Madrid puerta del sol tranvias finales siglo xix


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    Salic Law

    Salic Law
    Compiled by the first Frankish King, Clovis. Recorded in Latin and in what Dutch linguists describe as one of the earliest known records of Old Dutch, it would remain the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period. The best known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks. Dozens of manuscripts have survived.
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    Charles II

    King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1665–1700), son of Philip IV, and the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. From the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella in the fifteenth century through that of Philip IV in the mid-seventeenth century, Spain was the major power in western Europe, possessing a rich colonial empire and respected for its military prowess as well as its literary and artistic accomplishments. The reign of Charles II is perhaps best known for the decline of this empire.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    It was a conflict that arose out of the disputed succession to the throne of Spain following the death of the childless Charles II. In an effort to regulate the impending succession, to which there were three principal claimants, England, the Dutch Republic, and France had in October 1698 signed the First Treaty of Partition, agreeing that on the death of Charles II, Prince Joseph Ferdinand, son of the elector of Bavaria, should inherit Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies.
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    War of Spanish Succesion 2

  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. Concluded between various European states, it helped end the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713). This was part of British foreign policy to make peace in Europe by establishing a balance of power and preventing France in particular from dominating the continent.
  • Treaty of Utrecht 2

    Treaty of Utrecht 2
    The treaty made Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV, King of Spain. The treaty stated that Britain should have Gibraltar, Minorca, Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Britain was awarded the Assiento, the sole right to import black slaves into America for 30 years. Under the treaty France also had to acknowledge the Protestant Succession in England and Austria acquired Milan, Naples, and the Spanish Netherlands.
  • New Foundation Decress 2

    New Foundation Decress 2
    The decrees ruled that all the territories in the Crown of Aragon except the Aran Valley were to be ruled by the laws of Castile, embedding these regions in a nearly uniformly administered, centralized Spain. The other historic territories (Navarre and the other Basque territories) supported Philip V initially, whom they saw as belonging to the lineage of Henry III of Navarre, but after Philip V's military campaign to crush the Basque uprising, he backed down on his intent to suppress home rule.
  • New Foundation Decrees

    New Foundation Decrees
    They were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V (the first Bourbon King of Spain) during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht. Angered by what he saw as sedition by the Catalans and taking his native France as a model of a centralized state, Philip V suppressed the institutions, privileges, and the ancient charters of almost all the areas that were formerly part of the Crown of Aragon.
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    José Moñino y Redondo (October 21, 1728 – December 30, 1808) was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca He was a master of Spain's foreign policy,
  • First Family Compacts

    First Family Compacts
    It was made on November 7, 1733 by King Philip V and King Louis XV in the Treaty of the Escorial. Philip V had become the first Bourbon King of Spain in 1700 upon the extinction of Spanish Habsburgs. After a long war, the War of the Spanish Succession, he was recognized as king by other European powers in the Treaty of Utrecht with the condition that the thrones of Spain and France never be united. In addition, Spanish possessions in Italy were ceded to the branch of the House of Habsburg.
  • Second Family Compact

    Second Family Compact
    It was made on October 25, 1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, and most of its clauses had to do with the conduct of the war. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. His integrity and ability were rewarded in by a judgeship in Madrid, and in 1780 by appointment to the council of military orders. In the capital Jovellanos took a good place in the literary and scientific societies; he was commissioned to write his most well-known and influential work, a project which he completed in 1794, and published in 1795.
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788.n 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. Maria Amalia died in 1760.
  • Third Family Compact

    Third Family Compact
    was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. Involved Spain's allies Naples and Tuscany. When Spain became involved, the British occupied the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III recovered these possessions in the Treaty of Paris (1763), but ceded Florida to the British.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marqués de Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesuists are Expelled from Spain 2

    Jesuists are Expelled from Spain 2
    The Jesuits took refuge in non-Catholic nations, where the order was either ignored or formally rejected. The Jesuits were allowed to return to many places starting in the late nineteenth century.
  • Jesuists are expelled from Spain

    Jesuists are expelled from Spain
    The suppression of the Jesuits in the Spanish Empire (1767) is a highly controversial subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated.
  • First Treaty of San Ildefonso

    First Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The First Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 1 October 1777 between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. The agreement mainly settled territorial disputes in the Río de la Plata region. Based on the terms of the agreement, Spain ceded territories in Brazil to Portugal in return for maintaining control over the Banda Oriental. The treaty partly reaffirmed the Treaty of Madrid (1750) since Spain managed to keep both the Misiones Orientales and Colonia del Sacramento.
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Although he belived in a powerful absolute monarchy,Charles never took more than a passive part in his own government. The affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, and his prime minister, while he occupied himself with hunting.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution (Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris. It was a major event of the French Revolution. After events on the 10 August 1792, which saw the fall of the monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, convicted in a near-unanimous vote (while no one voted 'not guilty,' several deputies abstained), and condemned to death by a slight majority. His execution made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror. His wife Marie Antoinette was guillotined on 16 October, the same year.
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    War of the pyrenees 2

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    War of the Pyrenees

    The War of the Pyrenees, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. In 1793, a Spanish army invaded Roussillon and maintained itself on French soil through April 1794. The French army drove the Spanish back into Catalonia and inflicted a serious defeat on it. After February 1795, the war in the eastern Pyrenees became a stalemate. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win in 1794. By 1795,the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain.
  • Second Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Second Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 19 August 1796 between Spain and the First French Republic. Based on the terms of the agreement, France and Spain would become allies and combine their forces against the British Empire.
  • Third Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Third Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France. The treaty was concluded on 1 October 1800. Spain was under pressure from Napoleon, although Spain did gain the Tuscany area. The terms of the treaty did not specify the boundaries of the territory being returned, which later became a point of contention between Spain and the United States after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
  • Napoleon is Crown as Emperor

    Napoleon is Crown as Emperor
    Napoleon I was crowned Emperor of the French on a cold December 2 in 1804. Napoleon planed his coronation with as great a care as he did his wars. From now on, Napoleon would hold the majority of the power and take the most important decisions for France.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    n one of the most decisive naval battles in history, a British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain. Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. Nelson, hailed as the savior of his nation, was given a magnificent funeral in St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. A column was erected to his memory in the newly named Trafalgar Square.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War[ (1807–14) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.
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    Peninsular War 2

  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence (1808-1814), which overlaps with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council. In 1813, Napoleon was forced by the Spanish people to appoint Ferdinand VII as king.
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    Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII (14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King". After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left.
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    Joseph I

    Joseph was born on the island of Corsica, on January 7, 1768, Joseph Bonaparte was the older brother of Napoleon I, emperor of France. During his brother's reign, Joseph was made king of Naples and Sicily (1806–08), and then king of Spain (1808–13). In Spain, people refused to have a foreigner as King, and so they refused to accomplish his demands. After Napoleon's defeat, Joseph moved to the United States, but spent his final years in Europe. He died in Italy in 1844.
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    Joseph I 2

  • First Spanish Constitution 2

    First Spanish Constitution 2
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    On 19 March 1812, Spain’s first constitution (La Pepa) was drawn up in Cadiz, enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. A group of liberals, who refused to support the king imposed on them by the French occupiers, forms the majority of the deputies, which were the ones who supported the constitution. Although it was not enacted for some years, its influence was considerable, both within peninsular Spain and its territories around the world.
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    Ferdinand VII 2

    Ferdinand VII reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed by those who where the victorious nations of the Battle Leipzig and of the Sixth Coalition War, and Napoleon, on April 11, 1814, in Fontainebleau, France. By this treaty, Napoleon lose his power as ruler of the French Empire, but both him and his wife were allowed to preserve their respective titles as emperor and empress. Nevertheless, all of Napoleon’s family members would not be able to hold the power anymore and Napoleon was exiled to Elba.
  • Riego´s Pronunciamiento

    Riego´s Pronunciamiento
    The 1 day of January of year 1820 Riego made a coup d´État in order to promulgate the liberal constitution of 1812. He said that he wouldn´t sacrifice any Spanish live for an ungrateful king and that Spanish people wouldn´t abide orders from such an arrogant king.
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    They were a french army sent to spain in 1823 in order to end up with the Liberal Triennium and restore Fernando VII´s spanish throne. The french king Luis XVIII was the most interested in ending with the spanish liberal stage Riego had set up in 1820.
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    First Carlist War

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. -The First Carlist War (1833–1840) conflict centered on the Carlist homelands from Northern Spain.
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    Isabella II

    Isabella II (10 October 1830 – 10 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1843 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognize a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. Isabella succeeded in order to set aside the Salic law. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874.
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    Second Carlist War

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. -The Second Carlist War (1846–1849) was a minor Catalan uprising. The rebels tried to install Carlos VI on the throne. In Galicia, the uprising was on a smaller scale and was put down by General Ramón María Narváez.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    The Canal of Castile is a canal in the north of Spain and it runs 207 km.The canal was planned by the Marques de la Ensenada during Fernando VI's reign. Its purpose was to boost trade by allowing wheat grain production to be transported from Castile to the northern harbour of Santander and to other markets from there, the canal was also meant to facilitate the inflow of products from the Spanish colonies into Castile.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    sabella was in France to sign an alliance with Emperor Napoleon III when Admiral Juan Bautista issued a revolutionary proclamation in Cádiz. Quickly, uprisings ocurred in other cities and liberal generals, such us Juan Prim reentered the country. While Spain boiled in disorder, a provisional government was established, religious orders where abolished and universal suffrage was ensured. Later, a new constitution after voting to have a monarchical government was promulgated.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus was the only Spanish king from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was always known as the Duke of Aosta. He was born in Turin, Italy in 1845 and in 1867 married Donna Mario Vittoria dal Pozza for her money. He was King of Spain from the second of January of 1871 to the tenth of February of 1873, when he abdicated from the Spanish throne because he was unable to deal with several problem the country was facing. He died in 1890.
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    Amadeus of Savoy 2

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    Third Carlist War

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. The Third Carlist War (1872–1876) began in the aftermath of the deposition of one ruling monarch and abdication of another.
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    First Republic

    King Amadeo I abdicated the Spanish throne on 10 February 1873. After this moment, a republic was set up in Spain. The First Spanish Republic was governed by four distinct presidents —Estanislao Figueras, Pi i Margall, Nicolás Salmerón, Emilio Castelar. Twenty two months after the abdication of King Amadeo I, on 29 December 1874 General Manuel Pavía mounted a coup d’état and established a unified republic led by General Francisco Serrano in 1874.
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    First Republic 2

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    Cuban War

    The Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain. On August 12, the United States and Spain signed a protocol of Peace, in which Spain agreed to relinquish all claim of sovereignty and title over Cuba. On December 10, 1898, the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, which recognized Cuban independence.