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Official Power and Countervailing Power

  • 1500

    Iroquois lifestyle

    Iroquois lifestyle
    -Matriarchy society, meaning that everything was passed down from mother to daughter. Leaders were women and decisions were taken by women Algonquians
    -Patriarchy society, meaning that everything was passed down from father to son. Leaders were men.
  • Period: 1500 to

    More Official Power and Countervailing Power

  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    -First type of main government
    -This caused power struggles between the governor and intendant who were the two main administrators
    -The governor represented the King of France
    -Responsibilities of Governor General:
    Foreign affairs, ex: deals with the British Colonies and the Amerindians
    Prepare reports for the King, which told him how the colony was doing
    -Responsibilities of Intendant:
    Justice and internal affairs
    Most important position
    Some power over Governor General
  • Relationship between State and Church (French Regime)

    Relationship between State and Church (French Regime)
    -Church was very influential at the time and was important
    -They had an important part in the administration of the colony
    -Churches places:
    Public functions (Justice, captains of militia, bureaucrats, etc)
    -Public functions were for people who have a certificate of Catholicism which was signed by the priest
    -An investigation was done on their morality and observation of Catholic rules
  • Great Peace of Montreal

    Great Peace of Montreal
    -A peace treaty between New France and 40 other Native Nations of North America.
    -It was signed by Louis-Hector de Callière and 1300 representatives from the 40 Native Nations
    -The treaty allowed the French to ally with Algonquians and Hurons
    -There was peace and trade for 16 years until a war broke out
  • Relationship between Church and State (British Regime)

    Relationship between Church and State (British Regime)
    -The Canadian clergy was in a serious situation, after the Conquest,
    they lost the right to receive tithes and the Archbishop Pontbriant died which meant they didn't have a leader
    -The Royal Proclamation and Governor James Murray didn't allow a replacement to be named
    -The church decided to give "attitude" to the British and the British decided to finally allow them to appoint a new Bishop, Bishop Briand
    -The British tried to support the Church
    -Great Britain recognized them in the Quebec Act
  • Life in New France

    Life in New France
    -People were happy, but there was a lot of work every day
    -Some of the work involved farming, making clothes, fixing tools and getting ready for the winter
    -New France everyone was the same, very different to France where there were poor and rich people
    -1760 they had basically created their own society called Canadians
    -They were able to create their own society because the King was far and couldn't control them and they also had the influence from the aboriginal people
  • Articles of Capitualition

    Articles of Capitualition
    -Was a document made so the French would surrender
    -4 statements:
    -The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
    -The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave
    -The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave
    -The people who stayed would become British Subjects -No one was deported, only people who had money and could afford it left
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    -New France is officially named "The Province of Quebec"
    -Decreased borders to the St-Lawrence river valley
    -Civilian governor was put in place to control the colony
    -English Criminal and Civil laws
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    -Ended the war of 7 years
    -All the territory that belonged to New France now belonged to Great Britain
    -New France got to keep two tiny islands for fishing
    -The islands are known as St-Pierre et Miquelon
    -The King of Great Britain created a Proclamation to assimilate the great deal of French population
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    -French Canadian loyalty
    -The Quebec province expanded
    -No elected assembly and instead appointed the council
    -Test Oath of Allegiance which meant you swear to king you’re loyal
    -Americans were upset with these factors
    -Britain was upset with the 13 colonies and the 13 colonies didn't like Great Britain
    -They went to war and the Americans declared Independence
    -Loyalists then came to Canada and Quebec
    -English population increase
    -Loyalists complained about the laws and assemblies
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    Lower Canada
    -Receives name because it's downstream
    -Mostly French population (160 000 people)
    -15 people in the Legislative Council
    -50 people in the Legislative Assembly
    -French people kept their religion, civil laws and people could work in admins
    Upper Canada
    -Receives name because it's upstream
    -Only English population (10 000 people)
    -7 people in the Legislative Council
    -16 people in the Legislative Assembly
    -Protestant, used the township system and had English civil laws
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    The leader of the Patriotes, Louis Joseph Papineau, wrote 92 resolutions which asked for a "Responsible Government". The document was looked over and after three years they received a response. Lord John Russel had sent over 10 resolutions which had nothing to do with Papineau's resolutions. This caused the rebellions on 1837-1838.
  • Rebellions

    Upper Canada Rebellion
    -Led by William Lyon Mackenzie
    -Quickly put down and failed Lower Canada Rebellion
    -Led by Louis Joseph Papineau
    -First Battle: St-Charles they lost
    -Second Battle: St-Denis the won
    -Third Battle: St-Eustache they lost -Clergy supported the rebels and their ideology but not their actions Result of Rebellion
    -12 people were hung publicly
    -58 people were sent to Australia (British jail/prison)
  • Lord Durham's Recommendations

    Lord Durham's Recommendations
    -After the rebellion, Lord Durham was told to come up with solutions and ways to fix the mess Lord Durham's Recommendations
    -Britain should increase immigration in order to assimilate the French
    -The two Canada’s should be united (eng. now have majority)
    -Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power They were rejected at first
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Act of Union was created based on the recommendations made by Lord Durham Act of Union
    -Creates the Prov. of Canada consisting of Canada East and West (former upper and lower Canada)
    -Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly
    -Governor still had control and veto power
    -Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Canada West owed 10X) A "Responsible Government" slowly started to show
    -1842: Members of the assembly would be chosen into the executive council
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    This conference was just the beginning. The leaders of Canada West and East met with the leaders of PEI, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia to consider merging together.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    -The Quebec Conference was a month after the Charlottetown Conference
    -It included the same members as last time
    -They agreed on 72 resolutions which would allow them to merge
    -It would be a federal system with 24 seats to each colony
    -They would build a railway (National Policy)
    -The conferences went well but people weren't very excited
    -PEI and Newfoundland withdrew
    -Dorion's Parti Rouge didn't agree with the federation
  • London Conference

    London Conference
    -The London Conference was a very important conference
    -It was the conference that created the "Dominion of Canada"
    -They created the Brtish North American Act and named Ottawa the capital of Canada
    -First four provinces: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
    -Other provinces would join in 1870 and 1949
    -Federal government and Provincial government had different responsibilities
    Federal: Defense, banking, postal service and criminal law
    Provincial: Education, hospitals, civil rights,etc
  • Feminist movements and the State

    Feminist movements and the State
    -Founded the National Council of Women
    -In 1961 they elected the first women to the Legislative Assembly, her name was Marie-Claire Kirland-Casgrain
    -In 1964, they ended the legal incapacity of married women
    -In 1965, they founded the Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec, they founded this organization to look over civil laws for women (Maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality of men and women)
    -Finally in 1966, they created a law on pay equity
  • Duplessis

    Roman Catholic Church:
    -Influenced the government
    Role of the State:
    -Maurice Duplessis believed that the State shouldn't be related to any social or economic sectors
    Idealization of rural life:
    -Supported agriculture as it was Quebec's main economy
    -Avoid urbanization and associated problems like unemployment
    Union leaders:
    -Believed Duplessis wasn't a good person and believed he opposed Quebec workers
    Intellectuals and Journalists
    -Attacked with the media (Journals, magazines, etc)
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    -Began with the defeat of the Union National Jean Lesage and the Liberal Party
    -The Quiet Revolution was very important in Quebec as it helped grow the process of social, economic, and political aspects of Quebec
    The main parts:
    -The Quebec government now controlled many social aspects, for example, Hydro-Quebec, expansion of Trans-Canada and the Metro
    -Government now controlled education to make it modernized compared to other provinces
    -More modernized job and university trained people
  • October Crisis

    October Crisis
    -Was a kidnapping by FLQ people
    -The FLQ kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte
    -Prime Minister Trudeau called the army to solve the problem
    -Hundreds of FLQ members were arrested
    -Cross was released, but Laporte was found in the trunk of his car
  • Bill 101

    Bill 101
    -Bill 101 is by far one of the most important and known Bills of Quebec
    -Bill 101 gives the French language priority, meaning only french signs were allowed in public
    -English people fought back with Bill 178 and Bill 86
    -The battle continues even up until today
    -2 parties:
    Federalists: want Quebec to stay
    Separatists: want Quebec to be independent
  • Seperation battle

    Seperation battle
    -Separatist want to separate and make Quebec independent because they have a different culture compared to the rest of Canada
    -They held a vote in 1980, but 60% voted against the separation
    -Trudeau tried to unite the Provinces with the Constitution Act and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, but Quebec still hasn't signed
    -Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Agreement were made to make eveyrone equal
    -1995 was a close one as the vote was 50.6 to 49.4, they needed one more vote to separate
  • Native Issues

    Native Issues
    -What was known as the Oka crisis
    -Conflict: A golf course wanted to expand 9 holes, but they expansion was gonna be placed on Native land
    -Lasted 78 days
    -Consequences: Canadian military was called in to solve the problem and roadblocks were made
    -Solution: They created the Charlottetown Accord to solce the problem