Spain in 18th - 19th centuries

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    Salic Law

    Salic Law
    A code of laws of the Salian Franks and other Germanic tribes, especially a provision in this code excluding females from the inheritance of land.
  • Period: Apr 22, 1451 to Nov 26, 1504

    Isabella I

    Isabella I (22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile. She was married to Ferdinand II of Aragon. Their marriage became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind.
  • Treaty of Fontainbleau

    Treaty of Fontainbleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau refers to a number of agreements signed at Fontainebleau, France, often at the Château de Fontainebleau.
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau (1631), signed on 30 May 1631 between Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and the Kingdom of France, established a secret alliance between the two Catholic states during the Thirty Years War
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    Charles II

    Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado) he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a large active empire which spanned the globe, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled ministers in capitals throughout Europe.
  • New Foundation Decrees

    New Foundation Decrees
    Were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V during the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht. Angered by what he saw as sedition by the Catalans and taking his native France as a model of a centralized state, Philip V suppressed the institutions, privileges, and the ancient charters of almost all the areas that were formerly part of the Crown of Aragon (Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands).
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war.
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    Charles III

    Charles III (20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.
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    José Moñino y Redondo (October 21, 1728 – December 30, 1808) was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca.
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    (Gijón, España, 1744-Vega, id., 1811) Político y escritor español. Hijo de una familia de la pequeña nobleza, estudió en Oviedo, Ávila y Alcalá, en cuyo colegio de San Ildefonso se doctoró en cánones a los veintiún años de edad. Tras finalizar los estudios, ingresó en la Administración, y en 1767 fue trasladado a Sevilla para desempeñar el cargo de alcalde del Crimen.
  • Jesuits are expelled from Spain

    Jesuits are expelled from Spain
    The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France, the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and the Spanish Empire is a highly controversial subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marqués de Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
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    Joseph I

    Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Giuseppe Buonaparte; 7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
  • Treaty of San Ildelfonso

    Treaty of San Ildelfonso
    The First Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 1 October 1777 between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, shortly after the crowning of Mary I of Portugal and dismissal of Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal as de facto ruler of Portugal.
    Second Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 19 August 1796 between Spain and the First French Republic. Based on the terms of the agreement, France and Spain would become allies and combine their forces against the British Empire.
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    Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII (Spanish: Fernando VII de Borbón; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" (el Deseado) and to his detractors as the "Felon King" (el Rey Felón). After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left.
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV was king of Spain from 1788 to 1808, but his ineffectual reign was brought to a sudden end when he abdicated and was deposed by Napoleon.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. After events on the 10 August 1792, which saw the fall of the monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, convicted in a near-unanimous vote, and condemned to death by a slight majority. He was the first victim of the Reign of Terror.
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    War of the Pyrennes

    The War of the Pyrenees, also known as War of Roussillon or War of the Convention, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars.
  • Napoleon is crown as emperor

    Napoleon is crown as emperor
    The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804. Napoleon wanted to establish legitimacy of his Imperial reign, with its new royal family and new nobility. Therefore, he designed a new coronation ceremony that was unlike the ceremony used for the kings of France. In the traditional coronation, kings underwent a ceremony of consecration rather than a coronation; in consecration, anointment was conferred by the archbishop of Reims in Notre-Dame de Reims.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War (1807–14) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then.
  • Abdications of Batonne

    Abdications of Batonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española (Spanish War of Independence) (1808-1814), which overlaps with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.
  • Family Compacts

    Family Compacts
    He Family Compact is the epithet applied by their opponents to a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada (modern Ontario) from the 1810s to the 1840s. It was the Upper Canadian equivalent of the Château Clique in Lower Canada. It was noted for its conservatism and opposition to democracy. Upper Canada 1791–1841
    Canada West 1841–1867
    Ontario 1867–present
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Genaral Courts, in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, and supported land reform and free enterprise. This constitution, one of the most liberal of its time.
  • Riego´s Pronunciamiento

    Riego´s Pronunciamiento
    On January 1, 1820, the military pronouncement of Lieutenant Colonel Rafael de Riego took place in the Sevillian town of Las Cabezas de San Juan, who was commissioned to lead an expedition against the insurgents in the colonies of America. After a small initial success, Irrego immediately proclaimed the restoration of the Constitution of Cadiz and the restoration of constitutional authorities. The small support for the military coup increased over time and prolonged the uprising until March 20.
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000. The force comprised some five army corps and was led by the Duke of Angoulême, the son of the future King Charles X of France.
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    Three Carlists Wars

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeo I (30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890) was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Is a canal in the north of Spain. Constructed between the last half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, it runs 207 km through the provinces of Burgos, Palencia and Valladolid, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
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    First Republic

    The First Spanish Republic was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
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    Cuban War

    The Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain.