerce, canals, urban real estate, and mines, and industrial ventures; younger sons moved into church, army, professions, or commerce
  • French Nobility

    Nobles divided between nobles “of the sword” (nobility derived from military service) and “of the robe” (nobility derived from bureaucracy service or purchase of); also divided between those who held office or favor with royal court and those who did not; provincial nobility called hobereaux were little better off than wealthy peasants; nobility often exempt from taxes, no liable for forced labor on public works, could collect feudal dues, and enjoyed exclusive hunting and fishing
  • Eastern European Nobility

    Very complicated and repressive with strong military traditions; in Poland, nobles called szlachta and were exempt from taxes (until 1741) and possessed right of life or death over their serfs (until 1768); in Austria and Hungary, nobility had broad judicial powers over peasantry through manorial courts and degrees of exemption from taxes (wealthiest was Prince Esterhazy of Hungary); in Prussia, after accession of Frederick the Great in 1740, position of Junker nobles became stronger
  • English Peasants

    Rural social dependency related directly to land; class that owned most of land also controlled local government and courts
  • French Peasants

    French peasants subject to feudal dues called banalitiés (this practice of forced labor termed corvée)
  • Corvée

    French peasants subject to feudal dues called banalitiés (this practice of forced labor called corvée)
  • Eastern European Serfs

    In Prussia and Austria, landlords exercised complete control over serfs, many peasants required to provide service, or robot, to the lords; serfs worst off in Russia, where regarded as economic commodities and could be banished to Siberia with no legal defense of serf (serfdom quite similar to slavery); in southeastern Europe (Ottoman Empire), peasants were free but sometimes ruled by landlord, whose domain called a çift (farming and commercialization became popular)
  • Encyclopedia

    Under leadership of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, first volume appeared in 1751; Encyclopedia was collective plea for freedom of expression and product of collective effort of hundreds of authors and editors; Encyclopedia had articles from all major French philosophes; spread Enlightenment thought more fully over Eurasia and penetrated German and Russian intellectual and political circles
  • Denis Diderot

    Under leadership of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, first volume of Encyclopedia appeared in 1751
  • Jean Le Rond d’Alembert

    Under leadership of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, first volume of Encyclopedia appeared in 1751
  • Convention of Westminster

    British King George II, also Elector of Hanover in Germany, thought French might attack Hanover in response to conflict in America so in 1756, Britain and Prussia signed Convention of Westminster, a defensive alliance aimed at preventing entry of foreign troops into German states;p Frederick II feared alliance of Russia and Austria so the convention meant Great Britain (ally of Austria) now joined forced with Austria’s enemy
  • Period: to

    Seven Years' War

    In 1756, Frederick II invaded Saxony and opened the Seven Years’ War (considered this a preemptive strike against a conspiracy by Saxony, Austria, and France to destroy Prussian power; Frederick saw this invasion as a continuation of defensive strategy of Convention of Westminster (but actual invasion created very destructive alliance); in 1757, France and Austria made a new alliance dedicated to destruction of Prussia (were joined by Russia, Sweden, and German states); Treaty of Paris of 1763
  • Laissez-Faire

    Adam Smith’s idea for a “hand-off” government; economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights
  • Treaty of Paris

    Britain received all Canada, Ohio River valley, and eastern Mississippi River valley but returned Pondicherry and Chandernagore in India and West Indian sugar islands to French; Prussia had permanently claimed Silesia from Austria and left Holy Roman Empire empty; Habsburg power depended upon Hungarian domains; France was not a great colonial power; Spanish Empire largely intact; in India, British East India Company still imposed upon native governments; Great Britain rose as world power
  • Sugar Act

    Drove revenue under Prime Minister George Grenville; violators of law were to be tried in admiralty courts without jury
  • Cesare Beccaria

    In 1764, Marquis Cesare Beccaria, an Italian aristocrat and philosophe, published On Crimes and Punishments that applied critical analysis to making punishments both effective and just; Beccaria wanted laws of monarchs and legislatures to conform with rational laws of nature and thought criminal justice system should deter further crime
  • Charles III

    Most important of imperial reformers who attempted to reassert Spain’s control of empire by emphasizing royal ministers rather than councils (thus diminishing power of Council of the Indies and Casa de Contratación); introduced institution of intendant into Spanish Empire (patterned on French intendants) to increase efficiency of tax collection and end bureaucratic corruption
  • Intendants

    To increase efficiency of tax collection and end bureaucratic corruption, Charles III introduced institution of intendant into Spanish Empire (patterned on French intendants)
  • Stamp Act

    Considered legal by British because approved by Parliament to collect such tax that was going back into economy; Americans angrily responded with “no taxation without representation” and feared if colonial government financed from outside, would lose control over it; Stamp Act repealed in 1766 after abstention of British goods and protests by colonists but went ahead with Declaratory Act that allowed Parliament to legislate for colonies
  • Sugar Cultivation

    Spreading cultivation of sugar for European demands spread need for slaves in Caribbean; colonial trade followed geographic triangle (European goods carried to Africa to be exchanged for slaves, which were taken to West Indies to be traded for sugar and tropical goods, which were then shipped to Europe)
  • Boston Massacre

    In 1767, Charles Townshend (Chancellor of the Exchequer), British finance minister, led Parliament to pass series of revue acts called Townshend Acts; after Boston Massacre of 1770, Townshend Acts all repealed except for one on tea
  • Frederick II of Prussia

    Put philosophes in his courts; determined to be major world diplomats and military forces in Europe (adopted rational economic and social integration because these increased military strength and political power); Embodied enlightened absolutism; forged state that commanded loyalty of military, junker nobility, Lutheran clergy, growing bureaucracy with an educated middle class, and university professors; authority of Prussian monarchy and military were so strong and loyal; promotion by merit
  • Louis XV

    Louis XV and Louis XVI lacked skills to solve dispute; in 1770, René Maupeou appointed as chancellor by Louis XV to break parlements and increase taxes on nobility but when Louis XV died, Louis XVI undid all Maupeou’s work and dismissed him
  • Louis XVI

    Forced to summon French Estates General; Louis XV and Louis XVI lacked skills to solve dispute; in 1770, René Maupeou appointed as chancellor by Louis XV to break parlements and increase taxes on nobility but when Louis XV died, Louis XVI undid all Maupeou’s work and dismissed him; replaced Calonne with Étienne Charles Loménie de Brienne, archbishop of Toulouse and chief opponent of Calonne at Assembly of Notables; wanted to reassert his role in the proceedings and called a “Royal Session”
  • Boston Tea Party

    In 1773, monopoly on tea given to East India Company; during 1774, Parliament passed Intolerable Acts that closed Boston ports, reorganized Massachusetts government, allowed quartered troops into homes, and removed trials to England (targeted at New England after Boston Tea Party)
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    Greatest German writer of modern times; wrote partly in Romantic style yet sometimes condemned Romantic excesses; The Sorrows of Young Werther in 1774 was series of letters that explore scandalous relationship; Faust was Goethe’s masterpiece, a long dramatic poem that relates heaven and hell, devil and God, etc. in Part I and mystical adventures in Part II
  • Declaration of Independence

    Continental Congress adopted Declaration of Independence in 1776 but fighting continued until defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781
  • Adam Smith

    Most important economic work of Enlightenment was Adam Smith’s Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776; believed economic liberty was foundation of natural economic system and as a result, he urged mercantile system of England (navigation acts, bounties, tariffs, trading monopolies, and domestic regulation of labor and manufacture) to be abolished; these regulations preserved wealth of nation, captured wealth from nations, and maximized work available for laborers
  • Three Estates

    First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobility), and Third Estate (everyone else in kingdom, although representatives drawn from wealthy middle classes) clashed, with the Third Estate making clear their intentions to not led the others decide the future of the nation
  • Cahiers de Doléances

    Lists of grievances registered by local electors to be presented to the king; these documents criticized government waster, indirect taxes, church taxes and corruption, hunting rights of aristocracy, etc. and included called for meetings of Estates General, more equitable taxes, local control of administration, unified weights and measures for commerce and trade, and a free press; general demand of the cahiers was for equality of rights among subjects but originated from nobility
  • William Pitt

    In Great Britain, William Pitt the Younger, the prime minister, had unsuccessfully supported moderate reform of Parliament during 1780s but turned against both reform and popular movements
  • Joseph II of Austria

    Embodied rational, impersonal force; centralization of authority; Austria most diverse in people and problems; Joseph inherited Maria Theresa’s strengthened bureaucratic crown (efficient tax system that took funds from clergy and nobles, established central councils for governmental problems, educational institutions under crown, and expanded education at primary level); Maria Theresa also had limited amount of labor, or robot, landowners could demand from serfs; Joseph aimed to extend power
  • Jacques Necker

    Royal director-general of finances, produced pubic report in 1781 that removed American expenses and revealed a surplus and showed large portion of royal expenditures went to pensions for aristocrats and royals; Necker’s Report made difficult French government’s justification for need to raise taxes
  • Immanuel Kant

    Laid bedrock for Romanticism; wrote two greatest works of late eighteenth century, The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and The Critique of Practical Reason (1788); Kant sought to accept rationalism of Enlightenment and preserve belief in human freedom, immortality, and existence of God; against Locke and sensory experience alone, Kant argued for subjective character of human knowledge
  • Jews

    In 1782, Joseph II (Habsburg emperor) issued decree that placed Jews under same laws as Christians; in France, National Assembly recognized Jews as citizens in 1789; during Napoleonic Wars, Jews allowed to mix with Christians in Italy and Germany; still not always allowed to own land or subjected to discriminatory taxes; in Russia and Russian Poland, Jews still treated as aliens until after World War I
  • Treaty of Paris

    1783 Treaty of Paris concluded conflict and American colonies were free
  • Active Citizens

    Citizens of France divided into active and passive categories where only active citizens (paying annual taxes) could vote for electors, who in turn voted for members of legislature
  • Départements

    Abolished French provinces and in their place, established 83 administrative units called departments or départements of generally equal size; departments subdivided into districts, cantons, and communes with indirect elections for local assemblies
  • Metric System

    National Constituent Assembly continued policies of Louis XVI’s reformist ministers, suppressing guilds and liberating grade trade, and also established metric system for uniformity; Workers’ Organizations Forbidden
  • Charter of Nobility

    Gave council its authority (artisan guilds controlled corporations but wealthiest dominated councils); defined rights of nobilities in exchange for assurance of voluntary service to state (done so under Catherine the Great)
  • Charles Alexandre de Calonne

    Finance minister in 1786; Calonne proposed to encourage internal trade, lower specific taxes, transform the corvée into money payments, and remove internal barriers to trade, and reduce government regulation of grain trade; wanted to introduce new land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of social status (would have prevented indirect taxes and need for approval from parlements; Calonne also wanted to establish local assemblies of landowners to approve land taxes
  • Republic

    Convention after American Constitutional Convention of 1787 declared France a republic (nation governed by elected assembly without monarch)
  • National Constituent Assembly

    Because Third Estate had double the members, the government could not work without cooperation of National Assembly, who would not be organized according to privileged orders; renamed National Constituent Assembly (because of goal to right a constitution) composed of members from all three orders who shared goals; National Constituent Assembly needed help from merchant class, who in turn demanded price for their cooperation
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Louis XVI wanted to reassert his role in the proceedings and called a “Royal Session” and closed the room where National Assembly gathered; so National Assembly, locked out of their usual meeting place, met on a nearby indoor tennis court, where they took an oath to continue to sit until France had a constitution (Tennis Court Oath)
  • Bastille

    Louis XVI attempted to regain control by mustering royal troops near Versailles and Paris; Louis abruptly dismissed Necker, which decided the king’s fate of going with the aristocracy and not the public reformers; Royal troops created anxiety in Paris and in winter of 1789, higher bread prices produced riots; a citizen militia was being formed; on July 14th, crowds of Parisians marched to Bastille to get weapons for militia and were fired at by royal troops so stormed the fortress
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    National Constituent Assembly decoded that before a new constitution, a statement of broad political principles should be published; Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in 1789 that drew on politics of Enlightenment and American Declaration of Rights in 1776
  • Liberalism

    Nineteenth-century liberals derived political ideas form writers of Enlightenment, English liberties, and principles of 1789 embodied in French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen; sought to establish political framework of legal equality, religious toleration, and freedom of press; general goal was political structure that would limit arbitrary power of government emanated from freely given consent of governed (popular basis expressed through elected representatives, or parliament
  • Claudine de Tencin

    Gave philosophes access to useful social and political contacts and receptive environment to circulate ideas
  • Great Fear

    Movement that swept across French countryside; rumors of royal troops in rural districts added to peasant disturbances; Great Fear saw burning of châteaux, destruction of legal records, refusal to pay feudal dues, etc.; peasants were determined to taken possession of food supplies and land, targeting aristocratic and ecclesiastical landlords
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    Confiscation of church lands required ecclesiastical reconstruction; in 1790, National Constituent Assembly issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which transformed the Roman Catholic Church in France into branch of secular state; Civil Constitution embittered relations between church and state; Pope Pius condemned Civil Constitution and Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, marking Roman Catholic offensive against revolution and liberalism
  • Edmund Burke

    In 1790, British statesman Edmund Burke argued different position in Reflections on the Revolution in France; Burke condemned reconstruction of French administration as application of blind rationalism that ignored historical realities of political development and complexities of social relations; forecast further turmoil as inexperienced politicians governed France, predicted deaths of Louis and Marie Antoinette, and forecast revolution would end in military despotism
  • Jacobins

    Since original gathering of Estates General, deputies from Third Estate organized into clubs composed of politically like-minded people; most famous and best organized of these clubs was Jacobins because group met in former Dominican priory dedicated to St. Jacques in Paris; Jacobins established network of local clubs throughout provinces and were most advanced political group in National Constituent Assembly, pressing for republic rather than constitutional monarchy; radical
  • Girondists

    Group of Jacobins known as Girondists (largely from department of Gironde in France) assumed leadership of Assembly and were determined to oppose forces of counterrevolution
  • Mary Wollstonecraft

    In 1792, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft brought Rousseau before judgment of rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge (accused Rousseau of upholding traditional roles to narrow female vision and limit their experience)
  • Paris Commune

    In September, 1792, Paris Commune summarily executed over a thousand people who were in city jails, assumed to all be counterrevolutionaries; Paris Commune then called for election by universal male suffrage of new assembly to write democratic constitution (body called the Convention after American Constitutional Convention of 1787); Convention declared France a republic (nation governed by elected assembly without monarch)
  • September Massacre

    In September, 1792, Paris Commune summarily executed over a thousand people who were in city jails, assumed to all be counterrevolutionaries; terror of revolutionary tribunals systematized and channeled popular resentment that manifested in September Massacres of 1792
  • Jacques Danton

    Robespierre turned against republicans in Convention, like Jacques Danton, who led nation during September 1792
  • Committee of General Security

    In 1793, Convention established Committee of General Security and Committee of Public Safety to carry out executive orders of government with almost dictatorial power
  • Committee of Public Safety

    In 1793, Convention established Committee of General Security and Committee of Public Safety to carry out executive orders of government with almost dictatorial power; in name of public good that Committee of Public Safety carried out policies of terror; Maximilien de Robespierre emerged as dominant figure on Committee of Public Safety who favored a republic with a Jacobin Club base of power, needing support of sans-culottes
  • Levee en masse

    Military requisition on entire population, conscripting males into army and directing economic production to military purposes
  • Sans-culottes

    In 1793, Parisian In 1793, Parisian sans-culottes invaded Convention and demanded expulsion of Girondist members, which radicalized Convention and gave Mountain complete control; Maximilien de Robespierre emerged as dominant figure on Committee of Public Safety who favored a republic with a Jacobin Club base of power, needing support of sans-culottes
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte was requested by Directory to lead French invasion of Italy; Bonaparte favored the revolution and was an ardent Jacobin; in 1793, Bonaparte played leading role in recovering Toulon from British and was thus awarded brigadier general; Bonaparte justified public’s confidence in himself by making peace with France’s enemies, using generosity, flattery, and bribery
  • Maximilien de Robespierre

    Emerged as dominant figure on Committee of Public Safety who favored a republic with a Jacobin Club base of power, needing support of sans-culottes; Robespierre was first of many of secular ideologues who brought suffering in name of humanity (exclusion of women in political life, de-Christianization of France, use of revolutionary tribunals to dispense justice to alleged enemies of republic, etc.); In 1794, Robespierre replaced worship of “Reason” with “Cult of the Supreme Being”
  • "Cult of the Supreme Being"

    In 1794, Robespierre replaced worship of “Reason” with “Cult of the Supreme Being” that was a deistic cult reflecting Rousseau’s vision of civic religion that would induce morality among citizens
  • Constitution of the Year III

    Thermidorian Reaction led to Constitution of the Year III, issued by the Convention; new document provided legislature with two houses (Council of Elders and Council of Five Hundred); executive body was five-person Directory whom Elders chose from list submitted by Council of Five Hundred; political system began to be based on civic equality and social status based on property ownership
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge

    Thought artist’s imaginations was God at work in the mind; poetry was therefore the highest of human acts; Coleridge was master of Gothic poems, such as “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
  • Thomas Malthus

    Most influential of economic writers, suggesting nothing could improve condition of working class; in 1798, Malthus published Essay on Principle of Population contending that population must eventually outstrip food supply; although human population grows geometrically, food supply can only expand arithmetically with little hop of averting the disaster except through late marriage, chastity, and contraception; Malthus contended that immediate plight of working class would only get worse
  • Consulate

    Consulate ended revolution in France, with Third Estate achieving most of their goals (abolished hereditary privilege, talent-oriented careers, property security and wealth, peasant land and privileges, etc.)
  • Plebiscite

    Bonaparte submitted his constitution to voters in a plebiscite, which was overwhelmingly approved in Consulate
  • Supremacy of the Imagination

    Romantic Movement had roots in individualism of Renaissance, Protestant devotion, personal piety, sentimental novels of eighteenth century, and dramatic German poetry of Sturm and Drang; Sturm and Drang rejected French rationalism influence on German literature
  • John Jacques Rousseau

    Laid bedrock for Romanticism; in Émile, Rousseau stressed difference between children and adults, distinguished stages of human maturation, urged children to be raised with individual freedom, etc.
  • Proletarianization

    During nineteenth century, artisans and factory workers came to participate in wage-labor force in which their labor was a commodity of labor marketplace, this process termed proletarianization
  • Period: to

    Romanticism

    French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests saw emergence of new and important intellectual movement called Romanticism; Romanticism was reaction against thought of Enlightenment; Romantic writers and artists saw imagination or intellect as supplementing reason as means to perceive and understand the world; many urged revival of Christianity; Romantics liked the arts, literature, architecture, etc. of medieval times and interested in folklore, songs, and fairytales (as did dreams, hallucinations)
  • Period: to

    Urbanization

    Revolutions of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries made many fearful of future disorder and threats to life and property; industrialization and urbanization contributed to this problem of order
  • Period: to

    Utopian Socialists

    During twentieth century, socialist movement (in form of communist or social democratic political parties) constituted one of major political forces in Europe; early socialists generally applauded new productive capacity of industrialism but denied free market’s ability to produce and distribute goods the way classical economists claimed; in capitalist order, socialists saw mismanagement, low wages, misdistribution of goods, and suffering arising from unregulated industrial system
  • Concordat of 1801

    Napoleon concluded a concordat with Pope Pius VII in 1801, which required refractory clergy and those who had accepted revolution to resign and replaced with state-named bishops with salaries (in turn, church gave up claims to confiscated property)
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleon set about reforming and codifying French law, resulting in Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code); Napoleonic Code safeguarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges (all privileges based on birth remained abolished)
  • William Pitt

    William Pitt the Younger returned as prime minister in 1804 to construct Third Coalition (by 1805, had persuaded Russia and Austria to move against France)
  • Third Coalition

    William Pitt the Younger returned as prime minister in 1804 to construct Third Coalition (by 1805, had persuaded Russia and Austria to move against France)
  • Period: to

    Movements for Independence

    Greek, Serbian, Haitian, Venezuelan, Brazilian, etc. independence in span of thirty years
  • Napoleon I

    Another new constitution declared Napoleon Bonaparte Emperor of the French and he crowned himself, not dependent upon church for anything (called Napoleon I)
  • Period: to

    French Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon forced Austria to surrender in 1805 and the defeated Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz, which the Treaty of Pressburg followed (Austrians withdrew from Italy, giving Napoleon control of everything north of Rome); Prussia went to war against France and were quickly crushed in 1806; on November 21, 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decrees, forbidding his allies from importing British goods; in 1807, Napoleon defeated Russians and occupied east Prussia
  • Confederation of the Rhine

    In 1806, Napoleon organized Confederation of the Rhine
  • Textile Industry

    Industrial Revolution began in eighteenth-century Great Britain with textile advances; natural resources, adequate capital, native technological skills, growing food supply, social structure with more mobility, and strong foreign and domestic demand for goods gave Britain edge in new capacity for production in manufacturing; British textile industry was worldwide network with supply of raw cotton that depended upon American slave labor (even though Britain had been trying to end slave trade
  • William Blake

    English poet, painter and printmaker; largely unrecognized during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age
  • Charter

    New king was brother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, a political realist who agreed to make France a constitutional monarchy (under constitution of his own making, called the Charter); Charter promised not to challenge property rights of current owners of land that had been confiscated form aristocrats and church, and with this provision, Louis XVIII hoped to reconcile to his regime those who had benefited from revolution
  • Period: to

    Congress of Vienna

    Early nineteenth century nationalism directly opposed principle upheld at Congress of Vienna that legitimate monarchies or dynasties provided basis for political unity, rather than ethnicities; Congress of Vienna had created German Confederation to replace Holy Roman Empire, with each state being autonomous, but Austria determined to prevent movement toward constitutionalism
  • Period: to

    Concert of Europe

    new arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues, preventing one nation from taking a major action in international affairs without working in concert with or obtaining assent of others; initial goal of Concert of Europe was to maintain balance of power against French aggression and military might of Russia, largely to just maintain peace
  • Duke of Wellington

    Allies weren’t convinced and sent armies to crush him, where Duke of Wellington with the Prussians (under Field Marshal von Blücher) defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815
  • Abdication of Napoleon

    Napoleon’s return from Elba in 1815 further united victors as French army was still loyal to former emperor and many Frenchmen preferred him over Bourbon rule; Napoleon abdicated and exiled until his death in 1821
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Allies weren’t convinced and sent armies to crush him, where Duke of Wellington with the Prussians (under Field Marshal von Blücher) defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815
  • Quadruple Alliance

    England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia renewed Quadruple Alliance in 1815 for maintaining peace and victory over France; represented new change in European affairs with constituted effort to prevent wars
  • Frederick III of Prussia

    In 1815, promised some form of constitutional government but reneged on his pledge in 1817 and instead created Council of State, which improved administrative efficiency but was responsible to only him; in 1819, replaced reform-minded minsters with conservatives and on their advice, established eight provincial estates, or diets, in 1823 (dominated by Junkers and exercise only advisory function)
  • Northern and Southern Societies

    Secret societies formed, some advocating for representative government and abolition of serfdom (Southern Society), others favoring constitutional monarchy and protection of aristocracy (Northern Society)
  • Coercion Act

    In 1817, Parliament passed Coercion Acts, which temporarily suspended habeas corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings
  • David Ricardo

    In his Principles of Political Economy from 1817, David Ricardo transformed concepts of Malthus into “iron law of wages”; if wages raised, parents have more children to enter labor market, expanding number of workers and lowering wages; as wages fell, working people would produce fewer children, and waged would then rise, and process would repeat; in the long run, wages would always tend toward minimum level, supporting employers in their natural reluctance to raise wages, and providing support
  • Lord Byron

    Rebel among Romantic poets who was largest disliked and distrusted in Britain; little sympathy for other views; elsewhere in Europe was regarded as embodiment of new person from French Revolution creation (championed modernizing, personal liberty, was skeptical, and also mocking); In Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, written in 1812, created melancholy Romantic hero and in Don Juan of 1819, wrote with humor, acknowledging nature’s cruelty and beauty
  • Prince Metternich

    Epitomized conservatism and was chief architect of Vienna settlements; Austrian government could make no serious compromises with new political forces in Europe and to no other country were liberalism and nationalism more dangerous; in 1819, Metternich persuaded major German states to issue Carlsbad Decrees, which dissolved the Burschenschaften and provided for university inspectors and press censors
  • Peterloo Massacre

    The Peterloo Massacre occurred in 1819 when mass meetings demanded reform of Parliament, culminating in a campaign for radical reform that met in industrial city of Manchester but was interrupted by local militia that resulted in eleven deaths and many injuries; Peterloo was act of local officials, whom Liverpool ministry felt must support so radical leaders were arrested and Parliament passed series of laws called the Six Acts
  • Six Acts

    Forbade unauthorized public meetings, fines for seditious libel, fast trials for political agitators, prohibited training of armed groups, and allowed local officials to search homes in disturbed counties
  • Nationalism

    Single most powerful European political ideology of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; nationalism was based on relatively modern concept that a nation is composed of people joined together by bonds of a common language, customs, culture, and history, which should be administered by the same government because of these bonds
  • Conservatism

    Dominated by legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches
  • Protocol of Troppau

    Congress of Troppau in 1820 brought together Austria, Russia, and Prussia to issue the Protocol of Troppau, which asserted that stable governments might intervene to restore order in countries experiencing revolution
  • Primogeniture

    Right, by law or custom, of the firstborn child to inherit the family estate, in preference to siblings (compare to ultimogeniture). In the absence of children, inheritance passed to collateral relatives, usually males, in order of seniority of their lines of descent; Charles restored primogeniture and enacted law to punish sacrilege to support Roman Catholic Church
  • Cottage Industries

    Women were associated with domestic duties or poorly paid cottage industries
  • Unmarried Women

    Employed in factories (majority of workers), starting in 1820s; New jobs required fewer skills, so opened more paying jobs to women but lowered their skill level; supervisors of women were always men; women in factories were young and single so upon marriage, would leave factories or were encouraged to leave because owners did not want women with pregnancies, influences from husband, or child rearing duties
  • Period: to

    Factories

    Major shift in family and factory structure began in mid-1820s in England, and was done by mid-1830s; spinning and weaving put under one roof son size of factories and machinery grew; new machines required less-skilled workers, the women and children, who were less likely to form unions or revolts; factory wages for men were high to allow fathers to remove children from factory to send to school (but very poor still sent children to factories); men were supervising women and children
  • Louis XVIII

    New king was brother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, a political realist who agreed to make France a constitutional monarchy (under constitution of his own making, called the Charter); Charter promised not to challenge property rights of current owners of land that had been confiscated form aristocrats and church, and with this provision, Louis XVIII hoped to reconcile to his regime those who had benefited from revolution; when died, was succeeded by brother Charles X, an ultraroyalist and belief
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Junior officers had plotted to rally troops under their command to rally for reform and in 1825, army was to take oath of allegiance to Nicholas (who was less popular and more conservative than Constantine) and most regiments took the oath, but the Moscow regiment marched into St. Petersburg to demand a constitution and Constantine as tsar; Nicholas sent troops to suppress regiment, which killed many, and became known as the Decembrist Revolt
  • Saint-Simonianism

    Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon was earliest of socialist pioneers, a liberal French aristocrat who fought in French Revolution and became writer of social criticism and concern for order; Saint-Simon believed modern society would require rational management; private wealth, property, and enterprise should be subject to administration other than owners; Saint-Simon’s ideal government consisted of large board of directors organizing and coordinating activity of individuals and groups to achieve
  • Lord Liverpool

    Tory ministry of Lord Liverpool was unprepared to deal with these problems of postwar dislocation and instead sought to protect interests of landed and wealthy classes
  • Banned Labor and Guild Organizations

    Guild system of masters and apprentices allowed workers to exercise considerable control over labor recruitment and training, pace of production, quality of product, and price; increasingly difficult for artisans to continue guild system, after it was outlawed in French Revolution and other countries (thought masters raised prices of products at expense of capital and consumers); masters under increased competitive pressure from larger, capitalized establishments or introduction of machinery
  • Confection

    Goods, clothing, furniture, etc. were produced in standard sizes and styles rather than custom made
  • Employment of Children

    In 1830s, workers became concerned about child laborers because parents no longer exercising discipline over own children in factories
  • Period: to

    July Monarchy

    July Monarchy (new regime) was more liberal than restoration government; Louis Philippe called “king of the French” rather than “king of France”; tricolor flag replaced white Bourbon flag; new constitution regarded as right of people rather than concession of monarch; Catholicism became religion of majority of people rather than “official religion”; new government was anticlerical; censorship abolished; king had to cooperate with Chamber of Deputies; everyday economic, political, and social
  • Period: to

    Railway Boom

    Industrial advance had also contributed to this Irish and countryside migration; 1830s and ‘40s opened first great age of railway building; Railways represented investment in capital goods rather than consumer goods (consequently, there was a shortage of consumer goods at cheap prices); favoring of capital over consumer production was one reason working class was unable to purchase much for its wages; railways brought about more industrialization, increasing demand for iron, steel, and skill
  • Giuseppe Mazzini

    Giuseppe Mazzini was most important nationalist in Europe and brought new fervor to cause; in 1831, Mazzini founded Young Italy Society to drive away Austria and establish Italian republic; in 1830s and ‘40s, Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi led insurrections (involved in Roman Republic of 1849) and used guerrilla warfare often
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

    In 1830s and ‘40s, Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi led insurrections (involved in Roman Republic of 1849) and used guerrilla warfare often
  • English Factory Act of 1833

    Forbade employment of children under age nine, limited workday of children, and required factory owner to pay for education of these children (furthered divided home and work life); education requirement gave responsibility to teacher, not parent to educate child; after passage of English Factory act, many demanded shorter workdays for adults to spend more time with children
  • David Friedrich Strauss

    In 1835, David Friedrich Strauss published The Life of Jesus, which questioned if Bible had any historical evidence about Jesus (said Bible was a metaphorical myth)
  • London Working Men's Association

    In 1836, William Lovett formed London Working Men’s Association and in 1838, issued the Charter, demanding six specific reforms; six points of the Charter included universal make suffrage, annual election of House of Commons, secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and abolition of property qualifications for and payment of salaries to members of House of Commons
  • Fourierism

    Charles Fourier was Owen’s French intellectual counterpart, a commercial salesperson who never attracted as much public attention; Fourier wrote books and articles, waiting for a patron to undertake his program; Fourier believed industrial order ignored passionate side of human nature, social discipline ignoring all pleasures humans naturally seek; Fourier advocated construction of communities called phalanxes, in which liberated living would replace boredom and dullness of industrial existence
  • Wellhausen, Renan, Robertson

    Julius Wellhausen (Germany), Ernst Renan (France),and William Robertson Smith (Great Britain) contended than humans had authored Bible
  • Prison Reform

    In 1840s, French and English undertook bold efforts at prison reform aimed at rehabilitating or transforming prisoner (led to repressive systems of prison to understand criminals and scientifically reform them); Europeans experimented with separating prisoners (Auburn system and Philadelphia system) via individual cells and long periods of separation and silence (most famous example was Pentonville Prison near London); intense isolation led to mental collapse to these reforms were relaxed
  • Professional Police Force

    Police society was a paid, professionally trained group of law-enforcement officers to keep order, protect property and lives, investigate crime, and apprehend offenders; officers often from army and charged with domestic security; key feature of policed society is visible presence of law-enforcement officers to prevent crime; police officers became one of largest groups of municipal government employees
  • Owenism

    Major British contributor to early socialist tradition was Robert Owen, a cotton manufacturer; Owen was firm believer in environmentalist psychology of Enlightenment from John Locke; if human beings placed in correct surroundings, they would be improved; own saw no incompatibility between creating humane industrial environment and making good profit; in his cotton factory in New Lanark, Owen provided workers with good quarters, recreational possibilities, education opportunities, churches, etc.
  • Anarchism

    Writers and activists of 1840s who rejected industry and dominance of government were anarchists; usually included in socialist tradition, anarchists favored programs of violence and terrorism while others were peaceful; Auguste Blanqui was major spokesperson for terror, spending much of his adult life in jail; seeking to abolish capitalism and the state, Blanqui urged development of professional revolutionary vanguard to attack capitalist society (foreshadowed Lenin)
  • Liberal and Nationalist Revolutions

    In 1848, a series of liberal and nationalistic revolutions erupted across Europe; severe food shortages, poor grain and potato harvests, depressed commercial and industrial economy, widespread unemployment, overburdened systems of poor relief, wretched living conditions in cities, heightened frustration of urban artisans and laboring classes, etc. contributed; dynamic force for change originated with not working classes but political liberals who were drawn from middle classes
  • Auguste Comte

    In The Positive Philosophy, Comte argued that human thought developed in three stages: first, the theological stage (physical nature explained in terms of action of divinities or spirits); second, the metaphysical stage (abstract principles regarded as operative agencies of nature); third, the positive stage (explanations of nature became matters of exact description of phenomena, without course to an unobservable operative principle)
    • Comte believed positive laws of social behavior could be
  • Ferry Laws

    Series of educational laws, sponsored by Jules Ferry, replaced religious instruction in public schools with civic training
  • William Wordsworth

    Coleridge’s closest friend and published Lyrical Ballads in 1798 with him; “Ode on Intimations of Immortality” in 1803 was written to console Coleridge after a deep personal crisis; Wordsworth wrote an autobiographical poem in 1850 titled The Prelude
  • Burschenschaften

    Many students formed associations, or Burschenschaften, serving numerous social functions, one of which to replace old provincial attachments with loyalty to concept of a united German state
  • Period: to

    Crimean War

    In 1851, after French pressure, Ottoman sultan assigned care of Palestine to Roman Catholics, angering Russia (and Russia wanted to extend control over parts of Ottoman Empire); Ottoman Empire consequently declared war on Russia; Britain and France opposed Russian expansion where they had naval and commercial interests (and Napoleon III thought activist foreign policy would shore up domestic support for France); in 1854, France and Britain declared war on Russia in alliance with Ottomans
  • Alexander II

    Alexander II took throne in 1855, instituting extensive restricting of society and administration; in 1861, Alexander II ended serfdom
  • Treaty of Paris of 1856

    Russia surrendered territory, recognized neutrality of Black Sea, and renounced claims to protect Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empirel; Concert of Europe shattered
  • Marxism

    Mode of socialist thought that exerted more influence over modern European history was Marxism; during nineteenth century, its ideas permeated major continental socialist parties with Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, communist strain of Marxist thought that dominated Soviet Union, and after World War II, Eastern Europe and revolutionary movements in colonials and post-colonial world; Marxist socialist ideas eventually triumphed over Europe through competition with other socialist formulas
  • Charles Darwin

    In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, which carried mechanical interpretation of physical nature into world of living things; Darwin regarded as “Newton of biology”; he and Alfred Russel Wallace worked independently to develop principle of natural selection (explained how species evolved over time)
  • Literacy Improvements

    As governments began financing education, literacy rates steadily improved from 1860s; Hungary provided free elementary education in 1868, Britain in 1870, Switzerland in 1874, Italy in 1877, and France between 1878 and 1881; advanced Prussian education system extended into Germany in 1871; Western Europe had 25% higher literacy rates than Eastern and Southern European countries; basic education deemed necessary for newly enfranchised voters and to make more productive work force
  • February Patent

    In 1861, February Patent issued, which set up bicameral imperial parliament, or Reichsrat with upper chamber (appointed by emperor) and lower chamber (indirectly elected); Magyars refused to work in system that gave dominance to German-speaking Austrians; civil liberties no guaranteed and ministers responsible to emperor in February Patent
  • Reichsrat

    In 1861, February Patent issued, which set up bicameral imperial parliament, or Reichsrat with upper chamber (appointed by emperor) and lower chamber (indirectly elected)
  • Abolition of Serfdom

    Alexander II decided serfdom had to be abolished to keep Russia a great power; economically inefficient, serfdom had risks of revolts, serfs forced into poor armies, morals condemned serfs, involuntary servitude included, etc.; in 1861, Alexander II ended serfdom; serfs received right to marry with landlord permission, rights to buy and sell property, to sue in court, and pursue trades but no free title of own land; emancipated serfs had to pay landlords for allotments of land
  • Otto von Bismarck

    In 1862, William I turned to Otto von Bismarck, a Junker (noble landlord) who was interested in German unification; pursued kleindeutsch (small Germany) to unify nation and intended to exclude Austria; Schleswig-Holstein problem (kings of Denmark had ruled northern German areas but the area still belonged to Germany; Germany easily took land from Denmark) gave Bismarck personal prestige and political strength
  • Victor Hugo

    Romantic Movement peaked in Germany and England before reaching France with Madame de Staël and Victor Hugo; French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement; considered one of the greatest and best known French writers; Les Miserables in1862; The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1831
  • Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein

    pursued kleindeutsch (small Germany) to unify nation and intended to exclude AustriaSchleswig-Holstein problem (kings of Denmark had ruled northern German areas but the area still belonged to Germany; Germany easily took land from Denmark) gave Bismarck personal prestige and political strength
  • Feminism

    From 1864-1865, English prostitutes subject to Contagious Diseases Acts, which made legal any medical exam of a women suspected of being a prostitute; Contagious Diseases Acts put male customers, physicians, and law enforcement officials in charge of poor females; women blamed harsh working conditions and poverty for forcing women into prostitution; by 1869, Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts (middle-class organization) was led by Josephine Butler
  • Seven Weeks War

    Austro-Prussian tensions arose over administration of Schleswig and Holstein and in 1866, Austria appealed for German intervention; Bismarck claimed this request violated law and Seven Weeks’ War led to defeat of Austria; Treaty of Prague ended conflict in 1866, which excluded Austrian Habsburgs from German affairs (Prussia thus only major power in German states)
  • Austria-Hungary

    Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 transformed Habsburg Empire into dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary; Francis Joseph crowned king of Hungary in 1867 but Austria and Hungary still separate states (aside from common monarch, army, and foreign relations); different ministers, separate parliaments, separate trade relationships, etc.; Compromise of 1867 introduced principles of political legitimacy into two sections in Habsburg Empire
  • Populism Movement in Russia

    Revolutionary student movement called populism sought social revolution based on communal life of Russian peasants; chief radical society of populism was Land and Freedom
  • Education Act of 1870

    Education Act of 1870 had government assume responsibility for running elementary schools
  • Education and Social Situations

    Basic education deemed necessary for newly enfranchised voters and to make more productive work force; basic primary education skills included reading, writing, and arithmetic; teaching profession grew rapidly (major area of employment for women)
  • Doctrine of Creation

    Theory of evolution through natural selection contradicted biblical narrative of Creation and undermined Christian concept of fixity in nature
  • Modernism

    Marcel Proust wrote In Search of Time Past that adopted a stream-of-consciousness format exploring his memories; modernism was critical of middle-class society and morality; nourished by turmoil and social dislocation, modernism flourished after World War I
  • Joyce, Proust, Mann, Eliot

    Marcel Proust wrote In Search of Time Past that adopted a stream-of-consciousness format exploring his memories; Thomas Mann wrote Buddenbrooks and The Magic Mountain, exploring social experience of middle-class Germans and their dealing with intellectual heritage; in Ulysses, James Joyce transformed structure of novel and paragraphs
  • Period: to

    Franco-Prussian War

    Bismarck wanted war with France to complete German unification so when sent a telegram from a conversation between William I and France, he published it because it made Prussia look like was insulting France (provoked France into war in 1870); French victory would renew popular support for empire; German states, under treaties of 1866, joined Prussia against France
  • Adolphe Thiers

    Monarchists dominated National Assembly, giving executive power to Adolphe Thiers (negotiated Treaty of Frankfurt)
  • Paris Commune

    Many Parisians resented National Assembly, so elected new municipal government called Paris Commune in 1871 (meant to administer Paris separately from rest of France; Commune dominated by bourgeois member, with roots in socialism and anarchism rather than Marx’s concept of class conflict; Commune was triumphant centralized nation-state
  • Trade Unions

    Great Britain gave full legality to unions in 1871, allowing to picket in 1875; in France, Napoleon III first used troops against strikes but as political power waned, allowed weak labor associations in 1868; Third French Republic fully legalized unions in 1884; German unions permitted to function with little disturbance after 1890; Unions directed at skilled workers and immediate improvement of wages and working conditions
  • Male Suffrage

    Bismarck brought universal male suffrage to German Empire in 1871; French Chamber of Deputies was democratically elected; universal male suffrage adopted in Switzerland in 1879, in Spain in1890, in Belgium in 1893, in Netherlands in 1896, Norway in 1898, and Italy in 1912
  • Organized Political Party

    Organized political party was vehicle that mobilized new voters; argest single group in mass electorates was working class
  • Friedrich Nietzsche

    German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche attacked Christianity, democracy, nationalism, rationality, science, and progress, seeking to probe sources in human character for changing values; wrote The Birth of Tragedy in 1872, urging nonrational aspects of human nature to be as important as rational characteristics; insisted on positive functions of instinct and ecstasy; highly regarded Socrates as major contributor to Western decadence for emphasis on rationale
  • Marshal MacMahon

    Monarchists elected conservative army officer, Marshall Patrice MacMahon to prepare for a monarchist restoration; in 1875, National Assembly regularized political system and adopted law that provided for Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage, a Senate chosen indirectly, and president elected by two legislative houses; MacMahon resigned in 1879 after disagreements with Chamber of Deputies, a departure that meant republicans controlled national government despite lingering op
  • Marxism

    From First International, Marxism emerged as single-most important strand of socialism; scientific nature of Marxism made it appealing and reliable; Marxism influenced German socialists (most powerful socialist party in Europe), which also involved non-Marxist socialists in Great Britain
  • Socialist Party

    Marxism influenced German socialists (most powerful socialist party in Europe), which also involved non-Marxist socialists in Great Britain
  • May Laws

    “May Laws” of 1873 (only applied to Prussia) required priests to be educated in German schools and to pass state exams (state could also veto appointment of priests); “May Laws” abolished power of pops and church over clergy, transferred to state, so many refused to obey
  • Period: to

    Depression of 1873-1896

    Some businessmen believed imperialism would cure world of depression of 1873-1896
  • Period: to

    Three Emperors' League

    Three Emperors’ League formed in 1873, bringing together Germany, Russia, and Austria; League collapsed over Austro-Russian rivalry in Balkans that came out of Russo-Turkish War of 1877
  • Period: to

    Balkan Crisis

    League collapsed over Austro-Russian rivalry in Balkans that came out of Russo-Turkish War of 1877; Treaty of San Stefano of 1878 freed Balkans from Ottoman rule and Russia gained territory and indemnity
  • Congress of Berlin

    Congress of Berlin met in 1878 reduced Bulgaria in size, gave Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria-Hungary, gave Cyprus to Britain, France occupied Tunisia, etc.; Berlin settlement aggravated Balkan desires and tensions
  • Dual Alliance

    Bismarck made secret treaty with Austria in 1879, agreeing for each country to come to each other’s aid if Russia attacked (Dual Alliance); In 1882, Italy joined Dual alliance with Austria and Germany, directed against France (who occupied Tunisia); to appease Dual Alliance with Austria, Germany supported (although threatened relations with Russia and Turkey)
  • Irish Question

    Irish nationalists had sought home rule for Ireland (Irish control of local government); in 1869, Gladstone disestablished Church of Ireland (Irish branch of Anglican Church) so Irish Roman Catholics would then not pay taxes to support Protestant church; in 1885, Gladstone announced support of home rule for Ireland
  • Anti-Semitism

    Anti-Semitism began in 1870s, attributing economic stagnation to Jewish bankers; in 1880s, organized anti-Semitism erupted in Germany and France due to Dreyfus affair
  • Early Welfare

    Germany first nation to have welfare program
  • Period: to

    New Imperialism

    Involved investing capital in “less industrialized” countries by Europeans
  • Period: to

    J.A. Hobson/Lenin

    J.A. Hobson, English economist, interpreted imperialist as “monopoly stage of capitalism”; nations run out of their own resources, markets, or areas of investment so go to other nations; but colonizing European powers put capital back into Europe or developed nations (U.S., Canada, etc.), not their colony; some businessmen believed imperialism would cure world of depression of 1873-1896
  • Period: to

    Raw Materials

    Growth of national states (with loyalty, service, and resources) permitted European nations to deploy resources more effectively than ever before; Africa became important supplier of ivory, rubber, minerals, gold, and diamonds
  • Period: to

    European Culture and Christianity

    Many believed it their duty to culture inferior civilizations and spread Western thought and tradition; religious groups sent missionaries to Christianize colonies
  • Mach, Poincare, Vaihinger

    In 1883, Ernst Mach published The Science of Mechanics, which urged scientists to consider concepts as descriptive of not physical world but of sensations of scientific observer experiences; French scientist Henri Poincaré urged theories of scientists be regarded as hypothetical constructs of human mind rather than true facts of nature; in 1911, Hans Vaihinger suggested concepts of science be “as if” descriptions of physical world; scientists saw themselves as provided hypothetical or symboli
  • Fabianism

    Fabian Society (took name from Fabius Maximus, Roman general who avoided direct conflict that could to defeat), founded in 1884, was Britain’s most influential socialist group; leading members of Fabian Society included Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, H. G. Wells, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw; any Fabians were civil servants who believed problems of industry, expansion of ownership, and state direction of production could be solved gradually, peacefully, and democratically
  • Franco-Prussian Alliance

    In 1894, France and Russia signed defensive alliance against Germany
  • Dreyfus Affair

    A French military court found Captain Alfred Dreyfus guilty of passing secret information to German army (evidence forged and Dreyfus was Jewish, so easy target); Dreyfus hated by anti-Semitics, Catholics, and conservatives but defended by liberals, radicals, and socialists (who demanded new trial)
  • Roentgen, Becquerel, Thompson, Curie, Rutherford

    In 1895, William Roentgen discovered X rays, form of energy that penetrated various opaque materials; in 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered uranium; in 1897, J.J. Thomson formulated theory of the electron; in 1902, Ernest Rutherford explained cause of radiation through disintegration of atoms of radioactive materials
  • Migration Trends

    Birth and death rates declined or stabilized in Europe in 1910 after huge increase; demographic difference between developed and undeveloped world (slow growth in developed nations and rapid growth in undeveloped)
  • Continental Industries

    This time-period coined the Second Industrial Revolution (dominated by steel, electricity, chemicals, and oil); • New dyestuffs and plastics developed; Germany fostered scientific research and education; application of electricity energy to production; electrical energy was most significant change for industry (versatile and transportable source of power)
  • Alkali, Electricity, Combustion Engine

    Henry Bessemer discovered new process for cheaply manufacturing steel in large quantities (Bessemer process); Solway process of alkali production replaced Lablanc process (allowing recovery of more chemical by-products and increased production of sulfuric acid and laundry soap); in 1885, German Gottlieb Daimler invented modern combustion energy
  • Middle Class

    Middle classes incredibly diverse, with most prosperous members being bankers or business owners; some wealthy families became members of aristocracy; "white-collar workers” formed lower middle class, or petite bourgeoisie (constantly seeking social mobility); much resentment between layers of middle class
  • Realism and Naturalism

    Emile Zola turned realism into a movement, finding inspiration in Claude Bernard’s Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine; Zola argued could write a novel equated with a science experiment, and believed absolute physical and psychological determinism ruled human events like physical world; Charles Dickens and Honoré de Balzac portrayed cruelty of industrial life and capitalism; George Eliot (penname of Mary Ann Evans) paid attention to characterization
  • Freud and Jung

    Sigmund Freud an Austrian Jew who studied physiology and medicine, interested in psychic disorders; Freud found his patients related many of their problems to their childhood and sexual experiences; disciple of Freud, Jung believed human subconscious inherited previous generations’ memories; one’s soul consisted of these generational memories and personal experience; in Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933), Jung saw positive values in religion
  • Durkheim, Sorel, Lebon, Pareto, Wallas

    Emphasized the individual and role of rationality, contradicting Gustave LeBon (France), Emile Durkheim (France), Georges Sorel (France), Vilfredo Pareto (Italy), and Graham Wallas (England); LeBon believed crowds are irrational; Sorel argued that people don’t pursue rationale but are led by shared ideals; Durkheim and Walla were interested in need of shared values in society
  • Racial Thinking

    Manifestation of questioning and denying the reason in humans, sacrificing individual to group associations and characteristics; humans classified by color of skin, language, and stage of civilization; racial science believed to support hierarchy of races
  • Working Women

    Freud saw rearing of sons as woman’s greatest reward, and that women were incomplete humans who were destined for unhappy lives in motherhood; psychology dominated by men, yet greatly influence women (via child rearing, domestic relations law, etc.) and gave men a large impact in women-dominated social activity; many believed female roles in reproduction and child rearing made them socially inferior to men
  • Feminists

    Fundamental to feminist literature was Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own
  • Morocco Crisis

    Concluded agreements with France in 1904 (called Entente Cordiale), settling colonization disagreements (gave Morocco to France and Britain got Egypt); William favored Moroccan independence and asserted Germany’s right to participate in Morocco’s destiny
  • Einstein and Heisenberg

    In 1905, Albert Einstein published papers on relativity that contended that time and space weren’t separate, but a combined continuum (measure of time and space also depends on observer as well as entities being measured); in 1927, Werner Heisenberg set forth uncertainty principle, according to which behavior of subatomic particles is matter of statistical probability rather than exactly determinable cause and effect
  • Max Weber

    German social theorist and sociologist Max Weber regarded emergence of rationalism as major development of human history; bureaucratization seen as basic feature of modern social life (opposed Marx’s capitalism as driving force); bureaucratization divided labor of each individual into particular role in larger organization, which gave sense of worth; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) traced rationale of capitalism to ascetic religious doctrines of Puritanism
  • Suburbs and Cities

    Commercial development, railway construction, and slum clearance displaced city dwellers and raised urban and values; middle classes looked for affordable housing without traffic congestion so suburbs built for commuters into city; for many Europeans, home and work became more physically separated than ever before
  • Women

    Most laws still saw women as minors; divorce had to be proven much more thoroughly by woman than the man; fathers also controlled the children (could take them away from mother, only parent-required permission for daughter’s marriage, etc.); contraception and abortion illegal
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

    In 1914, Serbian nationalist killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austrian throne, in Sarajevo (Serbian was member of Black Hand, a political terrorist society); threatened radical nationalist dream of independent Slav state and alienated Habsburg conservatives
  • Period: to

    Costs of Great War

    Millions of dollars and lives
  • March 1917 Coup

    Demonstrations began in 1917 in Petrograd (St. Petersburg); tsar abdicated soon after and Russia feel to power of Duma, who formed provisional government
  • Duma

    Tsar abdicated soon after and Russia feel to power of Duma, who formed provisional government
  • Bolshevik Wing

    Bolshevik wing of Social Democratic Party working against government; Germans looks to Vladimir Lenin, hoping he’d cause trouble for revolutionary government; Bolsheviks demanded all political power go to soviets, which they controlled
  • Period: to

    Bolshevik Russia

    Led by Lenin after defeat of tsar; assassinated tsar and family in basement; slow industrialization
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations was body of sovereign states agreed to pursue common policies and consult in common interest in an international court called League Council; no military forces so ineffective; also unsuccessful because any action required unanimous consent and had excluded Germany and Soviet Union
  • Fourteen Points Plan

    New government under Prince Max of Baden asked for peace on fourteen points (self-determination, sea freedom, disarmament, League of Nations establishment, etc.)
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Wilson (U.S.), Lloyd George (Great Britain), George Clemenceau (France), Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (Italy) were Big Four, along with Japan, and met at Versailles in 1919 to settle end of war; Treaty of Versailles not conciliatory enough to remove desire for revision or harsh enough to make another war impossible
  • Five Separate Treaties

    Treaty of Versailles made up of five separate treaties between nations
  • European Financial Loss

    Before war, Europe was financial and credit center of world but by 1918, was indebted to each other and America
  • Changes in Market and Trade

    U.S. and Japan could take over Latin American and Asian markets without European competition
  • United States Post-WWI

    U.S. not dependent on European production and major competitor; U.S. and Japan could take over Latin American and Asian markets without European competition; U.S. refused to ask for reparations from Germany but still expected war debts repaid by Allies
  • Unions

    Wartime cooperation of unions and labor leaders with national governments destroyed internationalism of prewar labor movement and therefore, governments could not ignore unions anymore; collective bargaining and union recognition remained post-WWI (improvement of union status and influence of labor) and European voters became more conservative
  • Communist Party in Soviet Union

    Politburo (governing committee of Communist Party); Nikolai Bukharin, right-wing editor of Pravda (official party newspaper), advocated slow industrialization, decentralized economy, modest free enterprise, and small landholdings with Communist Party faction
  • Fear of Communism

    Fascist movements were nationalistic responses to fear and expansion of Communism, while USSR was based in mass political parties
  • Cheka

    Secret police called the Cheka enforced Bolshevism
  • War Communism

    Government confiscation and running of banks and major industries; centralized economic plan
  • Leon Trotsky

    Red Army, under Leon Trotsky, suppressed internal military opposition; left-wing, urged rapid industrialization financed with expropriation of farm production; agriculture should be cultivized and peasants made to pay for industrialization; argued Russian revolution could only be successful with revolutions elsewhere; by 1927, Trotsky had been removed from offices, expelled from party, and exiled to Siberia; moved to Mexico and was murdered by Stalin’s agent
  • Joseph Stalin

    Amassed power through command of bureaucratic and administrative methods; mastered details of party structure, membership, and promotion; Nikolai Bukharin, right-wing editor of Pravda (official party newspaper), advocated slow industrialization, decentralized economy, modest free enterprise, and small landholdings with Communist Party faction; supported Bukharin and edged out Trotsky through power in Central Committee of the Communist Party
  • Nikolai Bukharin

    Nikolai Bukharin, right-wing editor of Pravda (official party newspaper), advocated slow industrialization, decentralized economy, modest free enterprise, and small landholdings with Communist Party faction
  • Comintern

    In 1919, Soviet communists founded Third International, known as Comintern; Comintern worked to have Bolshevik model rule all socialist parties outside Soviet Union; in 1920, imposed Twenty-One Conditions on any socialist party wanting to join Comintern (conditions included acknowledging Moscow’s power, rejecting reformist, socialism, and adopting Communist Party name); wanted to destroy democratic socialism; because of Comintern conditions, communist and social democrats emerged int'nat'lly
  • Triple Entente

    Triple Entente of France, Britain, and Russia; Triple Entente (Allies) were superior in numbers and financing and navy
  • Triple Alliance

    Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy
  • Little Entente

    Included Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia who had alliances with France and Poland; Poland’s independence needed preservation of Paris Settlement; border dispute with Czechoslovakia kept Poland out of Little Entente; weak and unreliable (threatened by Hungary)
  • Benito Mussolini

    Fasci led by Benito Mussolini, who moved from championing proletariat to championing nation (nationalism replaced socialism); eventually, Mussolini had terror groups disrupt socialists, attacked strikers and farmers, protected strikebreakers; in 1922, king and Parliament allowed Mussolini to be dictator for one year to establish local and regional governments; in 1924, fascists won control of Chamber of Deputies and passed laws that allowed Mussolini to rule by decree
  • Fascism

    Fascism described as right-wing dictatorships that arose in Europe between world wars; fascist governments were anti-democratic, anti-Marxist, antiparliamentary, anti-Semitic and were pro-middle class, pro-business, pro-farmers, and wanted to overcome class conflict; fascist movements were nationalistic responses to fear and expansion of Communism, while USSR was based in mass political parties
  • Black Shirt March

    In 1922, fascists began march on Rome called the Black Shirt March
  • Labour Government

    Labour party was socialistic, democratic, and non-revolutionary (existed but most members went to conservatives or Labour ranks, eclipsing Liberal party)
  • War Debts

    In 1922, Great Britain insisted on payment of own loans to extent that U.S. required payments from Great Britain; currency speculation took funds from capital investment, discouraged trade and production, and hurt employment
  • Adolph Hitler

    Hitler absorbed German nationalism, racism, and anti-Semitism (hated Marxism, associated with Jews); in 1923, Hitler and followers attempted putsch from beer hall in Munich (local authorities crushed uprising); Hitler was tried, defending himself by pointing out his complaints, and went to prison (became national figure); in prison, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf, outlining his political views; aso in prison, Hitler began to see himself as a leader and decided to take power legally
  • Successor States

    Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, etc.
  • German Nationalism

    Hitler absorbed German nationalism, racism, and anti-Semitism (hated Marxism, associated with Jews)
  • Anti-Semitism

    In Vienna, Hitler became acquainted with Mayor Karl Lueger’s Christian Social Party and anti-Semitism; Hitler absorbed German nationalism, racism, and anti-Semitism (hated Marxism, associated with Jews)
  • National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)

    Hitler became associated with National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)
  • Rapid Industrialization

    Until 1927, Lenin’s New Economic Policy (allowed private ownership and enterprise) dominated Soviet economic development but Congress decided to push for rapid industrialization; fast industrialization was essential to Stalin’s plan to have communist Soviet Union overtake productive capacity of enemies and capitalist nations; required rapid construction of heavy industries (iron, steel, machine tool making), building electricity-generating stations, and manufacturing tractors
  • Collectivization of Agriculture

    Stalin instituted collectivization (replacement of private peasant farms with huge, state-run and owned farms called collectives), which freed up peasants to work in factories and gave the government control of farm sector; collectivization began in 1929, which announced elimination of kulaks as a class (entire peasant class) (collectivization became synonymous with dekulakization)
  • Corporatism

    Between socialism and liberal laissez-faire; corporatism planned to link economy with private ownership of capital; major industries organized into syndicates representing labor and management (negotiated labor settlements and worked out differences to avoid class conflict)
  • Syndicates

    Major industries organized into syndicates representing labor and management (negotiated labor settlements and worked out differences to avoid class conflict)
  • Laborers Working Conditions

    Workers recruited from countryside and urban unemployed), with horrible living conditions and overcrowding, poor sanitation, malnourishment, etc.
  • Period: to

    Enlarging Germany

    Goal to achieve purely German state; Slavs would be servants and would take their land (Poland and Ukraine) because high in agriculture; Jews would be eliminated
  • Reparations

    France intended to use collected victor reparations to pay postwar debt; European nations needed German reparations to pay off debts to each other and the U.S.; in 1931, Hoover announced one-year moratorium of all international debt payments; Lausanne Conference of 1932 ended reparations
  • Moratorium

    In 1931, Hoover announced one-year moratorium of all international debt payments
  • National Government

    Formed by Ramsay MacDonald as coalition ministry, composed of Labour, Conservative, and Liberal ministers; to balance budget, it raised taxes, cut insurance benefits to unemployed and elderly, and lowered government salaries; in 1931, went off gold standard, stimulating exports because British products made cheaper for foreigners; in 1932, Import Duties Bill placed a 10% ad valorem tariff (ax levied in proportion to value of each imported good) on all imports
  • Import Duties Bill

    In 1932, Import Duties Bill placed a 10% ad valorem tariff (ax levied in proportion to value of each imported good) on all imports
  • Hitler's Consolidation of Power

    Enabling Act passed in 1933 by Reichstag, permitting Hitler to rule by decree; in 1933, Nazi Party seized offices, banks, and newspapers of free trade unions and arrested union leaders; all other German political parties outlawed; National Socialists were only legal party in Germany
  • Anti-Semitism

    Anti-Semitism based on biological racial theories from 19th century thought (rather than religious discrimination) was pillar of Nazi program; Jewish business boycotted, citizenship revoked, marriage monitored, sex regulated, finally deported and eliminated
  • Goals of State

    Unite New Germany of all Germanic peoples
  • Reversal of Comintern

    Stalin ordered Comintern to allow communist parties in other nations to cooperate with noncommunist parties against Nazism and fascism (reversed Lenin’s policy of Twenty-One Conditions of 1919 and allowed France’s Popular Front to come to power)
  • Popular Front

    French Socialists led by Léon Blum, who evolved the Popular Front (coalition of left-wing parties) in 1935 to preserve republic and press for social reform; Popular Front gained majority in Chamber of Deputies in 1936, making Socialists the largest single party in French history
  • Police State

    Chief vehicle of police surveillance was SS security units, headed by Heinrich Himmler; originally a bodyguard for Hitler but evolved into elite paramilitary organization larger than SA; carried out purges of party; Himmler became head of all police matters in 1936
  • Period: to

    Great Purges

    Between 1936 and 1938, series of show trials held in Moscow with Soviet leaders (who pled guilty to false charges for unknown reasons); purges used to settle old scores and gain control of lower levels of party, and Stalin was scared for his power