timeline final

  • Period: 1300 to

    renaissance

    a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a cultural movement in Italy in the Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Modern age.
  • 1347

    the black death

    the black death
    ravaged europe for the first time. the devastating disease heps lay preconditions for the renaissance.
  • 1374

    death of petrarch

    death of petrarch
    a man called the father of the renaissance. undoubtedly a genius.
  • 1453

    ottoman conquest of constantinople

    ottoman conquest of constantinople
    many greek thinkers and works move westward. end of hundred years war
  • 1454

    the gutenberg bible published

    the gutenberg bible published
    print revolutionizes european literacy. one of the key events in the whole of western history, let alone the renaissance.
  • 1492

    buonarroti

    buonarroti
    battle of lapiths and centaurs. rodrigo borgia appointed pope
  • Period: 1550 to

    age of absolutism

    The Age of Absolutism describes a period of European history in which monarchs successfully gathered the wealth and power of the state to themselves. Louis XIV is the poster image of the absolute monarch.
  • philip II of spain

    philip II of spain
    Philip II, called "the Prudent" , was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland . He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.
  • charles I

    charles I
    Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit.
  • hobbes publishes leviathan

    hobbes publishes leviathan
    Leviathan is a book written by Thomas Hobbes and published in 1651. Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.
  • Period: to

    enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
  • locke publishes two treatises on government

    locke publishes two treatises on government
    two treatises of government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha, while the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory.
  • peter the great

    peter the great
    Peter the Great, Peter I ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V.
  • steam engine

    steam engine
    a steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used.
  • stuart monarchs

    stuart monarchs
    The House of Stuart, originally Stewart and, in Gaelic, Stiùbhart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland. The dynasty's patrilineal Breton ancestors had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England.
  • king louis xiv

    king louis xiv
    Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 5, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.
  • voltaire publishes the age of louis xiv

    voltaire publishes the age of louis xiv
    The Age of Louis XIV is a historical work by the French historian, philosopher, and writer Voltaire, first published in 1751. Through it, the French 17th century became identified with Louis XIV of France, who reigned from 1643 to 1715.
  • Period: to

    industrial revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
  • voltaire publishes treaties on toleration

    voltaire publishes treaties on toleration
    The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse is a work by French philosopher Voltaire, published in 1763, in which he calls for tolerance between religions, and targets religious fanaticism, especially that of the Jesuits, indicting all superstitions surrounding religions.
  • spinning jenny

    spinning jenny
    The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire in England.
  • Period: to

    american revolution

    The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with France and others.
  • british form alliance with patriot slaves

    british form alliance with patriot slaves
    In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for black slaves who joined the Patriot or British armies. The free black may have been drafted or enlisted at his own volition. Nash says that they enlisted more often than did whites.
  • battle of bunker hill

    battle of bunker hill
    The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after Bunker Hill in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which was peripherally involved in the battle.
  • smith published the wealth of nations

    smith published the wealth of nations
    An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth, and is today a fundamental work in classical economics.
  • moores creek

    moores creek
    he Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought near Wilmington in present-day Pender County, North Carolina on February 27, 1776. The victory of North Carolina Revolutionary forces over Southern Loyalists helped build political support for the revolution and increased recruitment of additional soldiers into their forces.
  • america declares independence

    america declares independence
    By issuing the Declaration of Independence, adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, the 13 American colonies severed their political connections to Great Britain. The Declaration summarized the colonists' motivations for seeking independence.
  • washington crosses the delaware

    washington crosses the delaware
    George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26. Planned in partial secrecy, Washington led a column of Continental Army troops across the icy Delaware River in a logistically challenging and dangerous operation.
  • Period: to

    french revolution

    a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
  • national assembly

    national assembly
    During the French Revolution, the National Assembly, which existed from June 13, 1789 to July 9, 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter it was known as the National Constituent Assembly, though popularly the shorter form persisted.
  • legislative assembly

    legislative assembly
    The Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
  • national convention

    national convention
    The National Convention was the second government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether.
  • thermidor

    thermidor
    the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.
  • cotton gin

    cotton gin
    A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are then processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used largely for textiles like clothing. Seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil.
  • directory

    directory
    group of five men who held the executive power in France according to the constitution of the year III of the French Revolution. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen by lot, was to be replaced.
  • italian campaign

    italian campaign
    The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.
  • Period: to

    Napoleonic era

    The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory.
  • treaty of tilsit

    treaty of tilsit
    The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River.
  • russian campaign

    russian campaign
    The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 and in France as the Russian Campaign, began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
  • german campaign

    german campaign
    The German Campaign was fought in 1813. Members of the Sixth Coalition fought a series of battles in Germany against the French Emperor Napoleon and his Marshals, which liberated the German states from the domination of the First French Empire.
  • napoleons death

    napoleons death
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815.
  • telegraph

    telegraph
    Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.
  • sewing machine

    sewing machine
    Contrary to popular belief, Howe was not the first to conceive of the idea of a sewing machine. Many other people had formulated the idea of such a machine before him, one as early as 1790, and some had even patented their designs and produced working machines, in one case at least 80 of them.