The History of French English Relations in Canada

  • World War One Conscription Crisis

    By the middle of the war, reserves were running low, forcing PM Borden to enact mandatory military service.
    This issue divided Canadians as the French believed they had done enough to support this foreign war. Result: French-English relations strained.
  • Union Nationale Party Created

  • Period: to

    Maurice Duplessis / Era of Great Darkness

    Led the Union Nationale party and believed Quebec to be a distinct society. Duplessis also supported Catholic church education. As a result Quebec had many teachers, politcians, lawyers, not businessmen, and entrepeneurs.
    Quebec economy stagnant.
    Known for bribery and corruption.
    Duplessis encouraged foreign investment in-exchange for cheap labour. Duplessis shut down unions.
  • World War Two Conscription Crisis

    By 1942, the NAZI party controlled all of western Europe requiring Mackenzie to conscript soldiers for overseas defense. By the time the bill was passed and men wer trained to go over, the war was mostly over. Result: French-English relations strained but not broken.
  • FLQ Party Born / Separatist Movement Born

  • Jean Lesage (Liberal)

    Replaces duplessis, winning the election under the slogan "maitre chez nous" - masters of our own hosue. Lesage starts modernizing Quebec education, culture, and politics. Limited influence of Catholic Church was called Quiet Revolution because it was a peace change.
  • Canada Gets New Flag / Maple Leaf flies for 1st Time

    Under the Pearson government, he moved to a flag design which unified Canada and showed independence from Britain.
  • Canadian Immigration Policy becomes colourblind

    Prior to this immigration policy was quite restrictive and excluded people from Asian countires. Now we were rumouring those restrictions by using a Points System - points awarded by professions in demand in Canada at the time of immigration.
  • Bill 22

    Liberal Premier of Quebec, Robert Courassa introduced Bill 22. This made French the official language of Quebec. Rationale: French birth rates declining, but immigration increasing. He feared French language would disappear.
  • PQ in Power and Bill 101

    Quebec votes Parti Quebecois (led by Rene Levesque) as provincial government. Levesque promises Quebec separation by first holding a province wide referendum. PQ passes Bill 101 aka the "Charter of the French Language." Some dissent. One side felt French culture was endangered and many Quebeckers felt Bill 101 was a symbol of oppression and/or too extreme.
  • Quebec Referendum on Sovereignty-Association

    Levesque's government calls referendum asking Quebeckers to vote yes to negotiating a new agreement with Canada based on sovereignty-association. He proposed that Quebec become politically independent, yet maintain a close economic relationship with Canada. 40% Yes to sovereignty-association, 60% No
  • Constitution Patriated without Quebec's agreement

    Kitchen Compromise, 9/10 vote yes.
  • Constitution Act

    BNA Act, Charter of Rights and Freedom, no Quebec.
  • Reform Party Created

    Mulroney promised to gain Quebec's consent to the constitution 'with honour'