History Timeline

  • Creation of the HBC

    The HBC was granted rights to the land around Hudson's bay for trading. this land was known as ruperts land and was forbidden to be colonized. The land was very rough (it is mostly the canadian shield) and not good for farming. Forts and outposts were built for trading. The HBC owned Rupert's land until 1869.
  • 7 Year War

    Started in 1756 between Britain and France. it was caused by several disuptes over unclaimed land and boundaries. many battles were fought in North America
  • Period: to

    Seven Year War

  • End of 7 Years War

    the Seven year ended resulting in th first treaty of Paris. Britain (under the command of general wolfe) defeated france (under the command of general Montcalm)
  • First Treaty of Paris

    The first Treaty of Paris was the marking point of the end of the Seven years War. It gave the French rights to two islands off the coast of Newfoundland which were widely used for fishing. These islands still exist today/. The treaty was also a marking point for the start of mass assimilation of the French culture in canada, Britain also gained much land due to the treaty.
  • The Royal Proclamation of 1763

    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 Forced the French to follow english laws. this is an exmaple of French assimilation by the Brtish by forcing them to follow customs, religion (protestantism) and language. the proclamation assimilated the french from their culture.
  • The Quebec Act

    Britain passed the Quebec act, allowing the french to keep their culture in hopes that the Quebecois would become more unified with the British, creating a stronger colony and causing the fur trade to become much more efficient.
  • Loyalist Migration

    After the American revolution where the thirteen colonies were surrendered, Loyalists in America were treated horribly by the patriots causing many loyalists to migrate to canada
  • Second Treaty of Paris

    The second Treaty of Paris marked the end of the American revolution where britain surrendured the thirteen colonies to the Americans. the thirteen colonies were now American territories, but new colonies had been added in Nova scotia and Cape Breton
  • Period: to

    Height of the Fur Trade

    The fur trade Boomed at ths period, these 40-some years being the most efficient ever for the fur trade
  • Nova Scotia and Cape Breton

    after the Second Treaty of Paris, two new colonies were created in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton.
  • Northwest Company formed

    The Northwest company was formed creating competition between them and the Hudson Bay Company in the fur trade industry
  • Constitutional Act

    The act gave a form of representative government to canada. Canada had a legislative council, assembly and executive council. voted representatives (legislative assembly) were put in place but had smaller influence in government than appointed politicians (legislative council). split upper and lower canada into Canada east and west. before this act, upper and lower canada had no representatives in government and were fully run by Britain
  • Lord Selkirk moves to Red River

    due to bad conditions and loss of land in scotland, lord selkirk took farmers to occupy the red river - assinaboie area. He had bought much of the land from the HBC and since the metis and FN didn't officially own the land, Selkirk was able to colonize. they arrived in the winter, so the conditions were harsh but survived through the help of the Metis and First Nations.
  • War of 1812

    the war of 1812 was fought between America and Britain. many of the fights took place in upper and lower canada. America fought against Britain because of tax disagreements and because they beleived in manifest destiny over Canada. the First Nations played a large role in the war. Sir Isaac Brock (a British commander) allied with chief Tecumseh against America. they allied because Tecumseh hated America becuase of the assimilation of the First Nations. they both had America as an enemy,
  • War of 1812 Continued

    so they allied to fight the Americans. The First Nations had 600 soldiers fighting for Britian, but they were so effective because of their unique fighting style. they used guerilla warfare; a fighting technique that requires agility, speed and much activity. The americans stood in lines and shot, kneeled as the basck row shot and repeated that method, but the Aboriginals (now with guns) were far more effective with their fighting style.
  • Period: to

    War of 1812

    The British-American war. fought mainly in Upper and Lower Canada. commonly called the war that no one won, it did not have a specific effect on the history of canada, only defining canadian-american borders and causing much tension between america and canada.
  • Selkirk's second group of settlers

    A group of settlers followed selkirk to the Red River two years after the first expedition. they suffered the same hardships as the first one, but made it through the winter. the settlers had begun to monopolize the land, causing conflict between the metis and the settlers.
  • End of the War of 1812

    The war of 1812 is considered the war that no one won, because simply there was no winner. There was no treaty produced and no official effect, but American immigration was greatly discouraged, but British immigration was encouraged (leading to the Great Migration of 1815). It raised moral and created a sense of unity between upper and lower canada. the First nations believed they would now be respected, but were still assimilated despite their help in the war. they were taken advantage of.
  • Pemmican Proclamation

    Pemmican was a huge point of trade and survival for the Metis. the pemmican proclamation stated that no pemmican may be taken out of Assiniboie without a liscence. this angered the Metis because it was their main source of income and attacked the settlers, destroying their crops and causing them to flee from their settlement.
  • The Great Migration

    from 1815-1850 the great migration took place due to diseases and famine in ireland. The blight and draught caused many crops to die, so they moved to canada (mainly PEI because potatoes were huge in Ireland and PEI had perfect conditions for farming potatoes)
  • Meeting of Seven Oaks

    Settlers met with the Metis at the seven oaks, but the meeting turned violent, causing 20 settlers and 1 metis to die.
  • Soldiers De Meurons

    Selkirk and his settlers recruited Swiss and German soldiers to help take back their settlement from the Metis by force.
  • HBC joined NBC

    the HBC and the NBC amalgamated into the HBC
  • William Lyon Mackenzie

    William Lyon Mackenzie was a Scottish immigrant who came to Canada. he owned a newspaper and often wrote about Canada's corrupt government. the British did not like this and destroyed his printing press and ravaged his home. he took them to court and was compensated, but always resented the British government, only to lead upper canada in the rebellion of 1837 a few years later.
  • Rebellion of 1837

    With William Lyon Mackenzie leading Upper Canada and Louis Joseph-Papineua leading Lower Canada, the reform turned into the a rebellion resulting in the burning of Parliament.
  • The Act of Union

    The act of union stated that the population in east and west canada did not matter - each one had the same amount of representatives in legislature. Although at a point in time, Canada east had a larger population, this would soon change.
  • The Durham Report

    The Durham Report was written by Lord Durham, proposing that Canda was granted responsible government, having a government where the strength consists of elected representatives.
  • UPC created

    Upper and Lower canada join to create the United Province of Canada.
  • Repeal of Corn Laws

    Britain repealed the Corn law (they could buy cheap corn (wheat) from wherever they could find it the cheaspest) giving prefferential tarriffs to BNA
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    Lord Elgin (Governor general of Canada) signed Rebellion losses bill, granting most of the rebels immunity and and compensating their financial losses.
  • The Reciprocity Treaty

    The reciprocity treaty broke prefferential tarriffs from Britain to BNA, but gave BNA free trade with America, causing trade to prosper. ended in 1866 because of the civil war where canada allowed slave supporters to stay in canada, leaving canada in a state of poor trade and financial depression.
  • Period: to

    Reciprocity Treaty

    The reciprocity treaty between America and Canada (see events on timeline for detail)
  • Parliament in Ottawa

    after alternating between having parliament in Montreal and Toronto every two years, it was decided to have parliament in ottawa.
  • American Civil War

    The American civil war started between slave supporters of the south and the North (Government) who were against slaves. the north was led by Jefferson Davis.
  • Coalition government

    Coaltion government (temporary government) was held in canada due to the beginning and proposals of a new government.
  • The Great Coalition

    The Great coalition is formed between Geroge Brown, George-Etienne Cartier and John A. MacDonald. it ended their political deadlock and they formed a coalition government. it also put rep by pop into place.
  • 72 resolutions

    -The legislature wil divide into two; the house of commons and the senate
    -the houe of commons will consist of elected representatives and the senate will consist of politicians appointed by the Governor General on behalf of the queen
    -The United Province of Canada will split into Canada and Quebec
    -Canada will institute Federalism (a two part government (provincial and federal))
  • Charlottetown Conference

    This conference took place in Charlottetown, PEI consisting of delegates from the united province of Canada, PEI, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. it hosted the original conversations of Confederation.
  • Quebec Conference

    the Quebec conference took place a month after the Charlottetown conference. It consisted of delegates from all the same provinces as the Charlottetown conference but included Newfoundland this time. from this conference, the 72 resolutions were producded.
  • American Civil War Ends

    the American civil war ended, but caused the reciprocity treaty to end as canada supported the south and allowed slave supporters to stay in canada.
  • The London Conference

    The london conference was where delegates from UPC, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick presented their revised version of the 72 resolutions as the BNA act. the act was passed and the dominion of Canada was created.
  • Fenians invade Canada

    The Fenians invade canada as they are mad that during the blight in ireland, britain did nothing to help them. this greatly influences confederation as it made them decide to confederate for defence reasons.
  • America buys Alaska

    America bought Alaska from USSR, giving BNA reason to believe they would try to expand into BNA.
  • Confederation

    Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec became the dominion of Canada. PEI and Newfoundland decided not to join. PEI wanted a large loan of £200,000 to buy out absentee land owners in PEI, but when this was refused, they lost interest. Newfoundland was afraid that if they joined a central government, they would have small influence in government due to rep by pop and that Newfoundland had a much smaller population than Ontario and Quebec. this was one of the major reasons some of the
  • Confederation Continued

    one of the main reasons the Atlantic colonies were originally reluctant to join confederation, because of small influence due to rep by pop.

    1) Britain wanted BNA to be more independent.
    2) Canada having a federal military would be a stronger defence than colonial defence.
    3) the railway would provide inter-colonial trade and better goods and troop transport.
    4) politicial deadlock would no longer play a role in government
    5) Canada could expand westward and defend against possible american or Fenian attack.
  • Assassination of Thomas Dèarcy McGee

    Canadian politician was assassinated by the fenians due to things he said about them. this was the only assassination in canadian history.
  • NWT and Ruperts land are part of canada

    Ruperts land and NWT are now controlled by Canada.
  • Manitoba Joins confederation

  • BC joins confederation

    BC joined confederation due to John A. MacDonaldès sea-to-sea country dream. he promised them the trans-continental railway in return for them uniting with canada, and when the railway was completed, they joined Canada.
  • PEI joins confederation

    PEI joined because they saw how prosperous trade was and they saw that the industry was booming, so they joined for the railroad and industrial advances.
  • Alexander Mackenzie takes power

    conservatives overthrew liberals, putting Mackenzie in power. Mackenzie neglected railroad, causing problems for MacDonald when he came back to power.
  • Indian Act

    meant Indians needed Indian status to live on reserves - they had to be fully indian, couldnt vote or drink alcohol, if a man married a woman, he lost indian status and she gained it (if shes non-indian).
  • MacDonald returns to power

    MacDonald returns to power, making railroad priority. mde National policy which put him back into power. it stated that they would raise tarriffs, making canadians imports more expensive. they would lower tarriffs on raw materials making manufacturers make things cheaper. they would settle in the west and make the trans-continental railway.
  • CPR resumed construction

    MacDonald reumed construction of the CPR.
  • Chinese Navvies put in place

    in hopes to speed its process, MacDonald allowed Onderdonk (the project leader) to use cheap Chinese labourers. they were underpaid and worked in terrible conditions, causing many chinese deaths.
  • Railway relief bill

    the CPR was almost out of funds, so they were granted 22million dollars.
  • Saskatchewan and Alberta established

  • Canada gets free trade agreement with Mexico and US