Timeline - British History (1534-1801)

By Klara.b
  • Period: Apr 21, 1509 to Jan 28, 1547

    👑 Henry VIII's reign

    • First Tudor King.
    • Devout Catholic, but after the Pope's rejection of his demand of divorce with Catherine of Aragon (1529), he wanted to separate from it and paved the way to Protestantism (he did not institute it : "Catholicism without the Pope").
    • > Established the Church of England.
    • The body of legislation changed and the Pope's and clergy's powers were given to the King.
  • 1517

    Ninety-Five Theses

    Ninety-Five Theses
    • Theses written by Martin Luther, a German monk, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
    • 31 October, 1517 : nailed to the door of the University in Wittenberg.
    • Criticism of Indulgences, documents issued by the Church with the Pope’s authority, reducing the amount of time one would have to stay in the Purgatory, place in which souls rested until God's final decision.
    • Salvation was free, and one did not have to pay anything to obtain it -> denounces Church's abuses.
  • Jan 3, 1521

    Luther's expulsion

    • Because of his Theses, Martin Luther was excommunicated by a papal bull "Exsurge Domine", written by the Pope Leon X.
    • He also was declared as a heretic by the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1522

    New Testament in German

    New Testament in German
    • First translation of the Bible (of the New Testament).
    • Written in German, a vernacular language, by Martin Luther -> allowed everybody experience faith alone.
    • Widely disseminated thanks to the recent printing press.
  • 1526

    Tyndale Bible

    Tyndale Bible
    • The New Testament was translated into English for the first time by William Tyndale, and publicised in England.
    • Allowed an individual relationship with God.
    • The printing press allowed its spread.
    • > In 1537, the English Bible became mandatory in every church.
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    • Schism between the Church of England (Anglican Church) and the Roman Catholic Church -> political move.
    • The King (Henry VIII) became the “Supreme Head of the Church of England” instead of the Pope.
  • Period: 1536 to 1541

    The dissolution of monasteries

    • Monasteries were considered as bastions of the popery.
    • They were disbanded.
    • It had an impact on :
    • > the religious society.
    • > the foundation of communities in general.
    • > clergy's finances.
    • Provoked, amongst others, rebellions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire (= Pilgrimages of Grace, 1536-37).
  • Period: Dec 13, 1545 to Dec 4, 1563

    Council of Trent

    • Held by the Roman Catholic Church in Trent -> symbol of Counter Reformation.
    • Goal :
    • > reaffirm Catholic dogmas.
    • > fight against Protestant ideas and condemn protestant heresies.
    • > correct abuses of the Church.
  • Period: Jan 28, 1547 to Jul 6, 1553

    👑 Edward VI's reign

    • He was honestly and hardly Protestant.
    • Pursued the Protestant doctrine his father introduced before dying, and pushed England in Protestantism.
    • He introduced the Book of Common Prayer.
  • 1549

    The Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer
    • Modification of the Mass-book.
    • Instituted new practices :
    • > clergy could marry.
    • > Catholic practices were destroyed (statues, stained glasses).
    • It led to rebellions in Cornwall and Devon.
  • Period: Jul 19, 1553 to Nov 17, 1558

    👑 Mary I's reign

    • First Queen of England.
    • She was a Catholic who inherited a Protestant country (that was also almost bankrupt).
    • She wanted to restore Catholicism in England, what she did, in 18 months.
    • She was nicknamed "Bloody Mary" :
    • between 1555 and 1558, heretics (= Protestants) were burnt alive and had to endure torture.
    • around 200 Protestants went to the stake.
    • Protestants had to live in secrecy or leave the country to survive, and were named the "Marian exiles".
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    👑 Elizabeth I's reign and its influence on England

    • "Religious settlement" : she established principles to the Church of England, still existing today -> compromise to the religious conflicts (temporary).
    • Reinforced the independence of England by remaining unmarried.
    • Between 1559-63, she passed a new legislation.
    • 1581 : "Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subject in the due Obedience" -> death penalty for converting or converted Catholics, the Catholic Mass was forbidden.
    • 163 persons (Catholics) were killed during the repression.
  • 1559

    Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity

    Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity
    1. It is about the Church's organisation : The Queen has the power, not the Pope -> abolition of the Pope's authority + the Queen became the “Supreme Governor of the Church of England”.
    2. It concerns the religious belief : people who did not attend an Anglican service were fined, and every parish had to use the Book of Common Prayer.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 articles of Faith

    • Elizabeth I's doctrine of the Church :
    • > new ecclesiology (the real leader is the Archbishop of Canterbury).
    • > new vision of Salvation (two main sacraments : Eucharist and Baptism).
    • > new definition of sacraments and the mass (the Eucharist is at the same time a symbol and the Christ's blood and flesh, the Bible had to be in English).
  • 1569

    The Northern Rebellion

    • Important example of the Rebellions to which led the reforms established by Elizabeth I.
    • Result of a plot against the Queen -> attempt to put Mary Queen of Scots as Queen of England.
  • 1570

    Elizabeth I's excommunication

    Elizabeth I's excommunication
    • Pope Pius V wrote a papal bull named "Regnans in Excelsis", excommunicating the Queen.
    • > She did not return to Catholicism.
    • > Catholics were persecuted.
  • The Babington plot

    The Babington plot
    • Plot between Marie Stuart and Catholics who wanted to kill Elizabeth I and put her on the throne.
    • Plot deciphered by Francis Walsingham (Elizabeth's main spy).
    • > led to Mary Queen of Scots' death.
  • Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    Execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    • She was imprisoned nineteen years by her cousin Elizabeth the first, because she was a threat for the succession, being close to Catholic Kingdoms and being Elizabeth's legitimate heir.
    • After the discovery of the Babington Plot, she was sentenced to death in Fotheringham Castle.
    • She wore a red dress, the colour of Catholic martyr, in a provocative and symbolic way.
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    • King of Spain tried to invade England -> England was victorious.
    • Indicator of the English development in strategy.
    • Proved Elizabeth's qualities as a Queen.
    • Reaffirmed the English national cohesion.
  • Period: to

    Development of slavery's labour in North America

    • Established in law in the Thirteen colonies.
    • It passed from 500 slaves to more than 5 000 in fifty years.
  • Period: to

    👑 James I's reign

    • Dates of his reign as the King of England and Ireland.
    • James VI of Scotland: 1567-1625.
    • Millenary Petition, 1603: it bore signatures of a thousand church ministers, was given to the King by Puritans in order to reform the English Church in a more protestant one (purify from Catholic traces).
    • > the King refused and confirmed the status quo. => some protestant left England, boarded the Mayflower and created the first colony in America.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    • Conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill James I -because he was Protestant-.
    • Consists in putting barrels of powder under the Parliament. -> it failed because they get caught.
    • Guy Fawks was part of it = the man of whom the effigy is burnt every year on the commemoration day.
  • First English Colony: Jamestown

    First English Colony: Jamestown
    • Named after James I.
    • Virginia.
    • It was the first succeeded and permanent settlement after Sir Walter Raleigh failed to establish one in 1585.
  • Period: to

    The Starving Time

    • Period where a lot of colons died because of starving (60 out of 500 survived). Causes: > Lack of drinkable water. > Insufficient quantity of crops. > Constant conflicts with the native tribe present on the territory : Powhatans => the colony was saved by the discovery of a new type of tobacco by a settler and his Powhatan wife -> it helped to the development of the territory + forced labour.
  • The "Great Contract"

    • After financial issues, it is the centrepiece of financial reforms.
    • It especially suggests the King would receive a fixed some of money.
    • > Parliament: fear of the King’s independence and refusal to vote in favour of the contract. => Parliament dismissed by James I.
  • Period: to

    The Thirty Years' War

    • England at war with Spain and France => It caused a strain on finances and impacts the local population, who had to billet soldiers (made the King unpopular).
  • Period: to

    👑 Charles I's reign

    • King of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    • His reign ended with a regicide.
    • Under his reign took place the "Eleven Years Tyranny".
  • MPs and the Petition of Rights

    MPs and the Petition of Rights
    • They requested the King to recognise the illegality of extra-parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law, imprisonment without trial, and they tried to prove him his powers are limited. => led to the Three Resolutions in 1629: indirect accusation of the King
    • > people who tried to alter the Protestant forms of the Church + advised the King to collect custom duties without Parliament’s consent are enemies.
  • Period: to

    "The Eleven Years Tyranny"

    • Period of the "Personal Rule".
    • > The King ruled without any Parliament.
    • Under this period, many Catholic features were implanted back to the English Church (Arminian beliefs).
    • Under King Charles I.
  • Religious issues under Charles I

    • He attempted to draw the Church of Scotland into line with the Church of England (Calvinism into line with Anglicanism). -> public discontent.
    • He tried to impose a New Prayer Book (Book of Common Prayer).
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    • Document voted by Parliament after debates.
    • It summarises all the wrong doing of Charles I + concluded on “revolutionary” demands of:
    • > choosing the King’s ministers.
    • > controlling an army sent to Ireland.
    • > having the right to reform the Church. => It led to the division of the Parliament: royalists and parliamentarians.
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    • Protestants sent by the King to take Irish Catholics’ lands
    • > Massacre of 3 000-4 000 protestants.
    • > False rumours emerged about Irish atrocities on protestants.
    • => Milita Act : the army should be placed under the control of a general appointed by Parliament, it means taking away the King’s ability to appoint whoever he wanted and lessen his powers.
  • King vs. Parliament

    King vs. Parliament
    • On this date, Charles formally declared war on Parliament. => He marched into the House of Commons with troops and attempted to arrest the 5 MPs plotting against the Queen. => It failed.
  • Period: to

    First Civil War

    • Royalists vs. Parliamentarians.
    • Parliamentarians won thanks to their advantages:
    • > financial.
    • > army.
    • > alliance.
  • The New Model Army

    The New Model Army
    • New army created during the first Civil War by the Parliamentarians.
    • National.
    • Centralised.
    • Controlled and paid by the Parliament.
    • Larger number of soldiers (22 000 men).
    • Newly armed and wearing the redcoat.
    • Known for their religious fervour. => They were not paid after the civil war, so it led to mutiny, and in June 1647, they seized the King.
  • Period: to

    Second Civil War

    • Royalists vs. Parliamentarians.
    • Parliamentarians easily won thanks to Cromwell.
    • One of the consequences was the King’s execution for high treason (he allied with the Scots and fight against his people).
  • Period: to

    Interregnum: The Commonwealth and the Cromwellian Protectorate

    • March 1649: England declared a Commonwealth (= republic).
    • 1649: political changes:
    • > monarchy’s and House of Lords’ abolishment.
    • > supreme authority to the House of Commons. => 16 December 1653: End of the Commonwealth + beginning of Protectorate after many revolts and fail of the “Rump Parliament” and the “Barebones Parliament”.
    • Protectorate: monarchy without a King, Cromwell as Lord Protector possessing all the powers and helped by the Parliament and the Council of State.
  • The Instrument of Government

    • England’s first and only written constitution under the Commonwealth.
    • The government’s structure is explained in this political text.
  • The Restoration

    The Restoration
    • Monarchy was restored after a period of anarchy caused by Cromwell’s death (Oliver Cromwell: english military and Lord Protector during the Protectorate).
    • Helped by the Declaration of Breda issued by Charles II, promising:
    • > a general amnesty.
    • > religious toleration.
    • > a sharing of power with the Parliament if monarchy was restored.
  • Period: to

    👑 Charles II's reign

    • Dates of his reign as King of England, Scotland, Ireland.
    • King of Scotland: 1649-1651.
  • Period: to

    👑 James II's reign

    • King of England, Scotland, Ireland.
    • He was Catholic and people feared he would have a male heir putting back this belief in the English Church.
    • He fleed from England as he was invaded and attacked by William of Orange's army.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    • Fear of seeing James II’s son (bore by his second wife) become King and install a Catholic absolutism.
    • The Parliament invited the King’s son in law (William of Orange) to invade England and seize the crown
    • > No resistance, James II flee.
    • > William of Orange became William III.
    • > No blood and reinforced liberties
  • Period: to

    👑 William III's reign

    • Dates as King of England, Scotland, Ireland.
    • Stadthholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel: 1672-1702.
    • Prince of Orange: 1650-1702.
    • Protestant and married to Mary II.
  • The Act of Settlement

    • It settled the order of succession.
    • It ensured a Protestant succession (Hanoverian succession). => It helped to form the Kingdom of Great Britain + put an end to the quarrel between the King and Parliament.
  • Period: to

    American War of Independence

    Turning point in the British history: it causes the end of the “First British Empire”, because the country lost a big part of its Empire after their colonies gained their independence.
  • The "First British Empire"

    • Britain began to make colonies in North America and The Caribbean in the 16th century.
    • > By 1783, it already had a large empire.
  • The Act of Union

    • Unification of Great Britain and Ireland, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.