KINGS and QUEENS of ENGLAND and Britain

Timeline created by Eugetoro18
  • 1485

    HENRY VII (1485-1509)

    HENRY VII (1485-1509)
    The first monarch of the House of Tudor; skilful politician but avaricious
    He was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war.
    The material wealth of the country increased greatly during his reign.
  • 1509

    HENRY VIII (1509-1547)

    HENRY VIII (1509-1547)
    Cruel, wasteful and interested in pleasing himself
    The best-known fact about him is that he had six wives.
    He initiated English Reformation, separating the Church of England from Rome and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
  • 1532

    Marriage annulment

    Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon is annulled,
  • 1534

    Beginning of the English Reformation

    The Church of England is separated from papal authority.
    Following a Parliamentary Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII is confirmed Supreme Head of the Church of England.
  • 1536

    Act of Union

    England and Wales are legally united with the Act of Union.
  • 1536

    Dissolution of monasteries

    The dissolution of the monasteries began and the money gained from this helped Henry to bring about an effective Navy.
  • 1537

    Birth of Edward VI

    Jane Seymour, his 3rd wife, gives birth to Edward (his only son) but dies after childbirth.
  • 1547

    EDWARD VI (1547-1553)

    EDWARD VI (1547-1553)
    Known as "the Boy King"
    He succeeded his father at the age of 9.
    His government was carried on by a Council of Regency.
  • 1553

    LADY JANE GREY (from 10 to 19 July 1553)

    LADY JANE GREY (from 10 to 19 July 1553)
    Known as "the Nine Days Queen"
    As Mary was Catholic, she is proclaimed Queen. However, Mary enters London with her supporters and executes her.
  • 1553

    MARY I (1553-1558)

    MARY I (1553-1558)
    Known as "Bloody Mary"
    A devout Catholic, daughter of Henry VIII
    She attempted to enforce the wholesale conversion of England to Catholicism.
    Under her rule, the country was plunged into a bitter blood bath.
  • 1558

    ELIZABETH I (1558 - 1603)

    ELIZABETH I (1558 - 1603)
    A remarkable woman, noted for her learning and wisdom
    From first to last she was popular with the people and had a genius for the selection of capable advisors.
    She never married.
  • 1564

    Birth of William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe

  • 1567

    Abdication of Mary of Scots

    Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate the throne.
  • 1568

    Imprisoning of Mary of Scots

    Mary, Queen of Scots, is imprisoned in England after fleeing Scotland.
  • 1569

    Northern rebellion

    It was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 1571

    Ridolfi plot

    It was a plot in 1571 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. The plot was hatched and planned by Roberto Ridolfi, an international banker who was able to travel between Brussels, Rome and Madrid to gather support without attracting too much suspicion.
  • Babington Plot

    The long-term goal of the plot was the invasion of England by the Spanish forces of King Philip II and the Catholic League in France, leading to the restoration of the old religion.
  • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

    She is executed at Fotheringay Castle.
  • Defeat of the Spanish Armada

  • Second Spanish Armada defeated

  • JAMES I (1603 -1625)

    JAMES I (1603 -1625)
    More of a scholar than a man of action
    He was the first king to rule over Scotland and England and the first to call himself 'King of Great Britain'.
    James had been King of Scotland for twenty-nine years when he acceded to the English throne.
  • 1st Plot against the king

    Sir Walter Raleigh is implicated in the first plot against James. It was an attempt to set the king's cousin Arabella Stuart on the throne.
  • Gunpowder Plot

    Guy Fawkes and other Catholic dissidents attempt to blow up King and Parliament in The Gunpowder Plot. They are betrayed, arrested and executed.
  • Ulster settlement

    Ulster is colonized by Protestant settlers from Scotland and England.
  • Authorized Version of the Bible

    James’s reign saw the publication of the Authorised Version of the Bible, though this caused problems with the Puritans and their attitude towards the established church.
  • Charles I (1625 - 1649)

    Charles I (1625 - 1649)
    Charles believed in the divine right of kings and was determined to govern according to his own conscience.
    Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular, the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated antipathy and mistrust from Reformed religious groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters.
  • Marriage to Henrietta Maria of France

    King Charles I married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV of France at St Augustine’s Church, Canterbury, Kent. The marriage was not popular because she was a Catholic. Under the terms of the marriage it was agreed that Henrietta Maria could remain a catholic but their children were to be raised as Protestants.
  • War with France

    The Anglo-French War was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England between 1627 and 1629. It mainly involved actions at sea.[3] The centrepiece of the conflict was the Siege of La Rochelle (1627–28), in which the English crown supported the French Huguenots -a religious group of French Protestants- in their fight against the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France
  • Petition of Rights

    This was a petition sent by the English Parliament to King Charles I complaining of a series of breaches of law. The petition sought recognition of four principles: no taxation without the consent of Parliament, no imprisonment without cause, no quartering of soldiers on subjects, and no martial law in peacetime. Charles agrees to it under protest.
  • Dissolution of Parliament

    Charles dissolves Parliament and rules by himself until 1640.
  • Bishops' Wars

    They were two conflicts between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640 caused by fierce Scottish reaction against King Charles I's attempt to reform the Scottish church.
    Determined to assert his authority, the King formulated an ambitious military campaign against the Covenanters -dominant political and religious force in Scotland-. However, his plans were thwarted by lack of funds, by lack of support for the war among his subjects and by lack of experience among his commanders.
  • Short Parliament

    The Short Parliament was so-called because it sat for less than a month
    Charles was finally compelled to summon Parliament again -after a period of some eleven years in which he had governed without recourse to the two Houses- as a result of his failure to crush the rebellion in Scotland. However, he dissolved it after three weeks when it refused to grant him money.
  • Long Parliament

    More desperate than ever, Charles I summoned Parliament to meet in November 1640. The king faced a body profoundly mistrustful of his intentions. He intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; and, those members did not agree to its dissolution until 16 March 1660.
  • Outbreak of Civil War (1642 - 1651)

    The English Civil War was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") principally over the manner of England's governance. These conflicts were also concerned with how the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland were to be governed. The outcome was the trial and execution of Charles I; the exile of his son, Charles II; and the replacement of English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England.
  • Execution of Charles I

    After being tried by Parliament and found guilty of high treason, Charles is executed.
  • Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)

    The Commonwealth of England was the republican government which ruled first England and then Ireland and Scotland from 1649 to 1660. After the execution of Charles I in 1649, the Commonwealth was declared by the Rump Parliament. The government from 1653 to 1659 is properly called The Protectorate, and took the form of direct personal rule by Oliver Cromwell and, after his death, his son Richard, as Lord Protector.
  • CHARLES II (1660 - 1685)

    CHARLES II (1660 - 1685)
    Known as the "Merry Monarch"
    After the collapse of the Protectorate following the death of Oliver Cromwell and the flight of Richard Cromwell to France, the Army and Parliament asked Charles to take the throne. Although very popular he was a weak king and his foreign policy was inept.
    He fathered numerous illegitimate children but no heir to the throne.
    After the "Glorious Revolution", he flees to exile in France.
  • Act of Uniformity

    The Act of Uniformity compels Puritans to accept the doctrines of the Church of England or leave the church.
  • Outbreak of the Second Anglo-Dutch War

    The Anglo-Dutch wars were a series of conflicts (naval battles) fought between the Dutch Republic and England (later Great Britain), The first three occurred in the second half of the 17th century over trade and overseas colonies, while the fourth was fought a century later.
    The Dutch were successful in the second and third clashes and maintained their mastery of the seas.
    By the fourth war, the British Royal Navy had become the most powerful maritime force in the world.
  • The Great Plague (1665 - 1666)

    The Great Plague was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long Second Pandemic, a period of intermittent bubonic plague epidemics which originated from Central Asia in 1331, the first year of the Black Death, an outbreak which included other forms such as pneumonic plague, and lasted until 1750.
    It killed an estimated 100,000 people in 18 months.
  • The Great Fire of London

    In the early morning hours on 2 September, the Great Fire of London breaks out in the house of King Charles II’s baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. It soon spread to Thames Street, where warehouses filled with combustibles and a strong easterly wind transformed the blaze into an inferno. When the Great Fire finally was extinguished on September 6, more than four-fifths of London was destroyed. Miraculously, only 16 people were known to have died.
  • Outbreak of the Third Dutch War

  • Test Act

    It was an English statute that excluded from public office (both military and civil) all those who refused to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, who refused to receive the communion according to the rites of the Church of England, or who refused to renounce belief in the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Although directed primarily against Roman Catholics, it also excluded Protestant nonconformists. In 1678 it was extended to members of Parliament.
  • Peace made with the Dutch

  • Rye House Plot

    This was a conspiracy to assassinate or mount an insurrection against Charles II of England because of his pro-Roman Catholic policies. The plot drew its name from Rye House at Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, near which ran a narrow road where Charles was supposed to be killed as he travelled from a horse meet at Newmarket. By chance, according to the official narrative, the king’s unexpectedly early departure in March foiled the plot.
  • JAMES II (1685 - 1688)

    JAMES II (1685 - 1688)
    The second surviving son of Charles I and younger brother of Charles II
    James had been exiled following the Civil War and served in both the French and Spanish Army. Although James converted to Catholicism in 1670, his two daughters were raised as Protestants. James became very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestant clergy and was generally hated by the people.
  • First measures to restore Catholicism

    James takes first measures to restore Catholicism in England and sets up a standing army of 13,000 troops at Hounslow to overawe nearby London.
  • Repealing of the Test Act

    James, believing his Divine Right as King, issues the Declaration of Indulgence to suspend all laws against Catholics and Non-Conformists and repeal the 1673 Test Act. He seeks to promote his Catholic supporters in Parliament and purge Tories and Anglican clergy .
  • William of Orange

    Following discontent over James attempts to control politics and religion, seven leading statesmen invite William of Orange, son-in-law of James, to England to restore English liberties.
  • Glorious Revolution (1688 -1689)

    The Glorious Revolution took place from 1688 to 1689 in England. It involved the overthrow of the Catholic King James II, who was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange. Motives for the revolution were complex and included both political and religious concerns. The event ultimately changed how England was governed, giving Parliament more power over the monarchy and planting seeds for the beginnings of a political democracy.
  • WILLIAM III (1689 – 1702) and MARY II (1689 – 1694)

    WILLIAM III (1689 – 1702) and MARY II (1689 – 1694)
    William was married to Mary, James II’s Protestant daughter.
    On the 5 November 1688, William of Orange sailed his fleet of over 450 ships, unopposed by the Royal Navy, into Torbay harbour and landed his troops in Devon. Gathering local support, he marched his army, now 20,000 strong, on to London in The Glorious Revolution. Many of James II’s army had defected to support William, as well as James’s other daughter Anne. William and Mary were to reign jointly.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights is passed by Parliament. It stipulates that no Catholic can succeed to the throne, and also limits the powers of the Royal prerogative. The King of Queen cannot withhold laws passed by Parliament or levy taxes without Parliamentary consent.
  • Battle of the Boyne

    Catholic forces loyal to James II land in Ireland from France and lay siege to Londonderry. However, William defeats James defeats them at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
  • Death of Mary

  • England, Holland, and Austria Alliance

    William forms a grand alliance between England, Holland, and Austria to prevent the union of the French and Spanish crowns
  • ANNE (1702 - 1714)

    ANNE (1702 - 1714)
    Anne was the second daughter of James II. She had 17 pregnancies but only one child survived – William, who died of smallpox aged just 11. A staunch, high church Protestant, Anne was 37 years old when she succeeded to the throne.
    It was during Anne’s reign that the United Kingdom of Great Britain was created by the Union of England and Scotland.
  • Anne's War (1702 - 1713)

    It was the second in a series of wars fought between Great Britain and France in North America for control of the continent. It was contemporaneous with the War of the Spanish Succession. English settlements were subject to brutal raids by French forces and their Indian allies. After the British capture of the key French fortress of Port Royal in 1710, Acadia became the British province of Nova Scotia. In addition, Britain acquired Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region from France.
  • Act of Union

    The Acts of Union, passed by the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain on 1 May of that year. The UK Parliament met for the first time in October 1707.
  • Death of Anne

    After Anne’s death, the succession went to the nearest Protestant relative of the Stuart line. This was Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, James I ‘s only daughter, but she died a few weeks before Anne and so the throne succeeded to her son George.