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    Charles II

    He was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado), he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a large active empire which spanned the globe. Attempts to solve the problem by partitioning the empire between the eligible candidates from the royal houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg), and Bavaria (Wittelsbach) ultimately failed. Charles II fixed the entire Spanish inheritance.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht. The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war.
  • New Foundation Decrees

    New Foundation Decrees
    were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
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    Jose Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (Murcia, 21 of October of 1728 - Seville, 30 of December of 1808), was Spanish politician who exerted the position of Secretary of State between 1777 and 1792 and presided over the Central Supreme Board created In 1808..
  • Family Compacts (First)

    Family Compacts (First)
    France backed Spain´s right to recover possessions in Italy in return for Spain support in the War of the Polish succesion.
    Italy became an obsesive factor in its foreing policy; this obsession coincided with the ambitions of Philip V´s second wife, the headstrong and imperious Italian-born Isabel Farnese of Parma. She schemed to obtain Italian kingdoms for her two sons. The Compact proved beneficial. In 1743, Spanish troops recovered Naples and Sicily and Charles was crowned as king of Naples.
  • Family Compacts (Second)

    Family Compacts (Second)
    In support of France´s involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles´s younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748.
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    Politician and Spanish writer. Son of a family of the small nobility, studied in Oviedo, Ávila and Alcalá, in whose school of San Ildefonso doctor in canons to the twenty-one years of age. After completing his studies, he joined the Administration, and in 1767 he was transferred to Seville to hold the position of Mayor of Crime.
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV was born on November 11, 1748, in Portici, in the Kingdom of Naples (Italy). At age 40, he became king of Spain a role that would prove to be far too large. With the French Revolution under way, Spain was soon pitted against the revolutionaries. Eventually forced to abdicate the Spanish throne to his son, Ferdinand VII, Charles and Ferdinand were both deposed by Napoleon. Ferdinand VII was reinstalled in 1813, and Charles died in Rome in 1819. http://www.biography.com
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    Charles III

    was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain. In 1731, Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I.In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. Charles, a proponent of enlightened absolutism, abdicated the Neapolitan and Sicilian thrones in favour of Ferdinand, his third surviving son.
  • Family Compact (Third)

    Family Compact (Third)
    Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of his predecessor, Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. The agreement involved Spain's allies Naples and Tuscany. When Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III recovered these possessions in the Treaty of Paris (1763), but ceded Florida to the British.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots (Motín de Esquilache) occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marqués de Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesusits are expelled from Spain

    Jesusits are expelled from Spain
    The expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain in 1767 was ordered by King Carlos III on the charge of having been the instigators of the popular riots of the previous year, known as Motin de Esquilache. Six years later the Spanish monarch obtained that the Pope Clemente XIV suppressed the order of the Jesuits. It was restored in 1814, but the Jesuits were expelled from Spain twice as much, in 1835, during the Regency of Maria Cristina de Borbón, and in 1932, under the Second Spanish Republic.
  • Period: to Nov 26, 1504

    Isabella I

    Isabella I was queen of Castile from 1474 to 1504, queen consorte of Sicily from 1469 and Aragon from 1479,2 by its marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon. It is called "the Catholic", title that was granted to her and her husband by Pope Alexander VI through the bull If convenit, December 19, 1496.3 This is why the royal couple are known under the name of Catholic Kings , A title that would be used by practically all the kings of Spain.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. It was a major event of the French Revolution. After the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents, Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, convicted in a near-unanimous vote, and condemned to death by a slight majority. His execution made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror.
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    War of the Pyrenees

    The War of the Pyrenees, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war . It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal during the French Revolutionary Wars.The war was fought in the eastern Pyrenees, the western Pyrenees, at the French port of Toulon, and at sea.The war was brutal . First, the Committee of Public Safety decreed that all French royalist prisoners be executed. Second, French generals who lost battles were sent to prison or the guillotine.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The treaty of San Ildefonso of 1796 was a military alliance signed between Spain and France in 1796, being France embarked in the wars of its revolutionary stage. Under the terms of the agreement, both States agreed to maintain a joint military policy against Great Britain, which at that time threatened the Spanish fleet on its voyages to America.
  • Napoleon is crown as emperor

    Napoleon is crown as emperor
    On November 11th 1779, Napoleon seized control of France in the coup d´etat (or Coup de Brumaire). Following the Coup, a new constitution was introduced, and Napoleon was made First Consul of France. Then, on December 2nd, 1804, in presence of the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of France and he wanted to establish legitimacy.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Was a naval war fought by the British Royal Navy against the fleets of the French and Spanish Navies. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships under the French Admiral Villeneuve in west of Cape Trafalgar, in Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed in Fontainebleau between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France by France and Spain regarding the occupation of Portugal.Under this treaty Portugal was divided into three regions- the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province for the King of the Etrúria, the Principality of the Algarves under Spanish minister D. Manuel Godoy and the remaining provinces and overseas territories were to be distributed under a later agreement
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    Ferninand VII

    He was twice King of Spain. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King" . After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain. He reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation.
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    Joseph I

    Born Joseph Buonaparte in Corte, in the island of Corsica, on January 7, 1768, Joseph Bonaparte was the older brother of Napoleon I, emperor of France. During his brother's reign, Joseph was made king of Naples and Sicily (1806–08), and then king of Spain (1808–13). After Napoleon's defeat, Joseph moved to the United States, but spent his final years in Europe. He died in Italy in 1844.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, and separation of powers. This constitution, the most liberal of its time, was effectively Spain's first , given that the Bayonne Statute issued in 1808 under Joseph Bonaparte never entered into effect.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española (Spanish War of Independence) (1808-1814), which overlaps with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.
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    Ferdinand VII (three periods)

    1.Restoration of absolutism: after becoming king he abolished the Constitution of 1812, and ruled as an absolute monarch
    2.The liberal reform: in 1820 Riego made a pronunciamiento. As a result the king restored the constitution
    3. The victory of absolutism: in 1823 Ferdinand asked the Holy Alliance to assist hum in re-established the absolutism- it lasted ten years of repression and persecution.
  • Riego`s Pronunciamiento

    Riego`s Pronunciamiento
    The Irrigation Pronouncement, was a military "coup d'etat", carried out by the commander Rafael de Riego the 1 of January of 1820 in Cabezas de San Juan (Seville), the pronouncement arose between the officers of the troops destined to fight Against the American uprising, due to the existence of a great discomfort in the army at the end of 1819, by the exclusion of the liberals from the government, joined to the affiliation of Irrigation to the Masonry.
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of San Luis (known in France as "the expedition of Spain") were a French contingent with Spanish volunteers who fought in Spain in 1823 in defense of the Old regime, by which Ferdinand VII of Spain advocated, putting an end to The Realist War and the Liberal Triennium.
  • Salic Law

    Salic Law
    When Philip V, from the French Bourbon acceded to the Spanish throne in the Spanish War of Succession, he brought with him the Salic Law, which restricted succession to the throne to the direct male line. However,Charles IV of Spain made a weak attempt to eliminate the Salic Law, and Ferdinand brought forth the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, so that his oldest daughter would inherit the throne and be declared queen upon his death, as was the Spanish custom.
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    Three Carlists Wars

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. The First Carlist War (1833–1840) lasted more than seven years and the fighting spanned most of the country at one time or another, although the main conflict centered on the Carlist homelands of the Basque Country and Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia.
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    Second Carlist War

    The Second Carlist War (1846–1849) was a minor Catalan uprising. The rebels tried to install Carlos VI on the throne. In Galicia, the uprising was on a smaller scale and was put down by General Ramón María Narváez.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    It was constructed between the last half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.
    The canal was planned by the Marques de la Ensenada during Fernando VI's reign. Its purpose was to boost trade by allowing Tierra de Campos' wheat grain production to be transported from Castile to the northern harbour of Santander. the canal was also meant to facilitate the inflow of products from the Spanish colonies into Castile.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    The Revolution of 1868, called the Glorious or Revolution of September, also known by the Septembrina, was a military uprising with civil elements that took place in Spain in September of 1868 and supposed the dethronement and exile of the queen Isabel II and the beginning of the Period called Sexenio Democrático. The First Republic (1873-1874), the first attempt of its history to establish a democratic political regime.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    He was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.
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    Third Carlist War

    The Third Carlist War (1872–1876) began in the aftermath of the deposition of one ruling monarch and abdication of another. Queen Isabella II was overthrown by a conspiracy of liberal generals in 1868, and left Spain in some disgrace . Then, when the Spanish elections of 1872 resulted in government violence against Carlist candidates and a swing away from Carlism, the Carlist pretender, Carlos VII, decided that only force of arms could win him the throne.
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    First Republic

    It was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers.
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    Cuban War

    It was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain.The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain. Historians disagree as to the extent that United States officials were motivated to intervene for humanitarian reasons but agree that yellow journalism exaggerated atrocities attributed to Spanish forces against Cuban civilians.