History of Spain (XIX century)

  • Period: to

    Reign of Carlos IV

  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the Execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. This culminated in the appointment of Napoleon as First Consul in November 1799, which is generally taken as its end point.
  • Peace of Basel

    Peace of Basel
    It consists of one peace treaty involving France, during the French Revolution, with Spain on 22 July, ending the War of the Pyrenees. Spain ceded the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola to France in exchange for keeping Gipuzkoa. Spain was represented by Domingo d'Yriarte, who signed the treaty in the mansion of Ochs, the Holsteinerhof.
  • Trafalgar defeat

    Trafalgar defeat
    A British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain. In five hours of fighting, the British devastated the enemy fleet, destroying 19 ships. No British ships were lost, but 1,500 British seamen were killed or wounded in the heavy fighting. Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. https://youtu.be/cXzS4Y__Hn4
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement signed in Fontainebleau, France between King Charles IV of Spain and the French Emperor Napoleon where they outlined a proposed conquest and partition of Portugal by Spain and France. Although it permitted French soldiers on Spanish soil legally the terms of the division of Portugal remained unfulfilled. It ultimately led to the Napoleonic occupation of Spain and the designation of Joseph Bonaparte as ruler of Spain.
  • Tumult of Aranjuez

    Tumult of Aranjuez
    The Tumult of Aranjuez was an uprising led against King Carlos IV that took place in the town of Aranjuez. The uprising took place on 17 March 1808 in Aranjuez, where the royal family and the government were staying while on their way south, anticipating a French invasion from the north. Soldiers, peasants, and members of the general public assaulted Godoy's quarters and captured him. Two days later, the court forced the King himself to abdicate in favor of his son and rival.
  • The Invasion of Napoleon

    The Invasion of Napoleon
    On February 16, 1808, under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal, French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain. Then began the Independence War, an important phase of the Napoleonic Wars. During the first few weeks after their 1808 invasion of Spain, French forces captured Pamplona and Barcelona and on March 19 forced King Charles IV of Spain to abdicate.
  • Boyona’s Abdications

    Boyona’s Abdications
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence. Napoleon's designation of his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain was resisted by the Spanish people and led to the Peninsular War. Napoleon was eventually forced to release Fernando, and, on December 11, 1813, he appointed Fernando as the King of Spain. https://youtu.be/-K178B9mQOk
  • Period: to

    Reign of Jose Bonaparte

  • Period: to

    The Independece War

  • The start of the War of Independence

    The start of the War of Independence
    The War of Spanish Independence was a contest between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French armies invaded Portugal in 1807 and Spain in 1808 and lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814.
  • Cadiz Constitution

    Cadiz Constitution
    The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, also known as the Constitution of Cádiz and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
    It was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, the first Spanish legislature that included delegates from the entire empire, including Spanish America and the Philippines. https://youtu.be/YA9FlHLE9ts
  • Period: to

    Reign of Fernando VII

  • The Pragmatic Sanction

    The Pragmatic Sanction
    When Felipe V, from the French Bourbon acceded to the Spanish throne in the Spanish War of Succession, he brought with him the Salic law, which restricted succession to the throne to the direct male line. However, King Fernando VII of Spain had fathered only two daughters. Carlos IV of Spain made a weak attempt to eliminate the Salic Law, and Fernando brought forth the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, so that his oldest daughter would inherit the throne and be declared queen.
  • Birth of Isabel II

    Birth of Isabel II
    Isabella II (1830–1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. Shortly before her birth, the King issued a Pragmatic Sanction to ensure the succession of his firstborn. She came to the throne a month before her third birthday, but her succession was disputed by her uncle the Infante Carlos (founder of the Carlist movement), whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the Carlist Wars.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Isabel II

  • Royal Statute

    Royal Statute
    The Royal Statute of 1834, was a royal charter of the Kingdom of Spain under the rule of Maria Christina, wife of the deceased King Fernando VII of Spain, who ruled as Queen Regent during the infancy of her daughter Queen Isabel II of Spain. It came into effect on 10 April 1834. The Royal Statute was not a Constitution because, National sovereignty was not derived from it.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1837 was the constitution of Spain from 1837 to 1845. Its principal legacy was to restore the most progressive features of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and to entrench the concepts of constitutionalism, parliamentarism, and separation of powers in Spain.
  • Moderate Constitution

    Moderate Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1837 was enacted in Spain during the regency of María Cristina de Borbón. It was an initiative of the Progressive Party to approve a constitution of consensus with the Moderate Party to allow the alternation of the two liberal parties to stabilize Magna Carta. It was in force for about 7 years until the Moderate Party imposed its own Constitution in 1845
  • “La Gloriosa”

    “La Gloriosa”
    The Glorious Revolution, resulted in the deposition of Queen Isabel II. The success of the revolution marked the beginning of the Sexenio Democrático with the installment of a provisional government. In September 1868 naval forces under admiral Juan Bautista Topete mutinied in Cadiz. This was the same city where a half-century before, Rafael del Riego had launched his coup against Isabel’s father. In 1868 Queen Isabel crossed into France and retired from Spanish politics.
  • Democratic Constitution

    Democratic Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1869, formed on 1 June 1869, was the sixth constitution of the constitutions of Spain to emerge from the turbulent period in Spanish history of 1814-1873.
    The Constitution was adopted by the Spanish Provisional Government which was formed after the triumph of the Glorious Revolution of 1868 that ended the autocratic reign of Isabel II of Spain.
  • Period: to

    The First Republic