Official Power and Countervailing Powers

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Official Power and Countrevailing Powers

  • Nov 24, 1500

    Iroquois and Algonkians

    Iroquois and Algonkians
    Iroquois:
    • Society was a Matriarchy; leadership and decision making was the responsibility of women Algonkians:
    • Society was a Patriarchy; Father played vital leadership role.
  • Relation between Amerindians and State

    Relation between Amerindians and State
    • Created military alliances in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade
    • French – Algonquian and Hurons. Fought against the Iroquois over control of the fur trade territory but they lost. French fought against Iroquois take over until about 1703
    • English – Iroquois. Allies with the British and fought against the French for control over the fur trade. Almost wiped out the Hurons.
    • The coureurs des bois are formed, they are French settlers who travel deep into the fores
  • Relation between Church and state

    Relation between Church and state
    -The Church was implicated in political decisions because of its role in the Sovereign Council (Bishop)
    -The Church was everywhere:
    Priests in charge of parishes (cure)
    Priests working as missionaries
    Nuns working in hospitals
    Nuns in charge of education
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    • The King and the Minister of Marine would remain in France as the Sovereign Council ran New France directly. The council was made up of the following members:
    1)Governor-highest rank, commander of army, defense, dealt with external affairs (English colonies, Natives)
    2)Intendant-most influential, chief administrator, controlled budget, collecting taxes, justice, seigniorial system, built roads, set up industries
    3)Bishop-appointed by the Pope,administered over Parish Priest
  • Great Peace of Montreal

    Great Peace of Montreal
    •The Great Peace of Montreal was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America.
    •The French, allied to the Hurons and the Algonquians, providing16 years of peaceful relations and trade before the war started again.
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    -A major conflict ended in N.F. with the fall of Quebec.
    -The French troops waited out the winter in Montreal, and then in September a document was signed giving the terms under which the French would surrender.
    1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
    2. The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave.
    3. The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
    4. The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    -Marks the end of the 7 years war ends in Europe agaisnt Britain in France.
    -All the Territory known as New France is now given to the King of England except two small Islands, (St.Pierre, Miquelon)
    -A constitution was put in place to control these French British subjects and try and change them to be more British
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    1- It gives the King’s new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
    2- It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.
    3- Put in place a civilian Government to run the new

    Colony:
    4- English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
    5- Unused land would be divided by the Township System
    6-No new Bishop would be allowed
    7-No Roman Catholics could hold public office (Test Act)
  • First Governors

    First Governors
    -James Murray found the Royal Proclamation unworkable, only 1% of the population of Quebec was Eng/Protestant. To make the rest of the French Roman Catholics content, he bent the rules.
    -The English Merchants were strongly apposed to the Governor’s policies and demanded a new Governor from the King. They got Guy Carleton who would kept the same tolerant polices of Murray.
    -Carleton wanted their loyalty because the Americans were beggining their fight for independance
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    -Guarantees French Canadian loyalty
    -Enlarges the area of Quebec
    -Denied an elected assembly
    -Appointed council
    -French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system was back
    -Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office -these rules made the Americans mad
  • Loyalists

    Loyalists
    -36,000 loyalists came to Canada and 6,000 loyalists came to Quebec
    The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase (1% 10%)
    -Settled according to the Township system.
    -Gave their settlements English names.
    -Were used to English civil laws.
    -Were used to having elected assemblies.
    -Started writing petitions to London for change.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    -The Province of Quebec was split in two pieces called Upper Canada and Lower Canada
    -Lower Canada-was almost entirely French while Upper Canada-was entirely English because of the Loyalists
    -In Lower Canada, the French kept their religion, civil laws, and people could work in the admin.
    -In Upper Canada, the Protestants, would use the township system, English Civil laws.
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    -Governor-appointed by parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, called assemblies into session, held veto power
    -Lieutenant Governor-Acted as deputy governor
    -Executive Council-appointed by Governor, advised Governor
    -Legislative Council-appointed, approve or reject laws form the assembly
    -Legislative Assembly-people elected every 4yrs, It had the power to approve or disapprove taxes, they had the right to create laws.
    -people were able to vote for the first time
  • Rebellions

    Rebellions
    -The leader of the Patriotes, Louis Joseph Papineau, wrote 92 Resolutions. Their main demand was for Responsible -Government and for the government made up by the people would be responsible for its decisions.
    -This document was sent to the British Government to be looked at but it was rejected and Lord John Russell responded with the 10 Resolutions (solutions which didn’t solve any of the Patriotes demands)
    -This response was taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Upper and Lower
  • Power of Church

    Power of Church
    -The bishops became more and more powerful, the cures became the most important person in the parish.
    -Church was still in charge of registering births, marriages, deaths, controlling education, orphanages, shelters, charities, and religious festivals
    -Roman Catholic Church attendance was very high
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
  • Responsible government

    Responsible government
    -The people would now elect the Legislative Assembly
    -The Prime minister would form the Cabinet (Executive Council) who would propose laws that had to be approved through the assembly.
    -The Governor and the Legislative council were still appointed but did not intervene even though pressured to do so (Made of english merchants)
  • Creation of the dominion of Canada

    Creation of the dominion of Canada
    1)Charlottetown Conference: discussed the idea of confederation and it was agreed upon
    2)Quebec Conference: discussed the resolution if merged
    -federal election
    -rep by pop
    -build a railway
    2)London Conference: the dominion of Canada is created with the four provinces: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
    -the other provinces would join between 1870 and 1949
  • unions and state

    unions and state
    -Unions made demands regarding health, safety and laws
    -1872:First strikes and partial legalization of unions
    -1937:Anti-Labour Laws: Padlock Law, right to strike, use of police against the strikers.
    -1944: Adoption of the Labour Relations Act
    -1964: Labour Code recognizes the right to strike to all workers..
    -1972: Strike of united front.
  • feminist movement and state

    feminist movement and state
    -New laws and foundations were created to grant women with more rights and equality
    -1893:Foundation of the National Council of Women
    -1961: electing the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec
    -1964:ended the legal incapacity of married women.
    -1965: Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec (revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality of men and women
    -1996: law on pay equity is adopted.
  • Maurice Duplessis

    Maurice Duplessis
    -had tradition values and believed that the State shouldn't intervene
    -idealized the church and the rural life
    -defended provincial autonomy while the premier of Quebec
    -adopted the Quebec flag, income tax and federal allowance
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    Also known as La Révolution Tranquille, began in Quebec in 1960 with the electoral defeat of Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party.
    -A rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec from the early to the late 1960s
    -Moved away form rural labour, more intellectuals and university trained specialists
  • Quebec Nationalsim

    Quebec Nationalsim
    -1961-Office de la langue francaise was created to promote the French language.
    -Official language act, Bill 22 (French Official language)
    -Bill 101 – French language is the priority
    -Only French signs were allowed in public spaces
    -Only children with English speaking parents educated in Quebec could go to English schools
  • Native Issues

    Native Issues
    -In the summer of 1990 Mohawk warriors established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal, when a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes onto native land. The natives militarily organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation.
    -The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.
    -Native peoples submitted to the Indian Act since 1876 where native resesrves were established