Official Power and Countervailing Power

  • Dec 13, 1500


    The Iroquois lives in a society that was Matriarchy where the leardership and decision was made the responsibility of women. Algonquians was a patriarchy society where the father played vital leadership role.
  • Period: Dec 14, 1500 to

    First Occupants

  • Period: to

    French Regime

  • Power relations between Amerindians and colonial administators

    Power relations between Amerindians and colonial administators
    Alliances were formed in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade. The French and Hurons were aligned and fought against the Iroquois over control of the fur trade territory and lost. The English and Iroquois were aligned and fought against the French.
  • Power relations between the Church and the State

    Power relations between the Church and the State
    The Church was involved in political decisions because of its role in the Souvereign Council. The King then assumes power based on the principal of Divine Right of kings. The monopoly of fur was thenreplaced by the Minister of Marine. The Royal Government was then implemened in 1663.
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    The King and the Minister of Marine remained in France while the Souvereign council ran New France. There was a Governor who was the commander of army, defene and dealt with external affairs. The intendant was the chief of administartor, controlled budget, collected taxes, justice, seigniorial system, built roads and set up industries. The bishop was appointed by the Pope and administered over parish, hospitals, schools and charities. The Captain of Militia dealt with issues on seigneuries.
  • Power Relations between the Colony and the Mother Country

    Power Relations between the Colony and the Mother Country
    There was an absolute monarchy in New France where the the king named administators of the colony and was able to reverse an decisions they made. Habitants in New France had a lot of work and became very self-dependent beause New France wasn't developping. In 1760 the autonomous settlers of New France became a distinct set of people called Canadien. They became independent because of the distance from France and the contact with the aboriginals.
  • Great Peace of Montreal

    Great Peace of Montreal
    This was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. This treaty was signed by Louis-Hector de Calliere and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations on August 4, 1701.
  • Period: to

    British Rule

  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    When the war between the French and the English was over the King of England told the head of the army, James Murray, that he would be in charge until the war in Europe ended. He then made the articlef of caputulation with his rues. His rules were that the French Militia would return home, French Regular military would ay down their arms and leave, thw people could no longer practice the R.C. religion, those who stayed would become British Subjects.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After the end of the 7 year war in Europe, Fance and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris which gave the territory of New France to Britain. New France only kept St-Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    1.The King gives the new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
    2. Decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.
    3. Put in place a civilian Government to run the new Colony.
    4. English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
    5. Unused land would be divided by the Township System
    6. No new Bishop would be allowed.
    7. No Roman Catholics would be able to hold public office.
  • James Murray's Changes

    James Murray's Changes
    Murray did not agree with the Royal Proclamation because the population of Quebec was only 1% englsih and 99% french. James Murray changed some rules to make the French content. He allowed a new bishop, chnaged the laws to French civil and English criminal.
  • Guy Carleton

    Guy Carleton
    The English Merchants were strongly oppsed to Murray's changes and demanded a new governer from the King. They then got Guy Carleton who kept the same rules as Murray. The reason he was tolerant of the French was because he wanted their loyalty because the Americans were beginning to demand their independance.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    The purpose of this constitution was to keep the Canadians loyal, while the Americans revolted.
    1. Enlarges the area of Quebec
    2. Denied an elected assembly
    3. Appointed council
    4. French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back
    5. Test Act Oath was replaced by the Test Oath of Allegiance
  • American Independance

    American Independance
    In the 13 colonies Britain wanted to place strict control over the taxes and trade. the Americans wanted Western Expnasion into the Ohio Valley and up until 1763 the Americans needed Britain to protect them from the French. Now that they didn't need Britain anymore they kept getting more and more upset and then finally after the Quebec Act they decided to declare their independance.
  • Loyalists

    The Loyalists moved north to the only British colony left in North America, which was Quebec. 36000 loyalists came to Canada and 6000 loyalists came to Quebec.
    - The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase of 1%--> 10%
    - They settled according to the Township system.
    - They gave their settlements English names.
    - The Loyalists were used to English civil laws.
    - They were used to having elected assemblies.
    - They started writing petitions to London for change.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    Th Province of Quebec was split into two parts, Upper and Lower Canada. Lower Canada, was moslty French kept the Catholic religion and people could work in administration. Upper Canada was English and protastant. They kept their township system and had Enslish civil laws.
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    Governor is appointed by the parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, has veto power, calls assemblies into session. Lieutenant Governor acted as a deputy governor. Executive council is appointed by the Governor, advised by the Governor. Legislative council is appointed, approved or reject laws from the assembly. Legislative Assembly are the people elected every 4 years and could approve or disaprove taxes and could create laws. Ordinary people had a say in the government.
  • Faults in the Representative Government

    Faults in the Representative Government
    Legaslative Assembly had the power to make laws but whenever they tried to do so they were shut down becasue the Governor and his Council had veto power.
    The two sides had different interests:
    -The wealthy governors & council members thought about investing money in big business and tax property.
    -The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods, not property.
  • Power relations between the media and the state.

    Power relations between the media and the state.
    In the 19th century thencontrol of the newspapers was by political parties. In the 20th century dissemination of political views by the newspapers, dissemination of mass information through raio and television which influences on public opinion. Politicians used the media for their image and to promote their parties. It can be consdered the 4th power in media.
  • 92 Resolution

    92 Resolution
    The leader of the Patriotes was Louis Joseph Papineau and 1834 he wrote 92 resolutions their main demand was for Responsible Government. The government made up by the people would be responsible for its decisions. These resolutions were sent to London.
  • Influence and power of the Church

    Influence and power of the Church
    After 1837, the bishops became more and more powerful and the cures became the most important people in the parish. The Church was still in charge of many institutions. They controlled educaiton and there were orphanages, shelters, charities, religious festivals. The Roman Catholic Church attandance was very high. Ministers were still influential but weren't as powerful and the Church. There were Protestant Universities like McGill in 1821.
  • Russell's 10 Resolutions

    Russell's 10 Resolutions
    Lord John Russell resoonded with the 10 Resolutions (instead of solving problems, the gave more power to the councils). This response was taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada.
  • The Rebellions of 1837-1838

    The Rebellions of 1837-1838
    Upper Canada's Rebellion was lead by William Lyon Mackenzie and quickly put down. Lower Canada's Rebellion was led by Louis Joseph Papineau and after several battles St-Charles, St-Denis, St-Eustrache the rebellion was put down. The Patriotes are supported by the clergy but they don't have enough support outside Montreal and fail. They were poorly organized and equiped.
  • Lord Durham's Recommendations

    Lord Durham's Recommendations
    Britain should increase immigration in order to assimilate the French. The two Canada's should be united. The Repsonsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Creates the Prov. of Canada consisting of Canada East and West.
    Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly.
    Governor still had control and veto power.
    Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts.
  • Responsible Government

    Responsible Government
    The Responsible Government was adapted slowly. in 1842, the Prime Minister would select members of the executive council from the assembly. In 1848, the Governor Lord Elgin would be first to not use his veto powers and allow the Prime Minister to have executive powers. The governor is responsible and doesn't use his power of veto pver everything.
  • Politics in the 1860's

    Politics in the 1860's
    The political system became responsible but no one could agree pn who should be in charge (no party could win a majority government). The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary, meetings were needed to discuss such things. There was the Charlottetown Conference, the Quebec Conference and the London Conference.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    In September, 1864, the leaders of Canada East and Canada West met with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces and they left the meetings agreeing to consider a merger. They decided it was a good idea and decided to to try it.
  • The Quebec Conference

    The Quebec Conference
    In October, 1864, the same memebers of the last meeting agreed on 72 resolutions to make the merger possible. The conferences went well but some weren't so accepting of what their politicians were moving towards. Therefore Newfoundland, PEI and Dorion's Parti Rouge withdrew. The Confederation passed narowly.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Period

  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    The leaders of four colonies met to make arrangements to release from the British Empire to become a "self-gorverning" colony. This is the Dominion of Canada. With it's capitial of Ottawa was created under the British North American Act. Passed on March 29, came into existence on July 1st 1867. Containing 4 Provinces (Ontatio, Quebec, New Brunswick, Noca Scotia). The other provinces would join between 1870 and 1949
  • Sections 91-92

    Sections 91-92
    The Federal Government had certain responsibilities as did the Provinces. These are listed in Sections 91-92. Section 91 which is federal had responsibilities such as defense and banking. Section 92 which was provincial responsibilities were municipal and hospitals. Immigration and agriculture were shared responsibilities.
  • Power relations between union movements and the state

    Power relations between union movements and the state
    There was the beginning of strikes and partial legalization of unions in 1872. In 1880 there was implantaion of American unions. From 1886 to 1889 there was the Royal Commission on the relations between capital and labour. The C.S.S.T was a union demands regarding the health and safety and laws for protection of children, union struggle to ensure a minimum salary wokers, woman and elders. There were also Anti-Labour laws.
  • Indian Act

    Indian Act
    A new law was created for the Amerindians. Their claims relatied to the exploitation of natural resources.
  • The National Policy

    The National Policy
    The Federal Government needed to unify these different provinces. Times were though (recession). Macdonald formed a plan to promote national unity. The three main points of it were increasing customs dutities, build railways and encourage immigration.
  • The Northwest Rebellions

    The Northwest Rebellions
    Macdonald took many provincial powers and created many political enemies because he wanted a lot of power. Some provinces wanted out of the Dominion. Canada's governemnt wanted to expand to the west by makingthe Transcanada railwaybut the metis were living there so the metis got very upset and Louis RIel decided to rebel (both unsuccessful). Afterwards, Macdonald executed Riel because he was a rebel.
  • Power Relations between femenist movements and the state

    Power Relations between femenist movements and the state
    Foundation of the National Council of Woman in 1893. In 1961, the first woman of the Legeslative Assembly was elected. In 1964, was the end of the legal incapacity of married woman. In 1965, there was the Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec. In 1996, there was a law on pay equity.
  • Power relations between movements for social justice and the state

    Power relations between movements for social justice and the state
    Early 20th century, associated with communism, union movements and feminism. In 1930, the depression brought the creation of many charity groups and aid organizations. The pressure they exerted on the gorvernment contributes to adoption of laws and different measures intended to preotect the average citizen.
  • World War One

    World War One
    The war lasted between 1914-1918. Forced tofight because Britan joined the war. Conscription crisis which forced people to join the war. French didn't want to fight in the war. Woman's rights improved because they took the men's place in the work force. The economy improved because they built stuff for the war. The population increased when men came back from war. Britan rewarded Canada for participating with the Statue of Westminister.
  • World War Two

    World War Two
    World War Two was between 1939-1945. This war brought Canada out of depression. Canada volunteered to join and was not forced by Britan. Woman were involved (Woman's movement). There was another conscription crisis for the French. There was post war prosperity and Europe rebuilt it's economy. There was a natural increase in population and immigration and there were baby-boomers.
  • Role of the Church

    Role of the Church
    The Church continued to control the education, hospitals, orphanages and welfare services. It was also influential in governement, unions and the caisses populaires. The Church continued to promote large families, rural life and Christian values.
  • Role of State

    Role of State
    The governement led by Maurice Duplessis continued to believe that the state should not interviene in either the cocial or economic sectors. Its role was basically a supporting one which consisted of offering subsidies to the Church and favourable conditions for investment.
  • Maurice Duplessis

    Maurice Duplessis
    He believed that the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values such as famiy life, gratifying work and religious beliefs. Agriculture was and should continue to be at the heart of Quebec's economy in order to avoid urbanization and associated problems such as unemployment. Two groupd were then formed in order to go against Maurice Duplessis.
  • Union Leaders

    Union Leaders
    They accuse Duplessis of opposing social progress. As well of serving American interests rather that the interts of Quebec workers. Throughout this period there were numerous stikes in Quebec. During Asbestos strike of 1949 even church officials such as Bishop Charbonneau supported the strikers.
  • Intellectuals and Journalists

    Intellectuals and Journalists
    Pierre Elliott Trudeau and Rene Levesque opposed the Duplessis governement and attacked the conservative nature of Quebec society in newspapers and magazines. Duplessis dounded the Union Nationale party and was premier two times. During these periods, Duplessis defended provincial autonomy over federal initiatives in provincial jurisdictions.
  • The Quiet Revolution

    The Quiet Revolution
    The Quiet Revolution began in 1960 with the electoral defeat of the Union Naitonal by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. It can be ebst described as a rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic and political reform in Quebec from early to the late 1960s. There was an increase in governemnt intervention. Such as modernize Quebec's educaitonal system, weaken the incluence of the Church and Hydro-Quebec became governement owned.
  • Power relations between financial circles and the state: Reciprocal influence

    Power relations between financial circles and the state: Reciprocal influence
    Involvement of businessmen in politics facilitates access to grants, laws and regulations in favour of companies and banks. The practice of funding of political parties by businessmen causes scandals and a denunciation of patronage. From 1960, the state takes control of certain sectors of the economy, subsidizes Quebec companies and recognizes the rights of employees.
  • Power relations between nationalist movements and the state

    Power relations between nationalist movements and the state
    Those living in Quebec feel proud due to past achievements therefore there were nationalists movements that were developed. These groups were formed in order to advocate independence. Terrorists organizations were also formed such as the F.L.Q. which targeted military establishments in the Montreal area. The main goal was to attain independence for Quebec. In 1967, the General de Gaulle of France came to Montreal and sated “Vive le Quebec libre” which caused Quebecers to go into an uproar.
  • Power relations between environmentalist groups and the state.

    Power relations between environmentalist groups and the state.
    Since 1970, pressure from enronmental groups and their impact on the population via media influences public policy. In 1970 there was the creation of the Ministry of Environment Quebec. In 2002 there was the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Canada. There was the Greenpeace, the Green Party and l'Action Boreal.
  • James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement

    James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement
    James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement grants more political powers to the Cree and Inuit. The repatriation of the Constitution formally recongnizes certain aboriginal rights without ending their claims. The Peace of the Brave recongnizes their rights on their territory in exchange for financial compensation for the exploitation of natural resources.
  • Power Relations between linguistic groups and the state

    Power Relations between linguistic groups and the state
    Since 1867 there was the Dominance of English in business, politics and protection of the English minority in Quebec in the constitution. Religious and linguistic character of the education system: since the 1970s, disagreement between immigrants and the French-speaking Quebecers about the place of the French in education. In 1974, there was the Bill 22 proclaimed French the only official language in Qubec. In 1977, the law 101 gave the French language priority.
  • Oka Crisis

    Oka Crisis
    In the summer of 1990 Mowhawk warriors established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal, when a golf course wanted to expand onto native land. The natives military organized themsleves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation. The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand off finally came to an end without armed conflict, however issues remained. To resolve the situation the Charlottetown accrord was created.