Absolutism in Europe

  • Creation of Edict Nantes

    Creation of Edict Nantes
    Henry IV signed this Edict to protect the Protestants.This Edict granted tolerance for religion of the Hugeuenots and let them reinforce their own land, such as towns and cities.
  • Henry IV becomes king

    Henry IV becomes king
    Henry Navarre, a Bourbon prince and Huguenot leader, inherited the throne of France. He became Catholic even when he knew a Protestant would deal with the severe problems of ruling a large Catholic land. He issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598, which granted religious toleration and let them fortify their own towns and cities, to protect protestants. He made the basics for royal absolutism because he built the royal bureacracy and reduced influence of nobles.
  • James I becomes King

    James I becomes King
    The first Stuart Monarch was James I, who had agreed to rule according to the laws and customs of the English. James I made problems with Parliament over money and foreign policy. He also complicated religous disputes by rejecting the demands of Puritans wanting to "purify" the Church of England of Cathloic practices, so it could have simpler services.
  • Defenestration of Prague

    Defenestration of Prague
    Two Catholic officials were tossed out of a window by rebelious Bohemian/Protestants causing the start for war.
  • Beginning of Thirty Years War

    Beginning of Thirty Years War
    The Defenestration of Prague started a Bohemian revolt against the Catholics. Ferdinand, the Hapsburg king of Bohemia, who tried to put down the Protestants , defeated the Bohemians and their allies. The Catholics won a victory at the Battle of White Mountain.
  • Creation of Versailies

    Creation of Versailies
    The Versailies were created by Louis XIV just from a royal hunting lodge in the countryside near Paris. He turned it into a huge royal palace, that symbolize the Sun King's wealth and power. It was both the King's home and the seat of the government. Cerominies were held there to emphasize his own importance. It was also during the classical age of French drama.
  • Cardinal Richielieu Strengthens Monarchy

    Cardinal Richielieu Strengthens Monarchy
    Cardinal Richielieu became chief minister of Louis XIII in 1624. He was determined to destroy two groups who didn't bow down to royal authority, which were the power of the nobles and the Huguenots. He ended up doing so using different tactics to destroy their land and armies, but still allowed them to practice their religion. By taking away their political rights, it strengthened the French Monarchy.
  • Charles I becomes King

    Charles I becomes King
    Charles I became king in 1625, and behaved like an absolute monarch. Without trial, he imprisoned foes and squeezed the nation for money. He needed to summon Parliament in 1628 because of his urge to raise taxes. He signed the Petition of Right and then dissolved Parliament in 1629.
  • Charles signs Petition of Right

    Charles signs Petition of Right
    Charles signed the Petition of Right, which Parliament had insisted on, to prohibit the raise of taxes without consent of Parliament or imprisoning anyone without just cause. After signing it, he dissolved Parliament in 1629.
  • Long Parliament

    Long Parliament
    Charles I summoned this Parliament that lasted on and off until 1653. Parliament executed his chief ministers, and it further declared that the Parliament could not be dissolved without its consent and called for the abolition of bishops. This Parliament started the great revolt called the English Civil War.
  • English Civil War Begins

    English Civil War Begins
    The Long Parliament started this war. It was a war between the Cavaliers, who were wealthy nobles, and the Roundheads who were part of the forces of the Parliament that were country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers.
  • Louis XIV becomes King

    Louis XIV becomes King
    Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, inherited the thrown in 1643. After doing so, France was again filled with chaos. The Fronde occurred, which is an uprising where nobles, merchants, peasants and the urban poor rebelled each group for their own reasoning. Louis believed in divine right, which means their rights basically come from God. He expanded the bureacracy, and the French army became strongest in Europe under his rule. He also built Versailies, which were huge royal palaces.
  • Oliver Crowell creates New Model Army

    Oliver Crowell creates New Model Army
    Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the Roundheads, and created the New Model Army to be a disciplined fighting effort for Parliament. Throughout the battles, his army defeated the Cavaliers.
  • Treaty of Westphalia

    Treaty of Westphalia
    A series of treaties making a treaty of peace. This peace ended the Thirty Years War. The conflict had many powers involved, so it just ended with a European peace and international problems were being attempted to settle. European affairs were no longer having religion playing the pivotal role.
  • The End of Thirty Years War

    The End of Thirty Years War
    A series of treaties called the "Peace of Westphalia" was finally accepted by combatants. The Peace of Augsburg was reaffirmed from this agreement, but Calvinism was added to the religious choices. The winner of the war was France, who gained territory on both its Spanish and German frontiers. The Holy Roman Empire's leaders were given complete independence, and the Hapsburgs had to accept that when they lost. The Netherlands and Switzerland were officially recognized as independent states.
  • Charles I Executed

    Charles I Executed
    Parliament put the king on trial, and the court found him guilty. He was found as "a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy.", when they kill him. Charles I was beheaded.
  • English Civil War Ends

    English Civil War Ends
    Charles I was beheaded, which ended the civil war. A signal was showed that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.
  • Creation of the Commonwealth

    A series of laws were enacted by Parliament that were designed to make sure that Sunday was set aside for religous observance. Puritans preachers tried to root out godlesness and impose a "rule of saints".
  • Restoration of the Stuarts

    Restoration of the Stuarts
    Charles II, a popular ruler, was coming back to London, and he was reopening theaters and taverns. He secretly had Catholic faith. His brother, James II, inherited the throne in 1685, but showed his Catholic faith. James's daughter Mary, and her Dutch husband, William III, who were both Protestants were invited to become rulers of England by parliamentary leaders.
  • Peter I becomes Tsar

    Peter I becomes Tsar
    Peter the Great becomes Tsar, which is a ruler, of Russia in 1682. He's trying to push Russia in a greater modern power.
  • Revocation of Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV, since he saw the Protestant minority as a threat to religious and political unity. His treatment to the Huguenots was harsh, and many of them fled France because of Louis.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The overthrow of the king, James II, became to be known as the Glorious Revolution. In oder for William and Mary to become rulers, they had to accept many acts passed by Parliament, which were the English Bill of Rights. It ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.
  • Signing of the English Bill of Rights

    Signing of the English Bill of Rights
    William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights, and it formally restated the usual rights of English citizens. Such as trial by jury, and it abolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishment. The law of habeas corpus was also affirmed, meaning that no person can be held in prision without first being charged with a specific crime. The English Bill of Rights limited the monarchy.
  • Peter the Great Travels to Europe

    Peter the Great Travels to Europe
    Peter decided to travel to Europe in 2697 to study western technology and the English and Dutch culture, instead of taking permanent residence in Moscow. After walking the streets of European cities, he brought western ideas to Russia, wanting to change it and make it look like the English.
  • The Creation of St. Petersburg, Russia

    The Creation of St. Petersburg, Russia
    Peter the Great made his own city in Russia, and turned it into the capital. This city was a symbol to help create his idea for modernizing Russia. It was built by forced labor, such as soldiers and peasants, in horrible conditions, killing many of the workers. Peter odered the Russian nobility to make it the capital in 1712, and built many more new structures.
  • Death of Louis XIV

    Death of Louis XIV
    Louis XIV only got to rule France for 72 years in his throne, and then later died because he was too weak to deal with the problems a king has. He neglected his duties, and then he just started growing old. Louis XIV idealized royal absolutism in France.
  • Peter the Great Dies

    Peter the Great Dies
    After Peter the Great's death, he terrorized absolute rule, but expanded Russian territory, gained ports on the Baltic Sea, and created a mighty army.