Siglo xix españa


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    The Ancien Régime begins in Spain with the reign of Charles IV(1788 to 1808). One of the consequences of the Napoleonic invasion will put an end to the Old Regime.
    After the execution of Louis XVI, Spain with other absolutist powers declared war against revolutionary France. However, Spain’s foreign policy changed with respect to its position with France and in the attacks of the English fleet on Spanish ships from America the Bourbons joined France against England.
  • War of Roussillon

    War of Roussillon
    The War of Roussillon, also called the War of the Pyrenees or the War of the Convention, was a conflict between the monarchy of Charles IV of Spain and the French First Republic between 1793 and 1795, within the general conflict that pitted France against the First Coalition.
  • Treaty of Ildefonso

    Treaty of Ildefonso
    It was the Pact of Saint Idelfonso, Spain becomes an ally of France in its fight against Britain.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The invasion of England was not possible due to the Spanish-French defeat at Trafalgar. It marked the third coalition initiated by the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples and Sweden to try to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte from the imperial throne and dissolve the existing French military influence in Europe.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau consisted of the permission given to the Napoleonic troops to pass through Spain and invade Portugal, because Portugal traded with England and refused to join the continental blockade imposed by Napoleon. However, Napoleon’s only intention was to invade Spain, which provoked the Aranjuez Mutiny.
  • Mutiny of Aranjuez

    Mutiny of Aranjuez
    The presence of Napoleonic troops provoked a popular uprising. Because of this popular uprising Godoy was forced to resign and Charles IV had to abdicate in his son Ferdinand VII.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon was able to take advantage of this situation by taking advantage of his strong personality. He summoned Charles VI and his son Ferdinand VII to Bayonne to renounce the throne and remain in France. Bayonne statute, which was based on the Napoleonic code and had a reformist aim, was promulgated as a constitution. After the resignation to the throne of Spain, Napoleon succeeded in imposing his brother Joseph I Bonaparte as king of Spain, who was popularly known as Pepe Botella.
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    The War of Independence was an armed conflict between 1808 and 1814 between Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom and the Napoleonic Empire. This means ''principle of the Old Regime'' starting a process that culminated twenty years later with the introduction of liberalism.
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    French Offensive

    Napoleon intervened directly in the conflict and occupied most of Spain. Some cities resisted several months, such as Girona or Zaragoza. Once the territory was controlled in 1812, Napoleon moved much of his troops to invade Russia.
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    Independence boards

    The Supreme Central and Governmental Junta of the Kingdom, formed in September 1808 in Aranjuez, was an organ that exercised the Spanish executive and legislative powers during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain. It was composed of representatives of the boards that had been formed in the Spanish provinces.
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    Popular resistance

    Patriot guerrillas (the name given to those who opposed the invasion) were formed to harass the French. The army, supported by volunteers, managed to stop the French advance to the South in the Battle of Bailén.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    The Battle of Bailén was fought during the Spanish War of Independence and was the first open-field defeat in the history of the Napoleonic army. It took place on July 19, 1808, next to the city of Bailén.
  • Surrender of Zaragoza

    Surrender of Zaragoza
    The Siege of Zaragoza (1809) is the second of the sites of Zaragoza during the Spanish War of Independence.
    They were two sieges suffered by the Aragonese city of Zaragoza during the War of Independence, which confronted the armies of occupation of the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte and Spanish forces loyal to the Bourbon dynasty. As a result, the withdrawal of the Grande Armée.
  • Court of Cádiz

    Court of Cádiz
    In 1810 the Central Supreme Board was created, in order to coordinate the efforts of the different Boards. The Central Board convened a meeting of Cortes in Cadiz with the purpose of drafting a Constitution.
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    Independence of Latin America

    Latin American independence was due to internal and external causes. There were a series of armed conflicts in every town in Latin America, which had only one goal, the independence of each town.
  • Constitution of Cadiz

    Constitution of Cadiz
    Representatives of the Boards from all over the country met. The siege of Cadiz by the French prevented the arrival of many deputies and were chosen as substitutes for bourgeois Gaditanos, which the majority were liberal. For this reason there was great support from the Cortes for the liberal reforms and the progressive character of the Constitution, approved in 1812.
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    Anglo-Spanish Victories

    The British army, commanded by Marshal Wellington, was introduced from Portugal to the aid of Spanish troops, defeating the French at Los Arapiles (1812).
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Napoleon had to acknowledge his defeat and, by the Treaty of Valençay ,in December 1813, withdrew his troops from Spain and liberated the kings in Bayonne.
  • French retreat

    French retreat
    During 1813 the French army was retreating and losing territory. The French abandoned almost all their squares, and after the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813, they were expelled from Spain.
  • Annulment of the constitution

    Annulment of the constitution
    On May 4, 1814, the newly restored King Ferdinand VII decreed the dissolution of the Cortes, the repeal of the Constitution, and the arrest of the Liberal deputies, among whom was Deputy Ramón Olaguer Feliú.
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    Restauration of Absolutism

    The absolutist sexennium was characterized by the return to the Inquisition, the privileged returns of the class and the disappearance of individual freedoms and the rights of citizens.
    Throughout these years there have been numerous attempts to restore the Constitution, many of them by the military.
    And that is when, at the beginning of 1820, Colonel Riego proclaimed the Constitution of 1812 in Seville. Here begins.
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    After the end of the War of Independence, Fernando VII returned to Spain, but did not do it for Madrid as expected but for Valencia. There he was received by 65 absolutist deputies who presented him 'The Manifesto of the Persians', urging him to assume absolute powers, and not to introduce liberalism in Spain.
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    Liberal triennium

    When the Constitution was restored, the Inquisition and the feudal privileges were abolished again, the rights of the citizens came into force and ecclesiastical property was confiscated. But soon differences appeared between the liberals, giving rise to the 12-year-olds and the 20-year-olds.
    These differences weakened the government, which had little support and, in 1823, the absolutist powers of Europe intervened militarily in Spain at the request of Fernando VII to recover the goverment.
  • 100.00 Sons of St. Louis

    100.00 Sons of St. Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII, to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium.
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    Ominous Decade

    The intervention of the Holy Alliance again established Ferdinand VII as absolute monarch. The King abolished the Constitution and unleashed harsh persecution against the Liberals, including the closure of universities and schools. But from 1826 there was a certain repressive political moderation.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    The Pragmatic Sanction was approved by Ferdinand VII of Spain on March 29, 1830 who came to promulgate the Pragmatic of 1789 approved by the Cortes of that year at the request of King Charles IV and that, for reasons of foreign policy, did not come into force.
  • Pronouncement led by Torrijos

    Pronouncement led by Torrijos
    It was a pronouncement leaded by the general and liberal politician José María Torrijos that took place in 1831 in Spain at the end of the reign of Fernando VII and whose objective was to put an end to absolutism and restore the Constitution of 1812.
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    Regency of Maria Cristina

    First Carlist War (1833-139)
    Royal Statuary (letter granted) 1834
    Abolition of the Old Regime (abolition of lordships) 1836
    Confiscation of Mendizábal
    Constitution of 1837
    1840, Mª Cristina refuses to annul the controversial City Council Law -progressive uprisings- exile of the regent.
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    The succession problem that arose at the death of Fernando VII forced the parties of his daughter Isabel II to seek support from the Liberals. During the regency of Mª Cristina the definitive abolition of the Old Regime takes place and the construction of the liberal state begins.
    The reign of Elizabeth II was the triumph of doctrinal liberalism and census voting allowed only the political participation of the landowners. It was a time of great political instability.
  • First Carlist war

    First Carlist war
    It was a civil war that developed in Spain between 1833 and 1840 between the Carlists, supporters of the Infante Carlos María Isidro de Borbón and an absolutist regime, and the Elizabethans or Cristinos, defenders of Isabel II and the regent María Cristina de Borbón, whose government was originally moderate absolutist and eventually became liberal to gain popular support.
  • Royal Statute

    Royal Statute
    The Royal Statute was promulgated in Spain in April 1834 by the regent Maria Cristina of Bourbon in the form of a charter granted, by which new courts were created halfway between the state and modern courts, since they were composed of a Estate of Princes, whose members were not elected, but were appointed by the Crown from among the nobility and the holders of a great fortune; and a Estate of Procurators, whose members were elected by a vote.
  • Confiscation

    In 1836, with Mendizábal in government, all the assets belonging to the regular clergy were declared for sale, and the funds obtained were used for the repayment of the public debt. At the end of the process 62% of the properties of the church had been amortized, numerous monasteries and convents had disappeared.
  • Riot of the Farm

    Riot of the Farm
    Uprising that took place in Spain in August 1836 during the Regency of María Cristina de Borbón in which a group of sergeants from the garrison and the royal guard of the palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia), where the regent with his five-year-old daughter Isabel, forced María Cristina de Borbón to put the 1812 Constitution back into force.
  • Constitution

    After the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833, as his daughter, Isabel II, was a minor, his wife María Cristina took command of Spain. The progressive government immediately called for extraordinary courts, for the restoration of the 1812 Constitution or for a new one. After nearly a year of discussions, the Cortes approved a new Constitution on June 18, 1837.
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    Regency of Espartero

  • Pronouncement of General Narváez

    Pronouncement of General Narváez
    Ramón María Narváez y Campos, 1st Duke of Valencia, was a Spanish soldier and politician, seven times president of the Council of Ministers of Spain between 1844 and 1868. Known as El Espadón de Loja, he was one of the most influential politicians during the reign of Isabel II, along with Baldomero Espartero and Leopoldo O'Donnell. As leader of the Moderate Party he is recognized as the main defender of the Elizabethan system in the face of the threat of revolution looming over Spain.
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    Moderate decade

    Constitution of 1845
    Concordat with the Holy See: the Vatican recognizes the monarchy of Elizabeth II and accepts the sale of confiscated goods. The Spanish government is committed to maintaining the cult and the clergy.
    New Carlist War
  • Constitution

    After the fall of Espartero, Isabel II came to power in Spain, the moderates seized power and there were new elections in 1844 in which the Moderates won and put Naváez as ruler. In this new government the ruling social class is the bourgeoisie and in 1845 a new constitution comes out that will put a stop to that of the progressive in 1837.
  • Second Carlist war

    Second Carlist war
    A civil war occurring in Spain. Some historians[citation needed] consider it a direct Catalan revolt against Madrid, fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II. The uprising began in September 1846 and continued until May 1849, spreading to Galicia.
  • Vicalvarada

    The Spanish Revolution of 1854, also known by the name Vicalvarada, started with a confrontation between rebel troops under General Leopoldo O'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan and government troops near the village of Vicálvaro.
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    Liberal biennium

    Revolution of 1854. Espartero and O`Donnell. The ''Vicalvarada'.
    Manifesto of Manzanares, progressive ideology.
    New progressive constitution
    Confiscation of Madoz
    General Law on Railways
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    Descomposition of the system

    Both the government of O`Donnell and that of Narváez gave new systems to replace the Elizabethan system.
  • Pronouncement of General Prim

    Pronouncement of General Prim
    Juan Prim y Prats, Count of Reus, Marquis of Castillejos and Viscount of Bruch, was a 19th-century Spanish military and liberal politician who became president of the Council of Ministers.After the Revolution of 1868 he became one of the most influential men in Spain at the time, sponsoring the enthronement of the House of Savoy in the person of Amadeus I. He was killed shortly afterwards.
  • Pact of Ostend

    Pact of Ostend
    The Ostend Pact was the agreement signed on 16 August 1866 in the Belgian city of Ostend by the Progressive Party and the Democratic Party, on the initiative of progressive general Juan Prim, to overthrow the monarchy of Isabel II of Spain. This pact, which at the beginning of 1868 was joined by the Liberal Union, was the origin of «La Gloriosa», the revolution that in September 1868 deposed the Spanish queen.
  • Glorious revolution

    Glorious revolution
    The Revolution of 1868, called the Glorious or September Revolution or the Septembrina, was a military uprising with civilian elements that took place in Spain in September 1868 and marked the dethronement and exile of Queen Isabel II and the beginning of the period called Democratic Sexenio (1868-1874).
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    It was the six-year period after the overthrow of Elizabeth II, during which elections were held by universal male suffrage. But this did not mean the establishment of a true democratic system and many problems of the previous stage continued.
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    Provisional government

    At the beginning of October, a Provisional Government was formed, presided over by General Serrano and formed by five progressives and four unionists. The governments ordered the dissolution of the revolutionary boards and the disarmament of the Freedom Volunteers. Many resisted and were forcibly disbanded.
  • War of Cuba

    War of Cuba
    Part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. The uprising was led by Cuban-born planters and other wealthy natives. On October 10, 1868 sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed independence, beginning the conflict.
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    Monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Amadeus I had very little support from the beginning. The aristocrats did not accept him, the ecclesiastical hierarchy rejected him and the people also. In addition, there were constant conflicts in the ruling coalition and the progressive party split into two groups, the constitutional and the radical. The workers and peasants also lost patience, because the reforms they had hoped for did not come and revolts took place throughout the country.
  • Third Carlist war

    Third Carlist war
    It was a civil war developed in Spain between 1872 and 1876, between the supporters of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, a Carlist pretender to the throne, and the governments of Amadeo I, the I Republic and Alfonso XII
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    First Spanish Republic

    The weakness of the First Republic was evident from the beginning, because many who had voted for it did not want it. It lasted only 11 months and was characterized by permanent instability and the accumulation of difficulties made it impossible for any political programme to be launched. In 11 months there were four presidents of the executive branch: Estanislao Figueras, Francisco Pi y Margall, Nicolás Salmerón and Emilio Castelar.
  • Cantonal Rebellion

    Cantonal Rebellion
    Was a cantonalist insurrection that took place during the First Spanish Republic between July 1873 and January 1874. Its protagonists were the "intransigent" federal Republicans, who wanted to establish immediately the Federal Republic from the bottom-up without waiting for the Constituent Cortes to draft and approve the new Federal Constitution
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    The system of the Bourbon Restoration, based on the Constitution of 1876, was characterized by an institutional stability and the construction of a liberal model of the State emerged in the heat of the industrial revolution, until its progressive decline from the crisis of 1917 and the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923-1930).
  • Constitution

    It was promulgated on June 30, 1876 by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and was the basis of the Bourbon Restoration.
  • Alfonso´s XII death

    Alfonso´s XII death
    On November 25,1885, Spain awoke dismayed at the news of the death of Alfonso XII. The king would have turned 28 three days later and his -for many- unexpected death shocked a society inherited from the political, social and economic maelstrom of previous decades. The tuberculosis he had suffered for years and which had been kept secret was the reason for his death.
    The young monarch seemed to have put an end to that frenetic stage of his history by guaranteeing a certain institutional stability