Introduction to British History (1534-1801)

By Denalia
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    The King was made "Supreme Head of the Church of England"
  • Period: 1534 to

    The establisment of the Church of England and of a pre-modern state

  • 1536

    Pontefrart Articles

    Pontefrart Articles
    In this Article, the rebels demand the abolition of enclosures. therefore. The reformation in England led to an intermediate poisition which is the Church of England.
  • 1536

    Act of Union

    Act of Union
    An act for laws and justice to be administered in Wales in the same form as in the kingdom of Henry VIII. This act allows Wales to be represented in English parliaments. And also that English, not Welsh, should be the country’s first language.
  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    The revolt of "Pilgrimage of Grace"

    In Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, those changes will led to a revolt named "Pilgrimage of Grace" because some was against it, support it or even did not care at all.
  • 1537

    English bible produced

    English bible produced
    An Enlish bible was produced and was made mandatory in churches
  • 1538

    Monasteries no longer exist in England.

    Monasteries no longer exist in England.
    In 1538, every monasteries in England had disappeared and their goals had been confiscated. Clergy's finances were affected and many nuns and monks were left aimless.These monasteries were part of the social fabric of communities and were at the centre of the inhabitants' lives which led to poor relief.
  • Period: 1542 to 1567

    Reign of Mary, Queen of Scots

    Mary Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart, was the daughter of James V King of Scotland and Mary of Guise. (The Guise family was leading the counter-reformation in France.) She was the widow of the French King called Francis II.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Edward VI's reign

    He was Protestant and during his reign, he tried to made the Church of England more Protestant.
  • Jan 15, 1549

    Book of Common Prayer

    Book of Common Prayer
    The publication of the Book of Common Prayer was one of the most important achievement during Edward VI because it replaced every latin books in every churches.
  • 1553

    Edward's death

    Edward's death
    Edward VI died at the age of 15. His death led to a state of bankruptcy.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Bloody Mary

    Mary I, also known as Bloody Mary was the first queen regnant ever. Her main aim was to restore Catholicism and make an alliance with the Habsburgs empire. Her attempt to restore Catholicism acted in support of the reform : scorched heretics will become martyrs, which in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs, this book will became a best-seller. This will led an historiographical problem, because we know her reign from the writings of protestants.
  • Period: 1553 to

    Poor Laws

    The Poor Laws are a body of laws that provide relief to the poor and evolved in England and maintained, with various changes, until after World War II.
  • Period: 1554 to 1560

    Mary of Guise's regent

    She is a French noblewoman, second wife of Jacques V of Scotland. She was a firm Catholic and supporter of French interests in Britain, but she was not always popular with Scottish nobles and Protestant leaders like John Knox. With the death of her husband, her daughter Mary Stuart became queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567.
  • 1558

    First speech of Queen Elizaeth I

    First speech of Queen Elizaeth I
    In her first speech, she declared a theory of 2 bodies : she has a natural body of a woman that can be described as "weak" and a politcal body that represent the divine authority of the monarch.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabeth I's reign / The Golden Age of England

    Elizabeth I, also know as the Virgin Queen, was a protestant and many of her supporters were Marian exiles. Her reign is often called "The Golden Age" beacause it was a long period of peace and prosperity in which the arts flourished (like in the flowering theatre with Shakespeare). She wanted to maintain an alliance with Spain despite the situation between Spain, France and Ireland. This, led to a Via Media, a compromise that could please as many as possible. She installed a new form of Church.
  • 1559

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    After Mary I's reign, Elizabeth I reaffirmed the authority of the Queen over the Church and as a result, she became the "Supreme Governor/Head of the Church of England".
  • 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    Every parish had to use the Book of Common Prayer, and people who did not attend an Anglican service were find.
  • 1560

    Establishment of the Presbyterian Kirk

    Establishment of the Presbyterian Kirk
    The Presbyterian Kirk is a reformation in Scotland which aims to reform the country's religion.The reformed faith was defined by the Scottish confession written by John Knox. The Reformation required the establishment of schools and relief for the poor in every church.
  • 1562

    Anglican Church

    Anglican Church
    This new Church of England, Anglican Churh, was a compromise and it retained some catholic features and adopted protestants ideas. But some were still discontent with this compromise. One side Catholics and on the other side Puritans : radical protestants. The most important criticism against Elizabethan Anglicanism was that the episcopal structure maintained a hierarchy within the church.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39th article of faith

    It is a revised version of Edward VI's 12 articles. It still is the main doctrinal frame for the Anglican church of nowadays.
  • 1568

    Civil War in Scotland

    Civil War in Scotland
    In 1568, there is a civil war in Scotland which led for Mary, Queen of Scots, to escape in England where she was imprisoned for 19 years.
  • Period: 1568 to 1573

    Marian Civil War

    The Marian Civil War in Scotland was a period of conflict when Mary had to abdicate in 1568 for reasons of marriage and religion. This civil war was between the regents of James VI of Scotland (Protestant) and the supporters of the queen.
  • 1569

    Northern Rebellion

    Northern Rebellion
    The Northern Rebellion was animated by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland, they were back by 6000 insurgents. Their aim was to replace Queen Elizabeth by Mary, Queen of Scots. In effect, the rebellion was crushed.
  • 1570

    Pope Pius V

    Pope Pius V
    After the rebellion, the Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I because he supported Mary, Queen of Scots. This excommunition result as an important repression of Catholics and the Anglican Church began to look less like a compromise between Catholics and Protestants than a form of state-endorsed protestantism.
  • 1572

    Vagabond Act

    Vagabond Act
    The Vagabon Act is an Act of the Parliament of England. The act provided measures for poor relief by stipulating that justices of the peace were required to investigate and register «all poor, fallen elderly persons» within their divisions. But it created a distinction between the deserving poor and the undeserving poor. In spite of all this, it has provided help to the elderly, the sick and infant poor, as well as work for the able-bodied in workhouses.
  • 1577

    An English slave trade system

    An English slave trade system
    The Queen engaged pirates/corsairs like Sir Francis Drake to attack Spanish ships and to get around the world to instaure an English slave trade system.
  • 1580

    Strong Alliances

    Strong Alliances
    She created strong allainaces with the Netherlands, France and Ducth protestant against Spain. (England became home to many exiled protestants = against Spain)
  • 1581

    Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's Subject in their due Obedience

    Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's Subject in their due Obedience
    The death penalty was put in place for converts and Catholic was forbidden. Around 150 to 200 persons were killed during the repression.
  • 1581

    Rules to paint the Queen's portrait

    Rules to paint the Queen's portrait
    To paint the Queen's portrait, painters needed to have 7 years of training before being authorized to paint her portrait, Sadly, in 1596, all portraits were destroyed. Those portraits reflects the symbolism of her reign and will be considered as religious paintings.
  • Last Catholic plot discovered

    Last Catholic plot discovered
    The last Catholic plot was discovered in 1586, by Francis Walsingham who is part of the Anthony Babington group. It is a group of young catholics sworn to kill Elizabeth. But unfortunately, Mary will be executed next year, in 1587. Elizabeth’s handling of Mary’s threat is interesting because Elizabeth kept her in prison and decided not to execute her after Babington’s plot was discovered.
  • Invicible Armada of Spain

    Invicible Armada of Spain
    Elizabeth I defeated the invicible Armada of Spain but at a very high cost. Indeed, James I inherited of a bankrupt country which led him to call Parliament to vote some funds, and heavy taxes were applied and made many unhappy with the war effort. Thus, the Crown carried a heavy debt.
  • Tilbury Speech

    Tilbury Speech
    She declared just before the battle against the Spanish armada, (which took place on the English coast, at Tilbury, on the Thames, east of London in Essex): "I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too.".
  • Millenary petition

    Millenary petition
    James I supported Calvinist visions and indeed, Puritans were hopeful for an extended religious towards their faith and believes. The Puritans sought / asked a "purer" form of faith and asked to purify the last vestiges of Catholicism in the Church of England (bowing at the name of Jesus and making the cross' sign.). He decided to preserve the statue of the Elizabethan settlement because the episcopal structure was suitable for an absolute King.
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    The politic turmoil of the XVIIe c.

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    James I's reign

    Mary, Queen of Scots' son. He succeeded to Elizabeth I and he ruled over Three Kingdoms since he combined his title in England with his statue as King James VI of Scotland (1567). Plus, Ireland since England has installed a government and parliament in this country. Raised as Protestant in SC, firm believer in the divine right of King. Was a generous King and gave titles to his friends (Duke of Buckingham) Unfortunately, James I died in 1625 and left the war against Spain to Charles I, his son.
  • Peace with Spain

    Peace with Spain
    King James I signed peace with Spain, which temporarily contributed to an improvement in finances.
  • Gunpowder plot

    Gunpowder plot
    After the Catholics being disappointed where they had hope for toleration under the rule of James I, a groupe of conspirator planned to put explosives under the Parliament and kill the King. Thankfully, 3 hours before the King's arrival, the plot was discovered and found that it was Guy Fawkes who prepared the explosives. Thus, it was a conspiracy devised in small group of Catholics to blow up te Parliament and kill King James I.
  • The Great Contract

    The Great Contract of 1610 is a text between Parliament and the King that stipulated that James I would receive an annual sum of money each year (which was intended to pay off the royal debt). However, this could come into conflict with Parliament, which controlled taxation and military spending, and thus leave full powers to the Crown. The House of Common refuse to vote for it and the King's reponse was the dissolution of the Parliament.
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    Thirty Years War

    England was at war against France, Spain and Lord Buckingham who is the most outstanding counselor (as during James I's reign became unpopular). This war was a costly one that led to poor results, which made his people question its King. It led to a disastrous campaign against Spain which is named the "Cadiz expedition".
  • Creation of the First New England colony in Plymouth

    Creation of the First New England colony in Plymouth
    By deciding to keep the status of the Elizabethan settlement (episcopal struture which was suitable for a absolute King that just turned the Presbyterian Kirk into an espiscopal church), the Puritans were unpleasant because they had an important influence / impact in the upper classes and the cities. Some radical Puritans, also named Dissenters left England and some became famous by embarking on the Mayflower to create he first New England colony in Plymouth.
  • Summon the Parliament

    Summon the Parliament
    The start of the Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 in Europe spread and financial pressures forced James in 1621 to call Parliament to demand money and taxes for the war. Parliament told the King that it would be a financial disaster to send the army to Continental Europe. The King saw this as an attack on his sovereignty and decided to dissolve Parliament. Moreover, this is one of the most important tensions for the Stuarts.
  • Matrimonial diplomacy

    James I had the idea of marrying one of his daughters to a Protestant leader and his son to a Spanish Catholic princess, which would ease religious tensions in a framework of matrimonial diplomacy. However, the wedding with a Spanish princess failed and he resented the way the Habsburgs treated his son.The Habsburg Emperor and Catholic Spain send their troops and the King went to war partly to help his son-in-law but also to act as the most powerful Protestant power in Europe.
  • New call of a parliament

    New call of a parliament
    Once again, Parliament was called upon to vote funds for the war against Spain but failed to resolve foreign policy issues. Unfortunately, James I died in 1625 and left this war to Charles I, his son.
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    Charles I's reign

    James I's son, Charles I was an absolutist and did not had the flexible temperament of his father as he interpreted all criticism as a challenge to his authority. Not only did he marry a French Catholic woman (Henrietta Maria) but Charles I adopted a particular form of the Anglican faith named "Arminianism".Inspired by the teachings of Jacobus Arminius, they aimed to restore certain rituals and a strong episcopate within Protestantism: considered by their enemies as proto-Catholics.
  • Impeach Buckingham's power

    In 1626, after the Cadiz expedition, the Parliament tried to limit Buckingham’s power and strain/tension on the finances first by claiming that the deputies granted the King the right to collect custom duties only for the year to come and not for life. Then they tried to accuse Buckingham and the King response was to dissolve parliament.
  • Petition of Right

    Petition of Right
    In June 1628, the King was forced to once again call Parliament, which published the Petition of Right. The Parliament asked the King to recognize the illegality of extra-parliamentary taxation, martial law and imprisonment without trial. Parliament wanted to emphasize that Charles I had gone too far and that the financial situation was out of control. He interpreted this as a challenge to his authority and reluctantly signed it because he needed the financial support of Parliament for the war.
  • Three Resolutions

    The deputies did not lead the Speaker of the House to end the discussions (law about a new military budget), after which the King declared another adjournment. The MPs passed the three resolutions: They declared that anyone who attempted to introduce "papacy/Arminianism" or to alter the Protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Crown, as well as anyone who advised the King to collect customs duties without the consent of Parliament.= rebellion against the king's power, diss P
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    The Eleven Years Tyranny

    Charles I reigned without Parliament.This period has been called by Whig historians "The Eleven Years Tyranny". During his personal reign, Charles I imposed Arminian uniformity on the Church of England. The sign of the cross, devotion to the name of Jesus, and strict uniformity were imposed. For dissenters and even for some moderate Protestants, this was seen as a return to papism. The notion of uniformity has led to even greater resentment in Scotland and Ireland.
  • New Prayer Book

    New Prayer Book
    In Scotland, the attempt to impose uniformity came through the imposition of the New Prayer Book in 1637, not used by the Presbyterian Kirk. A special mass was held in Edinburgh to introduce the new prayer book. Some of the Scottish attendants greeted the sermon with a special attention: they threw a stool at the bishop. This event was the starting point of the Bishops' Wars, opposing the covenanters defending the independence of the Scottish Presbyterians and the royal troops.
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    Thus, the real acceleration toward a civil war came from Irleand and in october 1641 a civil war broke out.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    The Grand Remonstrance of 1641 is a radical text that puts in question the incontestable power of the King over the church and its control on the army. It declare that Parliament has the right to control an army and to reform the church and that the House of Commons has the right to choose the King's ministers. In addition, the Parliament is divided in 2 factions w the Royalists (King’s side) and the Parliamentarians (supporters of the Parliament). = led to a civil war.
  • Declaration of war against the Parliament

    Both sides urgently prepared for war. The king officially raised the royal standard at Nottingham on August 22 1642, and occasional fighting soon broke out throughout the kingdom.
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    First Civil War

    Will oppose the Cavaliers (supporters of the King, its rule over questions of religion and its special right on taxation = Royalists, some were Arminians but a lot of them were mostly afraid of Puritan radical demands) and the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament. Parliament should craft legislation / laws and gives it consent for every taxes = Parliementarians, afraid of papism but they were not radical Puritans). It cost the lives of 190 000 Englismens from combats and diseases.
  • 19 propositions

    19 propositions
    Is a list of proposals following the Great Remonstrance, which is sent to Charles I at York by the House of Commons and the Parliament. Which included demands that no minister should be nominated without parliamentary approval, that the army should be placed under parliamentary control, and that parliament should decide on the future of the church. He understood these proposals to be an ultimatum, he gave a cautious response in which he admitted the idea that this was a constituional monarchy.
  • New Model Army

    New Model Army
    The NMA was created in 1644 by Parliament. It was a national army, centralized, with a fixed salary. Religious fervor among these troops and were named "the Praying Army". They were mainly Puritans.
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    Was a confrontation between the New Model Army of the Parliamentarians and the Royalist army commanded by King Charles I and Prince Rupert of the Rhine. The Roundheads and their New Model Army, supported by the Scots, won a decisive battle and the Royalists retreated in defeat. The king lost many officers and most of his veteran infantry, with 1,000 killed and 5,000 taken prisoner while the Roundheads lost only 150 soldiers It had established their superiority over the Royalist forces.
  • King surrended to the Scots

    In May 1646, the king surrenders to the Scots, who hand him over to Parliament.
  • First mutiny

    First mutiny
    Parliament decides to disband the New Model Army, to restore peace, but does so without paying the soldiers who fought in the Civil War. This resulted in a mutiny and the NMA seized the King. Within the NMA, many radical ideas were circulating. The influence of the Levellers led by John Lilburne is important because they defend a radical political and religious program (e.g. religious tolerance, extension of suffrage). It was the first democratic political movement in British history.
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    Putney Debates

    Leveller leaflets circulated within the ANM which contained radical ideas. This led to the Putney debates. This was a series of discussions between army leaders, soldiers and a group of London radicals known as the Levellers, who met to discuss the constitution and the future of England. A general agreement emerged to extend the right to vote to most men in England. The agreement was never presented to the House of Commons, and the Levellers' leaders were arrested.
  • Short Parliament

    The first time in 11 years, the King had to call Parliament because he needed money to fight the Scots.The deputies took the opportunity to discuss their claims and Charles quickly dissolved it. It is remembered as the short parliament.
  • The Pride’s Purge

    The Pride’s Purge
    Army's Colonel Pride enters Parliament to arrest 45 Conservative MPs; this event is called "Pride's Purge" which leads to the formation of the very radical and very small Rump Parliament, which tries the King for high treason.
  • Second Civil War

    Second Civil War
    In the midst of this radical unrest with the Putney Debates, the King escaped in November 1647, he concluded an alliance with the Scots promising the installation of Presbyterianism on England. This led to the second civil war. Royalist revolts were easily defeated by Cromwell's forces and the army wanted the King tried. Finally, the Conservatives negotiated with him.
  • Second Irish Rebellion

    Second Irish Rebellion
    Another Irish rebellion broke out. Cromwell's army suppressed and installed a severe repression against the Catholics.
  • Massacre of soldiers and civilians

    Massacre of soldiers and civilians
    In 1649, a massacre of soldiers and civilians in Drogheda and Wexford took place. This may echo a spirit of revenge for the Irish rebellion of 1641. Catholicism was banned, Irish priests were arrested and the lands of Irish Catholics were confiscated.
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    Charles II King of Scotland reign

    Charle II was proclaimed King of Scotland after his father's execution.
  • Execution of the king Charles I

    Execution of the king Charles I
    On this day, the King Charles I was executed and his execution was ordered as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy. Monarchy and the House of Lords were abolished, the House of Commons had all power and England was declared a Commonwealth, a republic. This execution was shocking to England and also Europe. Although he was hated, he quickly became a martyr.
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    The Interregnum

    The interregnum was a period between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of his son Charles II as the King in 1660. For more than a decade, England will be governed without a King. Oliver Cromwell will assume the role of the head of the State as "Lord Protector". This period led to many experiments of forms of government, without success. At the end, the failure to reach stability will favour a restoration of the King.
  • Persecution of radical religious and religious sects

    The most radical religious and political sects were persecuted:
    - Levellers were imprisoned, Diggers communities expelled.
    - Radical Puritan sects like the Quakers or the Ranters were persecuted under the Blasphemy Act of 1650.
    These minor groups did not have much influence, but they panicked the more conservative and had a lasting influence on the way the Commonwealth was represented: a hyper-radical, order-threatening set of initiatives.
  • Dissolution of the Rump

    Dissolution of the Rump
    On the 20th of April 1653 Cromwell dissolved the Rump.The army took advantage of its victories in Ireland and Scotland and of this political and religious chaos to establish its power. The Barebones Parliament followed, but without much success. On December 16, 1653, it was dissolved and there is no more Commonwealt. This was the beginning of the Protectorate.
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    Victorious war against Spain

    The Protectorate was a military dictatorship. Cromwell refused to use the title of "king" but effectively ruled as a monarch with the title of Lord Protector. Beginning of a victorious war against Spain which established the English presence in the West Indies with the conquest of Jamaica.
  • Cromwell's death

    Cromwell's death
    Cromwell died in 1658, and his son Richard became Lord Protector, but soon had to resign due to growing political tensions. For a few months, there was complete anarchy in the multiple governments, which increased the popular demand for the return of the King.
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    The Scottish Covenanters invaded England. The peace treaty of Ripon was signed in October 1640 (England had to pay the costs of the Scottish army). Charles I, in a catastrophic financial and political situation, had to summon the parliament again. This parliament remained in place until 1660.
  • Settlement of the Parliament's power

    Settlement of the Parliament's power
    This Parliament first decided to settle its power after eleven years, and under the leadership of John Pym. They passed two laws:
    - Parliament was to meet at least every 3 years.
    - The dissolution of Parliament requires its consent.
    They decided to execute the Earl of Bedford for going too far in defending the King's authority and implementing a policy of war against Scotland. Many parliamentarians did not understand the point of throwing money at a war against fellow Protestants.
  • The Declaration of Breda

    The Declaration of Breda
    The Declaration of Breda was a proclamation by Charles II that included amnesty, religious tolerance and recognition of the power of Parliament in the event of a restoration of the monarchy. The king was restored on May 29, 1660 but he could not claim to be an absolute king as his father had been.
  • Charles II restoration

    Charles II restoration
    Charles II was restored as king of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1660. However, he could not claim an absolute King as his father was.
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    Charles II's reign

    Charles I's son, the Merry Monarch, was proclaimed King of Scotland after his father's execution. He raised an army, which was soon defeated by Cromwell. He escaped and took refuge in Europe. Cromwell's conquest of Ireland and Scotland allowed him to establish his military power and territorial dominance. Nevertheless, important consequences will appear: it strengthens the army and its claims to governance and leads to an increase in resentment in Ireland and Scotland.
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    Clarendon Code

    The Clarendon Code was a series of four legal statutes passed between 1661-1665 which re-established the supremacy of the Anglican and was very repressive against dissenters/non-conformists.
  • Act of Uniformity

    Is an English Act of Parliament regulating the form of worship in the Church of England after the restoration of the monarchy. It imposed on all clergy to follow the Book of Common Prayer. So, the Book of Common Prayer is again imposed.
  • Outbreak Plague

    Outbreak Plague
    Hostility towards him slowly grows. First he had to face terrible events such as the outbreak plague of 1665 and the great fire of London in 1666.
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    Second Anglo-Dutch war

    The second Anglo-Dutch war was considered a defeat. (questionable, as they strongly established their presence in North America).
  • The Great Fire of London

    The Great Fire of London
    These terrible events (outbreak pale and the great fire of London) were interpreted as a divine sign that the king's penchant for Catholicism was a curse / malediction.
  • The Popish Plot of 1678

    The Popish Plot of 1678
    In 1678, there were rumors of a plot organized by the French to assassinate Charles II and put his Catholic brother on the throne. The Parliament decides to execute 35 people.
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    Political crisis due to the next heir in line

    From 1678 to 1681, a political crisis took place due to the fact that the next successor to the throne, James II, Charles II's brother, was Catholic and Charles II had no children.
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    The Exclusion Crisis

    The Parliament tries to exclude James from the succession. The King's response was to dissolve the Parliament. He ruled without it until his death in 1685 (he converted to Catholicism on his deathbed). His brother succeeded him. Parliament then divided into two parties: the Whigs, who opposed James, and the Tories, who were loyal to the doctrine of royal hereditary rights.
  • Charles II's death

    Charles II's death
    Charles died of a sudden apoplectic fit on the 2 February 1685.
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    The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution reinstalled a Protestant monarch. Mary and William also accepted the authority of Parliament and the limits of its power, and England became a constitutional monarchy. The Glorious Revolution is also the sequence of events that led to the exile of King James II and the accession to the throne of William and Mary.
  • King William III

    King William III
    William III of Orange, a Dutch Prince invade England and became prince. Surprisingly, the early years of James II's reign were peaceful. He tried to work for tolerance for Catholics and dissenters, meeting opposition from Parliament on this question. However, he was old and had no male heir. His daughter Marie was a Protestant, married to the Dutch prince William of Orange, champion of the Protestant cause in Europe / against France.
  • Bill of Right

    Bill of Right
    The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament, which sets basic civil rights and clarifies the next to inherit the Crown. Moreover, it is seen as a crucial landmark in English constitutional law.
  • Toleration Act

    Toleration Act
    The 1689 Toleration Act will offer extended toleration for dissenters. However not for Catholics.
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    William III's reign

    William of Orange was a dutch prince but also the husband of Mary, daughter of Charles II. He invaded England with no resistance and became King William III.
    Mary and him accepted Parliamentary authority. England then became a Constitutional Monarchy, framed by the 1689 Bill of Right.
  • Creation of the Bank of England

    Creation of the Bank of England
    The creation of the Bank of England made it possible to use the national debt as a financial instrument. The state was now able to fund large projects. Moreover, the East India Company benefited greatly of this money for ex. The birth of the fiscal-military state.
  • William III's death

    William III's death
  • Act of Settlement

    Act of Settlement
    The Act of Settlement stipulated that the succession should be from William to Anne and Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James I), although there were many more direct successors to the throne but Catholics. Parliament claimed the right to decide who would reign and in 1714 George I, Sophia's son, was made King of England.
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    Queen Anne's reign

    Anne was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 8 March 1702 until 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707.
    Then, under the Acts of Union, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united as a single sovereign state.
    She then continued to reign but as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In 1707, an act of union was established between England and Scotland. They would become one kingdom, without a parliament in Scotland, but with representatives in the House of Commons. After that, the Jacobite threat is tamed. The Presbyterian Scottish Kirk retained its independence from the Church of England.
  • George I's proclamation

    George I's proclamation
    George I, Sophia's son, will effectively be made king of England.
  • Queen Anne's death

    Queen Anne's death
    Queen Anne died in 1714 she was the younger sister of Mary and was succeeded by George I, the first king of the Hanover dynasty.However, she was long considered a bad monarch because of the influential memories of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Malborough (friend of the queen, but disappointed by the queen's attitude to the Whigs during the War of the Spanish Succession). In which case, gender stereotypes played an important role in forming the memory of a very successful monarch.
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    The Hanoverian Dynasty

    Established by the Act of Settlement of 1701
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    George I's reign

    The first Hanover King, George I, wasn't really implicated in internal politics. He was German, did not speak any good English, and was mostly concerned by the threats to the little palatine state of Hanover. That is why during his reign he decided to give most of his power to Parliament which led to a war between the Whigs and the Tories.
  • The Jacobites rising of 1715

    The Jacobites rising of 1715
    The Jacobites were supporters of the Stuart dynasty and Scottish partisans. They organized rebellions to reinstate a Stuart king on the throne, but also because some Scots were unhappy with the Act of Union and the Kirk. The first rebellion, in 1715, was to install the "old pretender", James Francis Edward Stuart, the man whose birth had led to the Glorious Revolution.
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    First Prime Minister of Great Britain

    There have been institutional changes including the birth of the modern offices of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Robert Walpole (a Whig) was the first Prime Minister of Great Britain, from 1721 to 1742. During his mandate, he made sure to develop a very consensual policy. Some have criticized this as the rise of a robinocracy, a subtle corruption.
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    George II's reign

    The first used the Scottish rebellion to accuse the seconds of being secretly Jacobites. The Tories were then removed from the political scene for several decades. Under George I and II, the Whigs governed Britain.
  • The Jacobites rising of 1745

    The Jacobites rising of 1745
    The second rebellion was aimed at installing the "young pretender," Charles Edward Stuart, aka "Bonnie Prince Charlie." Each of the rebellions led to a repression of the Jacobites and reinforced London's power in Scotland. The final rebellion eventually led to the destruction of the clan system in the Highlands.
  • The Battle of Culloden

    The Battle of Culloden
    The rebellion of the Jacobites in 1745 Led to their final defeat at the Battle of Culloden of 1746.
  • Period: to

    The Seven Years War

    The Seven Years' War pitted a French coalition against the English, mainly over questions of colonial and naval control. The Whigs led by William Pit the Elder raised a lot of money to finance the war, mainly through taxes, even in the colonies.
  • Period: to

    George III's reign

  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris of 1763 made Britain victorious, ending the Seven Years War.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
  • Period: to

    American Revolutionary War

    The seven years war led to much resentment in the North American colonies: "taxation without representation is tyranny". The Boston Tea Party of 1773 opened the way for the American Revolutionary War. Revolutionaries invoked the rights of free-born Englishmen.
  • United States Independence

    In 1783, Britain recognized the independence of the United States through the Treaty of Paris
  • The French Revolution of 1789

    The French Revolution of 1789
    George III had to deal with the impact of the French Revolution of 1789. Britain fought the revolutionary forces and later the Napoleonic forces. There was a huge repression of English radicals and some French emigrants brought their ideas with them.
  • Irish Rebellion

    Irish Rebellion
    Another Irish rebellion took place, caused by the old resentment against English domination, but also by the revolutionary fever after the French revolution. The rebellion was crushed.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In 1801, the Acts of Union created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Parliament of Ireland was incorporated into the Parliament of London.
  • Period: to

    George IV's reign