Time Line of History

  • Ascension of the Bourbons to the Spanish throne.

    Ascension of the Bourbons to the Spanish throne.
    In 1700, while the last Spanish monarch of the Habsburg dynasty, Charles II, was dying in his palace in Madrid, Louis XIV was moving the strings of diplomacy to ensure that his grandson, Philip of Anjou, would be the new king of Spain. http://www.nationalgeographic.com.es/historia/grandes-reportajes/felipe-v-un-borbon-en-el-trono-espanol_6284
  • In Spain, Carlos II dies with the end of the reign of the Habsburgs.

    In Spain, Carlos II dies with the end of the reign of the Habsburgs.
    On October 3, 1700, a sick King Charles II signs the testament that puts an end to the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, passing the crown to the future Philip V of Bourbon. A month after signing his last will, a few days after his thirty-ninth birthday, the last king of the lineage of the Spanish Habsburgs died, after thirty-five years of reign.
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    It is called Illustration, to the movement of intellectual, cultural, ideological and political renovation that arose in Europe, as a result of the progress and diffusion of the New Ideas and the new scientific knowledge; the same ones that illuminated the minds of men, at the same time that they contributed to modify their spirit. https://mihistoriauniversal.com/edad-contemporanea/ilustracion/
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    The war of European succession begins for the Spanish throne.

    The War of Spanish Succession was a dynastic Spanish conflict . The throne of Spain corresponded to Philip V of Bourbon, grandson of the French king Louis XIV, but the fear of many European powers to a dynastic union between France and Spain led to support the Archduke Charles of Austria in his claims to the Spanish throne.
  • The "Mexican" New Spain fleet is attacked in Vigo by French, English and Dutch corsairs.

    The "Mexican" New Spain fleet is attacked in Vigo by French, English and Dutch corsairs.
    Until 1521, the navigation between Spain and America was carried out with loose ships, lacking protection, with freedom over the route and dates. However, at that time there was little difference between a merchant ship and a war ship since the ships of the Indies had permission to gun cannons. https://laamericaespanyola.wordpress.com/2015/09/29/la-flota-de-indias/
  • Peace treaty between Spain and England.

    Peace treaty between Spain and England.
    A few hours after her death of the queen Isabel, he proclaimed himself King of England to James VI of Scotland, son of Queen Mary Stuart, whom Isabel had captured and beheaded in 1587. The new monarch joined the crowns of English and Scottish for the first time. In his new kingdom he was known as Jacobo I. And one of his first decisions was to ask for peace with Spain.
  • Through the Treaty of Utrecht, the crown authorizes the English to disembark a ship of black slaves in Veracruz.

    Through the Treaty of Utrecht, the crown authorizes the English to disembark a ship of black slaves in Veracruz.
    which ended the War of Succession by the throne of Spain. It had a profound impact on the world, because it made the Spanish Empire falter, which lost all its possessions in Europe to the benefit of England, France and Austria, mainly, and was forced to give in to British commercial desires. It is considered the end of the war, In this treaty, Europe changed its political map.
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    New war of Spain against England, France, Holland and Austria.

    causes: The Treaty of Utrecht meant for Spain the end of its presence in Italy: Naples, Sardinia and Milan, which belonged to Spain from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, passed to the Austrian Empire; Sicily, which belonged to the Crown of Aragon since 1282, passed to the Duke of Savoy. http://www.altorres.synology.me/guerras/1717_cuadruple/1717_cuadruple.htm
  • First periodical publication in New Spain.

    First periodical publication in New Spain.
    The Gazette of Mexico (Gazeta de México) was the first newspaper printed in New Spain. Its founder, journalist and priest Juan Ignacio María de Castorena Ursúa y Goyeneche, is considered the first journalist in Latin America to have created the publication in what is now Mexico City.
  • The fortifications of the port of Acapulco are improved.

    The fortifications of the port of Acapulco are improved.
    The development and consolidation of trade routes between Spain and its American colonies fostered the development of ports as a place of entry and exit of goods and riches. other nations that tried to destabilize the Spanish economy through illicit activities.
  • Tifo epidemic.

    Tifo epidemic.
    The arrival of the Spaniards in the sixteenth century brought devastating demographic consequences. In the case of New Spain, several studies have mentioned that between 1521 and 1650 around 80% of the population disappeared. The main causes were the epidemic diseases brought from Europe.
  • Antonio de Solís begins the exploration of the pre-Hispanic monuments of Palenque.

    Antonio de Solís begins the exploration of the pre-Hispanic monuments of Palenque.
    The Royal Antiquarian Expedition of Mexico (1805-1808) was the last major expedition with scientific characteristics that developed in the viceroyal territory of New Spain during the reign of King Charles IV. The direction of the expedition was entrusted to the retired Captain of Dragons Guillermo Dupaix
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    Go up to the throne Fernando VII, in Spain.

    King of Spain, born in Madrid on September 23, 1713 and died in Villaviciosa de Odón (Madrid) in 1759. Son of Felipe V and of his first wife, Maria Luisa Gabriela de Saboya, Fernando was sworn Prince of Asturias in 1724, to the death of his brother Luis I. Upon his accession to the throne, in 1746, Ferdinand VI was 33 years old. http://www.mcnbiografias.com/app-bio/do/show?key=fernando-vi-rey-de-espanna
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    Famine in New Spain.

    When agricultural crises became real subsistence crises,
    daily diet was altered, scarcity and hunger led to modify the
    habits and they ate unusual products, but in America, in general, these
    were only brief episodes that did not essentially modify the
    diets. http://www.economia.unam.mx/amhe/memoria/simposio08/Matilde%20SOUTO.pdf
  • Miguel Cabrera painted the portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.

    Miguel Cabrera painted the portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.
    The portrait of Miguel Cabrera, now in the National Museum of History, shows an image of Sor Juana. She is sitting at her desk, with one of her hands in an open book and the other touching her rosary. The poet's position shows the painter's intention to reveal the inner identity of Sor Juana, a commitment to both learning and religion.
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    Publication of the Encyclopedia.

    The Encyclopedia or Dictionary of sciences, arts and crafts, one of the greatest philosophical efforts of the century, is the best example of the effort of the Enlightenment. In it was achieved the diffusion of new schools of thought in all branches of intellectual activity , and for that reason, all traditional ideologies and institutions were harshly criticized. http://pioneros.puj.edu.co/cronos/crono3/siglodelarazon/losenciclopedistas.htm
  • Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was born, in the hacienda of Corralejo.

    Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was born, in the hacienda of Corralejo.
    The beautiful Hacienda Corralejo was built in 1755 by Don Pedro Sanchez de Teagle, with a large extension and privileged geographical situation is currently considered unique for being the place where the father of the Homeland was born. http://haciendacorralejo.com/web/
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    War of seven years.

    Was a conflict between the great European powers between 1756 and 1763. Great Britain and Prussia had a defensive alliance that faced a coalition between France, Austria and their allies. The conflict was due to the desire of Austria, specifically the desire of Queen Maria Theresa, to get control of Silesia and the confrontation between France and Britain in relation to the constitution of a colonial empire in India and in America. https://redhistoria.com/la-guerra-de-los-siete-anos/
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    Go up to the throne Carlos III.

    Carlos served family politics as a piece in the struggle to regain Spanish influence in Italy: he inherited initially from his mother, Isabel de Farnesio the duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Tuscany (1731); but later, when Naples was conquered by Philip V during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), he became king of that territory with the name of Charles VII.
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    Bourbon reforms.

    Between 1521 and 1700 he ruled in the New Spain the royal dynasty of the Habsburgs or Austria. When King Charles II of Habsburg remained without a direct descendant, the House of Bourbon took power in Spain. They ruled first Navarre and France, and in the eighteenth century its members came to the thrones of Spain and Italy, as well as several small duchies and counties.
  • Expulsion of the Jesuits.

    Expulsion of the Jesuits.
    by order of King Carlos III, all the Jesuits were left incommunicado from that moment and would have to leave for Spain without more belongings than the breviary, the clothes on and the money that belonged to each one.The Jesuits were blamed for having enriched themselves enormously in the missions, for having intervened in politics by hindering the kings of Spain . https://www.mexicodesconocido.com.mx/la-expulsion-de-los-jesuitas-en-1767.html
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    War of Independence in E.U.A

    The War of Independence of the United States was an armed conflict, within the framework of the American Revolution (or Revolution of the Thirteen Colonies), which began in April 1775 between the Thirteen British Colonies and the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
  • The Royal Academy of the Noble Arts of San Carlos is inaugurated in Mexico.

    The Royal Academy of the Noble Arts of San Carlos is inaugurated in Mexico.
    This institution was founded on November 4, 1781, in honor of King Carlos III (hence its name), on the day of his saint. He began to teach classes under the name of Academy of the Three Noble Arts of San Carlos: architecture, painting and sculpture of New Spain. Later the Royal Certificate was issued on November 18, 1784 to establish the Royal Academy of San Carlos of New Spain . http://www.fundacionunam.org.mx/de_la_unam/academia-de-san-carlos/
  • Smallpox epidemic in central Mexico.

    Smallpox epidemic in central Mexico.
    The agricultural crises , as well as the scarcity, speculation and scarcity of corn, together with social conflicts, migratory displacements, hunger, diseases and over mortality that affected differently a large part of the territory and population of New Spain during the years of 1785-1786, are phenomena that have not gone unnoticed in the historiography of the colonial period http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0185-39292010000100003
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    In 1785, the signs of the crisis that ended with corn in many regions
    began to be perceived from May 3, the day of the Holy Cross, when the
    tradition indicated that the first rains should fall. For that moment the
    fields were already prepared and some planted corn despite the drought,
    but its seeds were devoured by birds and worms. http://www.cyta.com.ar/ta0404/v4n4a4.htm
  • French Revolution.

    French Revolution.
    The French revolution spread throughout the world the ideals of freedom and fraternity, as well as that of popular sovereignty; and divulged, primarily the knowledge of the fundamental rights of man and of the citizen.
  • The first Spanish translation of the Elementary Chemistry Treaty is published in Mexico.

    The first Spanish translation of the Elementary Chemistry Treaty is published in Mexico.
    The elementary treatise on chemistry, presented here translated and introduced by Ramón Gago, the best connoisseur in Spain of the work of Lavoisier, is one of the immortal classics of science. And not only that: it is also a work that can still be read with use, after all the new chemistry that its author introduced and explained in it is basically the same as the one we use now.
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    French invasion.

    the suspension of payments of all the public debts, which originated the reaction of England, Spain and France, that demanded the cancellation of that measure, nevertheless the Mexican Government ignored that demand of those countries, for what English and French ended diplomatic relations with our country. https://www.gob.mx/sedena/documentos/la-intervencion-francesa
  • Napoleon as emperor.

    Napoleon as emperor.
    On December 2, 1804, Napoleon would be consecrated emperor by Pope Pius VII, in the cathedral of Paris, autocoronándose as such in a ceremony lavish. The new Emperor assumed in his person the three powers. Directly the Executive Power. Indirectly the Judicial Power, through a High Imperial Court, and the Legislative Power https://mx.tuhistory.com/hoy-en-la-historia/napoleon-bonaparte-consagrado-emperador-de-francia
  • Napoleon invades Spain.

    Napoleon invades Spain.
    In 1808 Spain was invaded by the army of Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor. Before such facts, the Spanish town rebelled in Aranjuez, between the 17 and 19 of March of 1808, forcing to its King Carlos IV, to abdicate the crown in favor of its Fernando son, who assumed with the name Fernando VII.
      Napoleon Bonaparte forced Carlos IV and his son Fernando VII to abdicate the throne in favor of his brother José Bonaparte.
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    Shout of Independence and Independence processes.

    The dawn of September 16, 1810, when Father Miguel Hidalgo gives the so-called "Grito de Dolores" and ends on September 27, 1821 (11 years later). The main objective of this movement (armed and social) was to free our the territory of the Spanish yoke and that, in every corner of the Colony, the concept of the viceroyalty was completely forgotten. https://www.mexicodesconocido.com.mx/la-independencia-de-mexico-1810-1821.html
  • Cadiz liberal Constitution.

    Cadiz liberal Constitution.
    The immediate antecedent of the Constitution of Cadiz was the Constitution of Bayonne, sworn by José Bonaparte on July 6, 1808. Both the constitutional text of Bayonne and other French texts, in particular the French Constitution of 1791 or the Declaration of rights of the citizen of 1799, were used as a source in the elaboration of the Cádiz Constitution of 1812.
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    The fourteenth century and much of the fifteenth century were the scene of innumerable conflicts: economic depression, cultural fracture and political breakdown. From the imperative need to achieve peace in the different European kingdoms. On the one hand, the two traditional powers of medieval Christianity, the papacy and the empire, regained, if not their previous prestige, their unity. http://www.mercaba.org/FICHAS/Monografias/absolutismo.htm
  • Independence of New Spain.

    Independence of New Spain.
    One of the main causes was that the peninsular Spaniards, maintained an absolute control of the economic activities of the country such as mining, industry and commerce. Leaving only secondary activities to criollos and mestizos. Another cause was that the Spaniards Spaniards snatched the Indian towns from the sources of income as the product of their lands. http://la-clase-de-historia.blogspot.mx/2010/04/el-movimiento-de-independencia-de-la.html