Early Modern Period

  • Period: 1509 to 1547

    Reign of Henry VIII

  • 1517

    Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther

    Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther
    Martin Luther was a german monk and theologist. He wrote the '95 Theses' to denounce the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church and the practice of the Pope, mainly about Indulgences.
  • 1526

    The Tyndale Bible

    The Tyndale Bible
    The New Testament was translated from Latin to English by William Tyndale. A big change because the Pope (Catholicism) did not want the Bible to be translated into any vernacular language.
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    The King Henry VIII was made 'Supreme Head of the Chuch of England' and it ended the links between England and Rome. It also marked the beginning of the Early Modern Period.
  • Period: 1534 to

    Early Modern Period

    This period started in 1534 with the Act of Supremacy and ended in 1801 with the Act of Union.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Reign of Edward VI

    Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, he reigned after his father from 1547 to 1553 when he died at the age of 15 from tuberculosis. During his reign, England was pushed towards Protestantism because he himself was Protestant.
  • 1549

    The Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer
    In 1549, during Edward VI ‘s reign, the mass book was revised and it led to the publication of the Book of Common Prayer. England became more and more Protestant and Roman Catholic practices were eradicated. The imposition of this new book led to rebellions in Cornwall and Devon.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Reign of Mary I

    First daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, she became the First Queen of England at age of 37, after her younger brother’s death. During her reign, she quickly restored Catholicism by repealing the Protestant legislation. She was not really appreciated by the english population for many reasons, one which gave her the surname of Bloody Mary. She then became ill and died in 1558.
  • Period: 1555 to 1558

    Bloody Mary

    Between 1555 and 1558, Mary I burned alive over 200 Protestants to convince people to come back to Catholicism, while some of them were forced to leave the country to be safe.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Reign of Elizabeth I

    Second daughter of Henry VIII, and daughter of Anne Boleyn, her reign began when her older sister, Mary I, died. Her priority was to pacify religious divisions from the quick changes that had made her sister. And, with the Second Reformation, she defined the Church of England.
  • 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    Every parish has to use the Book of Common Prayer and people who didn’t attend an Anglicane Church were fined.
  • 1559

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Abolition of the authority of the Pope, restoration of the authority of the Queen over the Church and Elizabeth I becomes the “Supreme Governor of the Church of England”
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    the 39 articles of faith

    The doctrine of church; a new ecclesiology; a new doctrine of Salvation; a new definition of sacraments and of the mass. These doctrines are still in under today
  • Period: 1567 to

    Reign of James VI of Scotland

    He inherited of the throne after his mother, Mary Stuart of Scots, was forced to abdicate. He was the only King to ever reign on both England and Scotland at the same moment, and tried to reunite them into one Kingdom but failed.
  • 1570

    Excommunication of Queen Elizabeth I by the Pope Pius V

    Excommunication of Queen Elizabeth I by the Pope Pius V
    Release of a papal bull by the Pope Pius V addressing Catholics of England about the wrong doings of the « so called » Queen Elizabeth I.
  • 1571

    Treasons Act

    Treasons Act
    In response to the 1570 papal bull and the Pope Puis V not alleging the title of Queen to Elizabeth I, this Act made it treason for anyone to say that Elizabeth I wasn’t the true Queen of England and Wales.
    The pope was almost giving Catholics license to kill the Queen without it being a sin.
  • Execution of Mary of Scots

    Execution of Mary of Scots
    After being prisoner of Elizabeth I for 19 years and her cousin, Mary was the legitimate heir of the Crown of England and was involved in many plots with the goal of the death of the Queen, like the Babington plot. She was then beheaded in Fotheringham Castle wearing a bright red dress.
  • The Tilbury Speech

    The Tilbury Speech
    The Tilbury Speech was made by Elizabeth I before Spain’s Armada
    ‘s invasion in order to motivate English sailors. In her speech she emphasize her faithful, living and trustworthy relationship with each of her subject.
  • The defeat of Spanish Armada

    The defeat of Spanish Armada
    Philip II of Spain supported many plots against Elizabeth I and because she supported the Dutch revolution against Spain, he attempted to invade England with his “Invincible Armada”. His defeat had a big ideological effect in England.
  • The Millenary Petition

    The Millenary Petition
    Signed by a thousand church ministers, it was a list of requests made by Puritans to the King, James I, for example, the purification of the Anglican Church, getting rid of its Catholic features.
  • Period: to

    Reign of James I of England

    Son of Mary (Stuart) of Scots, he was the legitimate heir after Elizabeth I ‘s death in 1603. He reigned at the same time on Scotland since 1567, under the name of James VI. He died in 1625, leaving the throne to his son, Charles I.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    A conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill King James I. They had set up barrels of gunpowder under the Parliament but Guy Fawkes, a man of this group, was arrested the day before by the justice of the peace (police) and they could stop their plan.
  • King James’ Bible

    King James’ Bible
    A new English translation of the Bible
  • Period: to

    The Thirty Years’ War

    Starting under James I’s reign and ending under his son, Charles I’s reign, it was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles I

    His reign started at the death of his father, James I, and finish with a regicide, him being executed.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    Petition against the English crown by the members of Parliament, asking King Charles I to recognize the limits of his power. Resulting in the suspension of the Parliament again.
  • The Three Resolutions

    The Three Resolutions
    Passed by the members of Parliament, this act stated that whoever tried to alter the protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Kingdom.
  • Period: to

    The Personal Rule

    11 years period where King Charles I governed alone, without consulting a Parliament.
  • The Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer
    New Prayer Book introduced by Charles I and led to many revolts and crises, mostly in Scotland
  • Period: to

    The Scottish Crisis

    After Charles I introduced the New Prayer Book, the Book of Common Prayer, Scotland that was Calvinist, was set aflame. The crises were not just in England but in Scotland and Ireland and caused the end of the Personal Rule and the outbreak of the Civil War.
  • The Scottish National Covenant

    The Scottish National Covenant
    Petitions signed by many people in Scotland opposing Charles’ religious policy about the Church of Scotland (The Kirk)
  • The Treaty of Ripon

    The Treaty of Ripon
    Peace Treaty forcing Charles to pay for the cost of the Scots’ army, after The Scots invaded England and emerged victorious.
  • Short Parliament

    Short Parliament
    Needing money to fight the Scots, Charles I called a parliament for the first time in 11 years, ending the Personal Rule. It was dissolved only 3 weeks later
  • Period: to

    The Long Parliament

    Charles had to call Parliament again because he needed money for the Treaty of Ripon. This Parliament was not dissolved until 1660
  • Militia Act

    Militia Act
    Act passed by the Parliament stating that the army should be placed under the control of a general appointed by Parliament; taking away the King’s ability to appoint whoever he wants.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    Document voted by Parliament after heated debates, summarizing all the wrong doings of King Charles I. It concluded on « revolutionary » demands. This text divided the Parliament into two groups; the Parliamentarians and the Royalists.
  • Period: to

    The Irish Rebellion

    An armed revolt broke out in Ireland. Irish Catholics rebels rosse up against Protestant settlers and caused the massacre of 3000 to 4000 protestants.
  • The 19 Propositions

    The 19 Propositions
    A set of demands addressed to the King by the Parliament. It led to King Charles I to declare war on Parliament on August 22nd 1642.
  • Period: to

    First Civil War

    Won by teh Parliament and killed around 190.000 people.
  • The Battle of Naseby

    The Battle of Naseby
    Turning point of the First Civil War and made the Royalist forces weaken.
  • Agreement of the People

    Agreement of the People
    Written by a collaboration between civilian Levellers and members of the New Model Army to propose a new constitution after the First Civil War
  • The New Model Army seizing the King

    The New Model Army seizing the King
    The House of Commons disbanded the New Model Army without paying them what they were due for monts. This led to mutiny and for the King to be seized by them in June 1647.
  • Pride’s Prejudice

    Pride’s Prejudice
    After King Charles I was captured because he tried to make alliance with other armies, the English Army wanted him to be tried in opposition to conservative members of Parliament. Colonel Pride arrested those 45 members of Parliament and put the King on trial for high treason.
  • Period: to

    Second Civil War

    Series of revolts in the South of England, Wales and Scotland. The Royalists were easily defeated by Cromwell, an officer of the New model Army. It lasted from January to the Autumn of 1648
  • King Charles I’s execution

    King Charles I’s execution
    He was beheaded outside of the Banqueting House.
  • Commonwealth

    After the King’s execution, monarchy and the House of the Lords were abolished and England was declared a Commonwealth, a Republic.
  • Period: to

    Commonwealth period

    A law abolished monarchy and England was ruled as a Republic
  • The Instrument of Government

    The Instrument of Government
    England's first and only written constitution
  • Period: to

    Cromwellian Protectorate period

    Military dictatorship led by Cromwell, Lord Protector. He had the executive power and controlled the military and diplomacy of the country.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Charles II

    Son of Charles I, his reign lasted 25 years.
  • The Restoration (Charles II)

    The Restoration (Charles II)
    King Charles II, son of Charles I, was restored as a King. He issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he promised amnesty, religious toleration and shared power with Parliament in return for the restoration of monarchy.
  • Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    All ministers had to swear to conform to the Book of Common Prayer
  • Outbreak of Plague

    Outbreak of Plague
    RIch people got out of the city while the poorest had no other choice but to stay. Around 75000 people died.
  • Great Fire of London

    Great Fire of London
  • The Popish Plot

    The Popish Plot
    Rumored plot against Charles II in order to replace him by his Catholic brother.
  • Period: to

    The Exclusion Crisis

    Parliament wanted to change the succession of Charles II. His heir, his brother James II, was Catholic. Charles II then dissolved Parliament
  • The Toleration Act

    The Toleration Act
    Established religious pluralism and freedom of worship.
  • The Bull of Rights

    The Bull of Rights
    List of King James II's misdeeds and fixed limitations on the Parliament.
  • The Act of Settlement

    The Act of Settlement
    Ensured Protestant succession and put an end to the 16th and 17th century quarrel between King and Parliament.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Union between the Parliaments of England and Scotland
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Both Parliament instituted the union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It marked the end of the Early Modern Period