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Official power and Countervailing Powers

  • Nov 19, 1500

    Iroquois Society

    Iroquois Society
    The Iroquois society is matriarchy, which means that the women were the leaders and they were responsible for making decisions.
  • Nov 19, 1500

    Algonquian Society

    Algonquian Society
    The Algonquian society is patriarchy, which means that the fathers play the vital leader roles.
  • French Regime; French and Huron Fur Trade Alliance

    French Regime; French and Huron Fur Trade Alliance
    Strategic military alliances in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade. The primary group who the French traded with was the Hurons. To prove their alliance, the French would help the Hurons fight and the Hurons would help the French. The French fought against the Iroquois, who were trying to take over fur trade, until 1703.
  • French Regime; English and Iroquois Fur Trade Alliance

    French Regime; English and Iroquois Fur Trade Alliance
    English were allies with the Iroquois for fur trade. The British fought against the French and the Iroquois fought with their enemies, the Hurons, who were allied with the French, but since they were allies the British fought in the Iroquois wars and the Iroquois fought in the British wars to take over the fur trade. The Iroquois destroyed the Hurons.
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    The King ended monopoly in New France and put the minister of marine, Jean-Baptist Colbert in charge. They installed Royal Government in the colony. The King and the Minister of Marine would stay in France and in NF there was a sovereign council. It consisted of the Governor, who was the highest rank, commander of the army, dealt with external affairs... The Bishop, who was appointed by the Pope, administered over parish priests, hospitals, schools... Go to second Royal Government
  • Royal Government 2

    Royal Government 2
    The third member on the sovereign council is the intendant. The intendant was the most influential, chief administrator, controlled budget, collecting taxes, justice, seignorial system, built roads, set up industries. The intendant was basically the money man. The captain of the militia was not on the sovereign council but still had power, he dealt with problems on the seigneuries. He could be considered the chief of police. Absolute monarchy was still there, the King could recall any descisons.
  • Great Peace of Montreal

    Great Peace of Montreal
    The Great Peace of Montreal, or as sometimes called the Grand Settlement of 1701, was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. it was signed by Louis-Hector de Callière, who was the governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations. This treaty provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again.
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    When the British took over, a document called Articles of Capitulation was signed, giving the terms under which the French would surrender. 1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property. 2. The regular French military would lay down their arms and leave. 3. The people could practice the Roman Catholic religion but the Bishop had to leave. 4. The people who stayed became British subjects.
  • Royal Proclamation 1

    Royal Proclamation 1
    1.Gives the King's new colony a name, Province of Quebec. 2. Decreases borders to only around the St-Lawrence Valley. 3. Put in place a civilian government; the King appointed the Governor and the Governor appointed the members of the Executive Council to advise him. 4. English criminal and civil laws were applied. 5. Unused land would be divided into townships. 6. No new bishop. 7. No R.C. people could could hold public office (test act).
  • Royal Proclamation 2

    Royal Proclamation 2
    The goal of the Royal Proclamation was to assimilate and control the French in Quebec. The Royal Proclamation did this by bringing them all together as to watch over them. A lot of their rights were taken away which forced them to become more English. No new French people came, the French Elite left and rich British merchants came to replace them.
  • James Murray

    James Murray
    James Murray was the first governor of the new colony. When he came to Quebec, he saw that the Royal Proclamation would not work because 99% of the population was French, R.C and 1% was English, Protestant. He changed some of the laws: allowed new bishop, allowed French laws in some lower courts, he did not call an elected assembly because it favoured the English merchants. The English merchants did not like what he was doing and they demanded a new governor. James Murray was replaced.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    In 1763, The Treaty of Paris was signed and puts and end to the seven year war. New France is given to the King of England and it is now a British colony. All the territory of New France now belonged to the king, except two small Islands, St.Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    1.Guarentees French loyalty 2. Enlarges area of Quebec 3.Denied an elected assembly 4. Appointed Council(minimum 17 members) 5. French civil laws were installed+tithe and seigniorial system are back 6. Test Oath Act/Test Oath of Alligance. All these factors made the Americans very upset
  • Effects of the Loyalists

    Effects of the Loyalists
    When the loyalists came to Canada, they had many effects. 1.The English population in Quebec increased from 1% to 10%. 2.They settled by township system. 3.They gave their settlements English names. 4.They were used to English civil laws. 5.They were used to having elected assemblies. 6.They wrote petitions to London for changes.
  • Guy Carleton

    Guy Carleton
    Guy Carleton replaced JamesMurray, first governor of the new colony. When he came, he adopted the same views as James Murray, he does the same things as James Murray did. The point of making the French happy was to gain their loyalty for when the Americans revolted. All this led to the creation of the Quebec Act.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    The Province of Quebec was split in two parts called Upper Canada (it was up river) and Lower Canada (it was down river) Lower Canada was French and Upper Canada was English.
    The Ottawa River was the boundary between the two Canadas.
    Lower Canada: French kept their religion, civil laws and people could work in the admin. Upper Canada: Protestants, township system, English civil laws. With this constitution, there was a new government, representative government.
  • Representative Government 1

    Representative Government 1
    WIth representative government, the average person, men not women, has a say. The reason why it is called representative government is because there is still someone who has veto power. Governor-appointed (selected, not voted) by parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, called assemblies into session. Veto power- he could turn down laws. Lieutenant Governor-Acted as deputy governor. Go to representative government 2
  • Representative Government 2

    Representative Government 2
    Executive Council-appointed by Governor, advised Governor, Legislative Council-appointed, approve/reject laws from the assembly. Legislative Assembly-elected every 4yrs, power to approve/disapprove taxes, right to create laws. People-had a say for the 1st time,-only landowning men over 21.
  • Rebellions of 1837-38

    Rebellions of 1837-38
    The Contitutional Act of 1791 caused some problems. By 1830, 2 groups had formed, British Party and Parti Canadian (Parti Patriote). Groups so different: never negotitated. Refusal of the 92 Resolutions: seen as an insult. Upper Canada’s Rebellion: led by William Lyon Mackenzie, put down quickly. Lower Canada’s Rebellion: led by Louis Joseph Papineau, after several battles St-Charles, St-Denis (French win), St-Eustache the rebellion was put down. Patriotes fail, not well org or equiped.
  • Lord Durham's Recommendations

    Lord Durham's Recommendations
    Lord Durham was sent to the Canada's do see what to do about the rebellions. His recommendations were: •Britain should increase immigration=assimilate the French. •Unite Upper and Lower Canada (eng will be majority) •Responsible Government should be installed= elimination of veto power. Lord Durham’s idea’s were rejected by the British Parliament until 1840- Act of Union.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Act of Union in 1840, is the fourth constitution.
    *Creates: Prov. of Canada which consisted of Canada East &West (upper and lower Canada).
    *Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly
    *Governor still had control and veto power
    *Canada East and West equally pay for Canada’s debts
  • The Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference
    Leaders of Canada East and West met with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. They had an agreement to consider a merger.
  • The Quebec Conference

    The Quebec Conference
    October of 1864, the same year as the Charlottetown Conference, NB, NS, PEI, Canada East &West and this time Newfoundland, agreed on 72 resolutions to make the merger work. Ex: federal system, 24 seats to each colony. The people weren't so happy with the conferences. In result: Nfld and PEI withdrew, Dorion’s Parti Rouge opposed the federation, the assembly of the Canada’s passed confederation
  • London Conference

    London Conference
    Leaders of the 4 colonies meet to make: Arrangement to release from the British Empire= new “self-governing” colony.
    Dominion of Canada
    Capital of Ottawa: created under British North America Act, which was passed on March 29, and ame into existence in Canada on July 1st 1867, it contained 4 Prov. -ONT, QC, NB, NS
  • Power Relations between Feminist Movements and the State

    Power Relations between Feminist Movements and the State
    In 1893, The National Council of Women was founded-actions of the suffragettes. In 1961, election of the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec, Marie-Claire Kirland-Casgrain. In 1964, 16, which ended the legal incapacity of married women. In 1965, Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec. It revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality (men and women). In 1996, law on pay equity is adopted.