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The crisis of the Old Regime

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    Carlos IV de Borbón

    He was a weak king, very manipulable and fond of hunting, music and books. He married his cousin Maria Luisa de Parma in 1765. He had 14 children out of the 24 times his wife was pregnant. His reign lasted only from 1788 to 1808 and he was the first king to die without being a king Movie Trailer
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    The crisis of the Old Regime

    The aftereffect of the French Revolution of 1789 triggered the beginning of the crisis of the Old Regime in Spain, a period characterized by wars, the weakness and collapse of many of the old institutions, political instability and the alteration of economic dynamics. Carlos IV’s family
  • The reign of Carlos IV involved in the crisis of the Old Regime

    The reign of Carlos IV involved in the crisis of the Old Regime
    In 1788 a new king ruled Spain; specifically Carlos IV, who did not abdicate until 1808. Regarding his reign, he was involved in the crisis of the Old Regime of Europe, whose period lasted from the 17th to the 18th century. This regime consisted of an absolutist monarchy, an agrarian economy and a class society. Likewise, society was divided into two estates according to birth. On the one hand, the privileged (clergy and nobility), and on the other hand, the underprivileged (rest of population)
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    Reign of Carlos IV

    In relation to politics, Carlos IV, disregarded due to his weak personality, and left the position in the hands of three valid ministers. The first valid was Floridablanca (1788-1792) who was against the French Revolution. Next, Aranda (1792-1793) came to power, but he did not fulfill his stated objective: to prevent Louis XVI from dying with his throat cut. Finally, Manuel Godoy (1793-1808). Quiz
  • The Battle of Trafalgar

    The Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval battle that took place on October 21, 1805, within the framework of the third coalition initiated by the United Kingdom, to try to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte from the imperial throne and dissolve existing French military influence in Europe. This naval battle is considered one of the most important of the 19th century, where the allies France and Spain clashed against the British navy, who was victorious. Video
  • The Treaty of Fontainebleau

    The Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed
    in Fontainebleau between Manuel Godoy, favorite of the King of Spain Carlos IV de Borbón, and Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French. It stipulated the joint Franco-Spanish military invasion of Portugal, an ally of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, and allowed the passage of French troops through Spanish territory, thus being the antecedent of the later French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and of the Spanish War of Independence.
  • Political, economic and social crisis

    Political, economic and social crisis
    Continuing with the political crisis, there was an inoperative monarchy and constant military defeats. In addition, the Spanish empire in America was gradually dissolving. As the state was immersed in a huge deficit, a new crisis arose, the economic one; where each time the expenses were higher and the income lower. Finally, there was a social crisis, where instead of having a strong and enterprising bourgeoisie that controlled the great public offices, they had ineffective nobles.
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    The reign of Fernando VII

    The reign of Fernando VII was divided into three phases: Absolutist Sexennium (1814-1820), Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) and the Ominous Decade (1823-1833)
  • The Aranjuez Mutiny

    The Aranjuez Mutiny
    The Aranjuez Mutiny is a popular revolution that occurred in the streets of this Madrid town. It was triggered due to several causes motivated by the politics of Manuel Godoy, Secretary of State of Carlos IV. Contemporaries mythologized the event, placing March 19, which symbolized the fall of the reviled Godoy, as the starting point of the "Spanish Revolution".
  • War of Independence

    War of Independence
    On May 2, 1808, the people of Madrid rose up against the invading army. It was a humanitarian disaster that marked our history. In the War of Independence three important aspects were differentiated. The first, a cruel and unequal patriotic war, where the common people, won the best army of the time. The second, a civil war, where the absolutists fought against the liberals. And
    an international war, since France fought against England, but in Spain.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    In April 1808, the Abdications of Bayonne occurred, where Napoleon forced Fernando VII to cede the crown to his father, who again abdicated in favor of Napoleon. In this way, Napoleon ended up naming his brother, José Bonaparte, king of Spain.
  • The Central Supreme Board

    The Central Supreme Board
    The Supreme Central and Governing Board of the Kingdom, formed in Aranjuez, was a body that exercised the Spanish executive and legislative powers during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain. The Supreme Central Board assumed political power in the unoccupied areas and convened the Cortes in Cadiz.
  • New decrees

    New decrees
    Some constituent courts began to legislate based on decrees in order to establish liberalism in Spain and end the Old Regime. With these decrees, both the confiscation laws (allowing the change of property) and the laws that ended the manorial regime were promulgated. Also, the censorship on political texts, the Inquisition and the guilds and interior customs were abolished.
  • Courts of Cadiz

    Courts of Cadiz
    The first Courts open the period of constitutionalism in Spain in the war context of the War of Independence and represent the transition from the Old to the New Regime. These courts occurred in the Andalusian city as it was a place far from the war and very commercial. There were two political positions. On the one hand, the liberals, a majority group and on the other hand, the absolutists, a minority group. Book
  • The Constitution of 1812

    The Constitution of 1812
    The first Spanish constitution was inspired by the French one of 1791. Popularly known as "La Pepa", it was enthusiastically approved among the people of Cadiz. It was the main legislative work of the Cortes de Cádiz and established principles such as national sovereignty, separation of powers… However, its application was never allowed, since in 1814 Fernando VII abolished all the reforms made.
  • Absolutist six-year term

    Absolutist six-year term
    Once Napoleon is definitively defeated in Europe, the period known as the Restoration occurs, in which all the monarchs who had been overthrown from their thrones (illegitimately or not), recover them, re-establishing absolutist regimes in Europe. Manifesto de los Persas
  • Liberal triennium

    Liberal triennium
    This stage is of great interest in Spanish constitutional history, as it was during these years that the constitutional Monarchy envisaged in the Constitution of Cadiz of 1812 was manifested for the first time.
  • Ominous decade

    Ominous decade
    European absolutist nations sent an army to restore absolutism in Spain, which ended with the execution of Colonel Riego. The government mobilizes the meager troops it has throughout the territory, but the resistance continues to be punctual. In this way, the center is defended by Enrique José O'Donnell I and Count of La Bisbal (1776-1834)
  • Isabel II

    Isabel II
    In 1830, Isabel was born, the first and only daughter of María Cristina de Borbón together with Fernando VII. The king that same year, proclaimed the "Pragmatic sanction"; measure designed to abolish the Salic law. After three years, Fernando VII dies, thus making little Isabel queen of Spain. However, due to his young age, the regency was provisionally in the hands of his mother. Video
  • The First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War
    The first Carlist War was a civil war that took place in Spain between 1833 and 1840 between the Carlists, supporters of the infant Carlos María Isidro de Borbón and an absolutist regime, and the Elizabethans or Christians, defenders of Elizabeth II and the regent María Cristina de Borbón, whose government was originally moderate absolutist and ended up becoming liberal to gain popular support. Video