The Declaration of Breda 1660Charles spent the most of his exile at the court of Louis XIV in France, but as likelihood of restoration increased in late 1659 he moved into Protestant Holland following advice of General Monck.
Before he returned to England, Charles issued the Declaration of Breda.
Although Charles made a number of promises in his Declaration it should be questioned whether his desire to create long-lasting settlement with parliament was sincere.
He saw himself a monarch by the will of God, not Parliament
The Declaration and promisesThe Declaration made a number of promises:
1) cooperation and harmony with the parliament
2) an amnesty for actions taken in the years of war and Interregnum (1649-60), except for those who signed death warrant of Charles I.
3) religious toleration will continue
4) payment of the army’s wages
The Declaration promised all that parliament required and in May MPs voted that government should now consist of the king, Lords and Commons.
Monarchy was restored.
Cavalier parliament 1661The details of settlement had to be worked out after king’s return.
Convention parliament was dissolved in December 1660 and new elections were held. Failed rebellion that happened in London in 1661 reignited fears of radical groups. In this atmosphere ultra-royalist Cavalier parliament was elected.
Cavalier parliament’s work undermined the clarity that was achieved by Convention parliament. For example the Militia Act of 1661 stated that a king alone was commander of armed forces.
Cavalier parliament cont.Cavalier parliament also retained Triennial Act of 1641 and produced its revised version in 1664 which did not provide any mechanisms to enforce the calling of parliament if king failed to do that.
In fact, Cavalier parliament weakened restrictions on the king’s powers and left many grey areas that would cause tension in following years.
Religious conflictsThe Convention parliament had restored Anglican Church and bishops, but the details of organization were to be discussed by members of clergy at Savoy Conference in April 1661.
The election of vengeful Cavalier parliament greatly strengthened influence of High church party who were seeking the restoration of Laudian system and persecution of non-conformists.
Clarendon Code - a series of legal measures that were introduced in the following years destroyed any opportunity for reconciliation.
Clarendon Code1661: the Corporation Act allowed excluded non-conformists from public offices. The Act severely weakened Puritan power and influence as many of them were holding offices in local corporations.
1662: the Act of Uniformity required all clergymen to accept Anglican doctrines and rituals. Hundreds of clergymen refused to comply with this act, and were forced to resign.
1664: the Conventicle act forbade more than 5 people to assemble for unauthorized worship
FinancesThe Convention Parliament had offered Charles less money than he needed and although the Cavalier parliament granted him some funds it was not enough to make him independent.
The Tenures Abolition Act passed by Convention parliament in 1660 ended king’s right on feudal taxes such as Forced loans. Charles was therefore always reliant on further parliamentary subsidies.
Conflicts between the king and parliamentRestoration settlement did not solve problems that led to war and revolution. The series of contradictions were created because only partial measures were taken to settle immediate issues.
Charles was recalled by the parliament which had provided him with a proper income but one that was never sufficient to give him independence even in the areas that laid within his prerogative such as foreign policy
Conflicts between the king and parliament cont.Charles also showed desire for tolerant church. He tried to change some of the harsher aspects of religious settlement, but MPs refused to consent.
Given the lack of clarity over key powers it’s not surprising that conflict re-emerged. What made it more serious however, was a growing suspicion within the MPs that the king had a secret reasons for his actions. Shortly, MPs suspected Charles in favoring Catholicism