Population and settlement

Timeline created by laurenrosenthal
In History
  • Sep 8, 1500

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    This is the main theory as to how the first occupants migrated to North America. They came from Siberia and traveled to North America via the Bering Strait land bridge. The cause of this migration was that they were followed the herds, since hunting was a major source of food for them. They started to settle in North America in the 1500s.
  • Sep 8, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's voyages

    Jacques Cartier's voyages
    Jacques Cartier went on three voyages on the orders of the king of Franc, Francis I. His objectives were to (1) bring back spices, precious metals and other valuable materials, (2) find a route to Asia and (3) claim land for the king. His first voyage was in 1534, where he explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His second voyage was in 1535, where he goes down the St. Lawrence river and encounters the Natives at Stadacona and Hochelaga (iroquoian settlements). (1/2)
  • Sep 8, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's voyages (continued)

    Jacques Cartier's voyages (continued)
    His third voyage was in 1541. This trip was an attempt to bring settlers to New France, which was unsuccessful due to the extremely harsh winters. (2/2)
  • Attempt to settle Port-Royal

    Attempt to settle Port-Royal
    Port Royal (Nova Scotia) was an attempted establishment. Samuel de Champlain was involved in the group trying to settle. The settlement failed due to its position.
  • Settlement of Quebec City

    Settlement of Quebec City
    Samuel de Champlain settled Quebec City (which was called Stadacona by the Amerindians) in 1608. This was the first permanent settlement in New France. He eventually traveled further down the St. Lawrence and made contact with the Natives, particularly Innu (Algonquian) groups. The Europeans formed a trade alliance with the Amerindians, because they could provide the Europeans with fur in exchange for different objects found in Europe (for example, utensils). (1/2)
  • Settlement of Quebec City (continued)

    Settlement of Quebec City (continued)
    This alliance resulted in the Europeans becoming the enemies of the Iroquois. This was because the Iroquois and the Algonquians were already enemies. The Europeans frequently battled with the Algonquians during wars between the two nations. (2/2)
  • Company of 100 Associates

    Company of 100 Associates
    At the time, New France only had about 100 Europeans living there. So, the King of France tasked the Company of 100 Associates with populating New France. In exchange, the company received a fur trade monopoly. This meant that they were the only company in New France to exploit the fur, and therefore didn't have any competition. However, the Company of 100 Associates was unsuccessful at significantly increasing the New France population for three reasons. (1/2)
  • Company of 100 Associates (continued)

    Company of 100 Associates (continued)
    Firstly, the British, who were enemies of the French, would attack their boats, which inhibited the arrival of many immigrants. Secondly, the company had to both transport settlers and ensure their safety for a full year, which cut into their profit. They preferred to engage in simple fur trade instead. Finally, profits went back to the development of the company itself instead of to the protection of the settlers.(2/2)
  • Settlement of Trois-Rivières

    Settlement of Trois-Rivières
    Sieur de Laviolette founded Trois-Rivières in 1634, which facilitated communication between fur traders. It also inhibited the Iroquois from intercepting any trades. This settlement was located at the junction point between the St. Lawrence and the St. Maurice rivers.
  • Settlement of Ville-Marie

    Settlement of Ville-Marie
    Ville-Marie was settled by Paul Chomeday, Sieur de Maisonneuve. It was close to Hochelaga and originally had the purpose of being a religious centre where Amerindians could be evangelized. However, because of its ideal location (proximity to the Native Americans), it became a massive trading post.
  • Jean Talon, Intendant

    Jean Talon, Intendant
    Jean Talon was named as intendant of New France by King Louis XIV and was placed in charge of increasing the population. He created measures which encourage both immigration and reproduction. The three groups of people that immigrated to France because of him: the Carignan-Salieres Regiment, the Engages and the Filles du Roy. The soldiers of the Carignan-Salieres regiment came in order to provide defence in case of war against the British and to fend off the threat of the Iroquois. (1/3)
  • Jean Talon, Intendant (continued)

    Jean Talon, Intendant (continued)
    They were offered free land if they stayed in New France after their service. The Engages came to learn a trade and become master craftsmen. They were offered free land. The Filles du Roy came to balance out the proportion of women vs men, as well as to marry and reproduce. They were granted a dowry by the King of France. They could also marry rich and move up in social status. as for reproduction measures, he offered implemented a policy to encourage couples to have many children. (2/3)
  • Jean Talon, Intendant (continued)

    Jean Talon, Intendant (continued)
    For example, money was offered to men married by the age of 20 and women married by the age of 16. A money was also given to fathers of more than 10 children and to fathers of more than 12 children yearly. Also, there were punishments to discourage single life. Men who didn't marry a Fille du Roy within 15 days got a fur-trade ban and fathers whose children hadn't married by the ages mentioned above were taxed. In the end, the population grew from 3-5 thousand (1663) to 70 thousand (1760). (3/3)
  • The Aboriginal Population circa 1760

    The Aboriginal Population circa 1760
    At this time, while the francophone population was prosperous, the Native American population had been decimated by disease brought by the Europeans and war. They were also constantly being relocated or moving territory, meaning that they needed to restart their farms in other places. This lead to starvation. Inter-marriage (when aboriginals have children with Europeans) also contributed to the descent of that population.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Seven Years' War led to New France being surrendered to the British in the Treaty of Paris. This war was fought in Europe, but it extended into the colonies as well. New France was defeated; Louisbourg was surrendered to the British in 1758, Quebec City was captured in 1759 and Montreal was captured was 1760. From 1760 to 1763, New France was under a British military regime. it was officially ceded to Britain in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. (1/2)
  • Treaty of Paris (continued)

    Treaty of Paris (continued)
    Because of this, there were various consequences on the population. The French nobility leave, because they prefer to go back to France. British colonists start immigrating. Because of this, the population of Quebec becomes 99% French and 1% English. (2/2)
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    The Royal Proclamation was a document issued by King George III of England that officially claimed Quebec and laid out how the territory would be run (rules, regulations, etc). It renames the colony The Province of Quebec and sets restrictions regarding the practice of religion. The Anglican Church and English laws were introduced in order to attract British colonists. As a result, the practice of Catholicism and French laws were no longer permitted.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    At this time, the American Revolution was picking up speed, and so the King of England wanted to ensure the loyalty of the French Canadians to prevent them from rebelling and separating from Britain as well. So, the Quebec Act was put into place, which enacted laws that benefitted them. The province's territory was vastly expanded, the oath of allegiance that the French Canadians previously had to take was changed so that they no longer had to deny their catholic faith. (1/2)
  • Quebec Act (continued)

    Quebec Act (continued)
    It also granted free practice of the Catholic faith and reintroduced the French civil laws. However, the English criminal laws remained in use. (2/2)
  • The American Revolution/Immigration of Loyalists

    The American Revolution/Immigration of Loyalists
    1775-1783: The American Revolution began officially when the 13 colonies declared independence from British control. However, there were English-speaking people living in the colonies who didn't want to become independent and instead wanted to remain a British colony. So, those still loyal to the King of England (Loyalists) immigrated to Quebec, which was still a British colony. 46,000 loyalists migrated to British North America, because they were offered land and subsidies. (1/2)
  • The American Revolution/Immigration of Loyalists (continued)

    The American Revolution/Immigration of Loyalists (continued)
    10,000 loyalists ended up in Quebec. Many of them chose to settle in Gaspe, Sorel, or south of the St. Lawrence (Ottawa valley). (2/2)
  • The Constitutional Act

    The Constitutional Act
    The Constitutional Act created new land for loyalists coming to Canada, such as the Eastern Townships, which were plots of land offered tax-free. It also divided the territory of Canada into two parts: Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec). The population of Upper Canada was mainly anglophone, whereas that of Lower Canada was mainly francophone.
  • Increase of Immigration in 1815

    Increase of Immigration in 1815
    Great Britain had just won a war, and was ravaged by poverty, epidemics, and famine. The population was growing very quickly, so the British government encouraged unemployed families to move to Canada, which was still a British colony. Irish, Scottish and English people came. They settled in Quebec City, Montreal, the Eastern Townships, Outaouais, Gaspesie and the South Shore of Montreal. The government funded immigration at first, but since it was too expensive, private companies took over.
  • Emigration of French Canadians

    Emigration of French Canadians
    Between 1830 and 1840, many French Canadians started to leave Quebec. Many of them went to the United States (specifically Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts and Rhode Island) to work in factories. The main reasons for this were that the seigneuries were overcrowded, there was an agricultural crisis, and there better paying jobs in the United States. Between 22,000 and 35,000 people left. This emigration also intensified with the arrival of the Irish, Scottish and British immigrants. (1/2)
  • Emigration of French Canadians (continued)

    Emigration of French Canadians (continued)
    French Canadians felt that they were losing jobs to these immigrants, as they were willing to work for lower wages, so they often were hired over the French. So, the Canadians continued to emigrate beyond 1840, most to the US, but some also began colonizing forest areas of Canada (Outaouais/Western Canada), Abitibi and Mauricie. (2/2)
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    This act united Upper and Lower Canada into one territory: Canada. The goal was to assimilate the French Canadians by making them the minority in the population. It also made English the official language of Canada. The context was that previously, a French Canadian political party, the Patriotes, wanted better political representation for the francophones. They were defeated by the English Canadians, and this act was put into place to stop the Patriotes' rebellions.
  • The Great Famine

    The Great Famine
    1845 to 1852: There was a period of mass starvation in Ireland, because their potatoes, their main source of food, were made inedible by a disease. Diseases (cholera) spread very quickly. Approximately 1 million people died in Ireland and 1 million immigrated to Canada. Before they arrived, they were quarantined in Grosse-Ile to ensure that they didn't bring cholera with them into the country.
  • British North America Act

    British North America Act
    Under this constitution, Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick joined together to create the Dominion of Canada. The Dominion of Canada was a confederation.
  • John A. Macdonald's Policy

    John A. Macdonald's Policy
    John A. Macdonald's policy had the goal of encouraging settlers to move to Western Canada. A new railroad was built to make this area accessible, and the railroad company advertised in Europe to attract settlers.
  • French Canadian emigration from 1870 to 1930

    French Canadian emigration from 1870 to 1930
    1870 to1930: French Canadians left Quebec. Some went to Ontario, Manitoba or Saskatchewan, but most went to New England. They left because of a shortage of farmland in Quebec, railways being developed in the US, proximity to the American border, higher wages in the US and modernization of farming tools. The clergy encouraged them to cultivate new land in Quebec instead, but it didn't work. The exodus ended with the Great Depression, because more jobs were available in Quebec than in the US.
  • Indian Act

    Indian Act
    The Indian Act created reserves for the Native American population, but these reserves were considered to be government property. The government had exploited Native American territories in Northern Quebec, and the Natives protested this through books, speeches, etc. The government negotiated with them and reserves were created.
  • Immigration Policies from 1920 to the 1950s

    Immigration Policies from 1920 to the 1950s
    1920: Canada stopped subsidizing immigration and became more selective with who they let in. Asian immigrants were rejected because they were considered to be unable to assimilate into Canadian culture.

    1945: William Lyon Mackenzie increased immigration to allow for economic growth. Canada began sponsoring immigrants who already had family in the country. But African Americans and Asians were still discriminated against.(1/2)
  • Immigration Policies from 1920 to the 1950s (continued)

    Immigration Policies from 1920 to the 1950s (continued)
    1950: Immigrants came mainly from Europe (France, Britain, Italy). However, Asians without family in Canada, Indians, Pakistanis and Sri Lankans were still discriminated against. The criteria for entry was specified in the Immigration Act of 1952. (2/2)
  • The Baby Boom

    The Baby Boom
    After the Second World War, there was economic prosperity in Canada, so births and marriages increased. The amount of women giving birth in hospitals increased, which also contributed to this. The average age of the population decreased and more institutions (hospitals) had to be built. This ended in 1960, with the availability of contraception. As the Baby Boomers age, there will be a lack of people in the workforce, the mandatory age of retirement is abolished, and healthcare costs go up.
  • Urban Sprawl

    Urban Sprawl
    In the 1900s, the amount of city dwellers in Quebec increased from 35% to 80%, because the industrialization of agriculture led to less need for farmers in the countryside. There were more jobs in factories in the the cities. In the second half of the century, however, the cities became crowded, and people moved to the suburbs to improve their quality of life. This created some problems: the suburbs expanded into farmland and the cities had commuting traffic.
  • Immigration Policy in the 1960s

    Immigration Policy in the 1960s
    In the 1960s, the federal government changed their immigration policy to eliminate discrimination. As of 1966, the government implemented the "White Paper Policy", which judged immigrants based on skills and education rather than race and origin. In 1968, the Quebec government created its own immigration ministry to ensure the survival of the French language. In 1969, it was decided that Canada would aid in the settlement of refugees.
  • Immigration Act

    Immigration Act
    There were 6 main objectives of this act: (1) Encourage population growth, (2) enrich cultural heritage, (3) facilitate family reunions, (4) facilitate assimilation of new immigrants into society, (5) selection with non-discriminatory criteria, and (6) maintain a humanitarian attitude towards refugees.
  • Bill 101

    Bill 101
    The Quebec government enacted this bill with the goal of preserving French-Canadian culture and the French language. It stated that children of immigrants had to go to school in French. It also made French the sole language of Quebec.
  • Period:
    Sep 8, 1500
    to

    Population and settlement