Haity IndepenceFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took over a slave revolt in
the French side of the island of Hispaniola and drove it between 1793 and 1802.
He confronted the Spanish, the English and the French, until his capture, exile and death in
France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French in 1804 and declared Haiti's independence. It was therefore the
second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
Independence of South AmericaWhen Ferdinand VII
to the throne in 1814,
patriotic military campaigns
survived in Venezuela, Simón Bolívar-Miembro
of the Caraqueña boards of
1811- was appointed new military
leader, and in 1813 he liberated Merida and Caracas in the
The admirable campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator "To quell the independence movement, Fernando
VII ordered the organization of the so-called "Peacekeeping Expedition" which
under the command of Marshal Pablo Morillo, sailed from Cadiz in
Argentina,Parguay and UruguayThe Republic of Paraguay
In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose up against the Spanish authorities in
Montevideo, Uruguay, fed up with its disillusionment with the centralism of Buenos Aires, wanted to establish itself as an independent entity. Another federalist initiative was led by
General José de San Martín, who promoted the Congress of Tucumán, which
founded the United Provinces of South America
Indepence of ChileSaint Martin spent years
making guns, bullets and all
types of equipment and organization
The crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although he suffered a serious
defeat in Cancha Rayada triumphed in the decisive battle ensuring the independence of Chile.
New Granada and VenezuelaMorillo soon regained control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war.
he confronted and defeated Morillo. Morillo
He counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the Aragua Valley.
crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists at the battle of the Pantano de Vargas which sealed the independence of New Granada the royalist army was defeated at the Battle of Carabobo, the
the final victory of the independence of Venezuela
Central AmericaGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos and Costa Rica) declared their independence
of the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) Guatemala and its provinces
formed an independent, federal state under the name of United
Central American Provinces, being their capital city of Guatemala. The local oligarchies promoted the separation. This led to a civil war (1838-
1840), in which Guatemala could not prevail.
Independece of EcuadorThe
the arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and his triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of Great Colombia.Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphantly in Quito (16-06-1822), the president of Peru, General José de San Martín, to discuss the strategy for
to end the war against the realists.
Mexican IndependenceThe priest Miguel Idalgo was placed as a leader, he gave the cry of independence in the town Dolores, after being executed took his place the priest Jose Maria Morelejos, achieving a liberal and agrarian state, but who really proclaimed independence were a group of Creoles in 1821 but it was until 1833 that the Spanish considered them independent.
The Case of Puerto RicoThe cry of Lares, of independence against
Spain, it happened. The rebellion was crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between the U.S. and
Spain. After the defeat of the latter, the island of Puerto Rico becomes
administered by the U.S. and is currently a U.S. commonwealth
country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, John VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
He later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as a territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro
became the seat of an absolute monarchy, as well as those of Europe, plus a colony.in 1831 he abdicated and was
succeeded by his son, Peter II, who reigned until 1889 when the first
republic was proclaimed.
Indepence of CubaJose Marti organized with old leaders and created an army to land in Cuba, Jose Marti died in a war but his army continued to fight; the United States does not want
lose the possibility of taking over the largest island in the Antilles and, in
1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana,
to declare war on Spain. The Spanish concentrated more on their other war so Cuba became independent in 1899 but later the United States arrived.