Global 2 (3º)

Timeline created by JustACommonGuy
In History
  • 1250

    Carta Magna

    It was a document that limited the monarch's power against the Parliament
  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    This meant that the Ottomans could spread through East Europe (Balkans), threatening Austrian territories, and the pirates (saracens and berbers) could attack more ships and coasts in the Mediterranean.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    Reign of Carlos I/V

    It started as a monarchy in Spain (1516). He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1520. He inherited a large empire from his 4 grandparents.
    His main aspiration was to create a Universal Christian Empire. There was not a real political unity, the only thing in common between his territories was him.
    He abdicated in 1556, dividing his empire between his son Felipe (Spain and Burgundy) and his brother Fernando (Austrian territories and right to imperial title).
  • 1520

    Revolt of the Comuneros

    The Castilian nobilty and bougeoisie was unhappy with Carlos: he was foreigner (didn't know any Spanish), he was using Castilla's money to make sure he was elected Holy Roman Emperor and he chose flemish noblemen for the important positions.
    The comuneros (inhabitants of the cities) decided to rebel.
  • 1521

    Battle of Villalar

    Carlos changed his policiy towards the appointments (to benefit Castilian nobility), so sides changed.
    The comuneros were defeated in this battle. The leaders (Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado) were executed.
  • Period: 1521 to 1523

    Revolt of the Brotherhoods (Germanías)

    In Mallorca and Valencia, the nobility oppresed the lower classes, so they rebelled. The bobility and the monarch collaborated to crush the rebels.
  • 1525

    Battle of Pavia

    Francis I feared to be surrounded by Carlos, so he tried to become Holy Roman Emperor to counter his power. France was also traditionally hostile to Aragón (competed for the control in the Mediterranean and Italy) Burgundy and Austria.
    Francis was taken taken prisoner in this battle, that took place in the Duchy of Milan, which was conquered by Carlos.
    This victory did not end French hostilities, Lower Navarra fell into French hands.
  • 1526

    The king of Bohemia and Hungary dies

    He died in battle against the Ottomans. His crown passed to Carlos.
  • 1527

    Sack of Rome

    The pope feared to be surrounded by Carlos and become the head of Christendom.
    Clement VII allied with France, but he was defeated.
  • 1529

    Siege of Vienna

    They tried to capture Vienna, but the imperial forces repelled the Ottomans.
    Carlos also recovered Tunis, but failed to stop the pirates' activity.
  • 1547

    Battle of Mühlberg

    The Lutheran Reformation took place in the Holy Roman Empire and the protestant princes rebelled against Carlos.
    He defeated the princes in this battle, but this did not stop the protestants.
  • 1555

    Peace of Ausburg

    Carlos was forced to sign this treaty. It establishes that each state would follow the religion of its prince (cuis regio, euius religio)
  • Period: 1556 to

    Reign of Felipe II

    He inherited Spain and Burgundy from his father. He completed the monarchical government based on a system of councils.
    He was involved in constant international conflicts. He was able to main his international policy thanks to his royal armies, funded with the money that Castilla contributed. However, his funds were getting exhausted, which led to severe ecomnomic problems (Royal Treasury went bankrupt several times).
  • 1557

    Battle of Saint Quintin

    France invaded the Spanish naples and Felipe responded by sending imperial troops form the Netherlands.
    France was defeated in this battle, and the Spanish dominace was recognised.
  • 1561

    Madrid is now Spain's capital

    Because Castilla made the greatest financial contribution.
    He also built El Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial as the government seat.
  • Period: 1561 to

    Francis Bacon

    Philosopher that represented the school of Empiricism, which was based on experience. He had a political career serving James I, so he was rich enough to devote himself to study.
  • Period: 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Astronomer that confirmed Copernicus' heliocentrism. However, he was brought before the Inquisition, forced to recant, and sentenced to house arrest.
  • 1566

    William of Orange starts a rebellion

    It was a long conflict caused by the arrival of Calvinsm, and economic problems.
    Felipe II decided to send tercios to supress the flemish rebels.
  • 1568

    The moriscos revolt in Granada

    It was caused by the prohibition of some of their customs. They were also suffering repression because they were suspected of conspiring with Ottoman pirates.
  • Period: 1568 to

    Eighty Years' War

    The Dutch Republic fought for its independence against Spain. The Twelve Years Truce was a watershed. The war ended with the independence of the Dutch in the Peace of Westphalia.
  • 1570

    War of Alpujarras

    The rebels were defeated by the royal army and all moriscos (even those who had not revolted) were expelled from Granada to other parts of the Crown of Castilla.
  • 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    The Holy League was formed of Spain, the Pope, Venice, among others. Because of the constant theat in the Mediterranean, the Holy League assembled a fleet that defeated the Ottomans.
  • Period: 1571 to

    Johannes Kepler

    Demonstrated that the orbit of celestial bodies was elliptical, not circular.
  • 1578

    Sebastian I of Portugal dies

    He died without a heir, so Felipe (a relative) claimed his throne, but Antonio of Portugal (grandson of Manuel I) also claimed it.
    The first was supported by the nobility and the merchant classes, the second was supported by the working classes and the cities.
    Felipe invaded Portugal and defeated Antonio.
  • Period: 1578 to

    William Harvey

    Medic that explained how the general circulatory system (started by Servet) works.
  • 1580

    Felipe is now the king of Portugal

    He was recognised by the portuguese courts in Tomar. Portugal kept its institutions and laws.
  • 1581

    The Dutch Republic is formed

    After the Union of Utretch, a treaty signed between the rebel states of Flanders.
  • Spanish Armada

    England was a Protestant kingdom, it competed for control in the Atlantic ocean and the American territories and supported the pirates that attacked Spanish ships.
    Because of this, Felipe tried to invade England with a large fleet. His "invincible" armada was destroyed by English ships and storms.
  • Period: to

    Alteraciones de Aragón

    It was caused by a long standing social conflict (discontent with the monarch because some of his action broke the kingdom's laws and activities such as banditry).
  • Period: to

    René Descartes

    Philosopher that represented the school of Rationalism, which was based on the methodic doubt (analysing and eliminating "truths" to fins an idea in which no doubt can be raised). He doubted everything (reliability of the senses, distinguish sleep/awareness), except one thing: he thought, so he existed.
    The Catholic Church saw him as a threat to Catholicim, so he was force to leave France.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Felipe III

    He inherited an exhausted, impoverished and indebted kingdom after the long wars of his father.
    He started a new form of government, naming a valido (Count of Lerma), an all-powerful minister, to take the matters in his stead.
    Lerma decided to sign peaces with England and the Dutch to give Spain a break.
    However, Lerma expulsed all the moriscos. The economic consecuences were devastating.
  • Period: to

    Twelve Year Truce

    It was the watershed in the 80 Years' War. With its end, Spain joined the catholics and the Dutch Republic joined the protestants in the 30 Years' War.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    It was a continuation (and the last) of the religious conflicts.
    It was started whith the defenestration of Prague: the Protestant leaders of Bohemia threw the Catholic representatives of the Emperor out of the window. The Emperor decided to attack the rebels.
    The war was divided into 2 phases. The was ended with the Peace of Westphalia.
  • Period: to

    First phase of the 30 Years' War

    It was a confrontation between the Catholics and the Protestants.
    Sweden and Denmark joined the Protestants
  • Battle of White Mountain

    The Catholics won the first decisive battle in the 30 Years' War.
  • Novum Organum

    Work by Francis Bacon that criticised prejudices and favoured the logic of scientific-technical.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Felipe IV

    He tried to restore the glory of the Austrias mayores.
    For that, he and his valido Count-Duke of Olivaries involved Spain in the 30 Years' War.
  • Unión de Armas

    Olivaries tried to get more soldiers and taxes from Aragón and Portugal. He tried to impose the authority that it was imposed in Castilla. This caused revolts.
  • Period: to

    Robert Boyle

    Chemist that made the main discoveries in the 17th century
  • Period: to

    Second phase of the 30 Years' War

    It was a fight for the control of Europe.
    The Dutch Republic fought for its independence, France (main european power) joined the enemies of Spain.
  • Battle in Corbie

    Spain won the first important battle in the second phase of the 30 Years' War.
  • Discourse on the Method

    Work by René Descartes that defended free science and investigation, opposed to the medieval Christian thinking (still taught in universities).
  • Battle in Downs

    The exhausted Spain lost this battle
  • Independence of Catalonia

    Aragón reluctantly accepted the petitions of the monarch. But in Catalonia, a full revolt took place (Corpus de Sangre).
    After a brief republic, they started to be controlled by France. It was recovered after the 30 Years' War. France kept Rosellon after the Peace of Pyrenees.
  • Period: to

    Portugal declares independence

    The nobility chose another candidate for the throne. They achieved the independence in 1668
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    Chatles I tried to impose absolutism. The Parliament rebelled against him.
    The army was les by Oliver Cromwell and Charles was beheaded and defeated. Cromwell started a republic (Commonwealth).
  • Period: to

    Isaac Newton

    Greatest phycisist in the 17th century. He discovered a universal law (worked everywhere, for everything). He explained that the attraction is related to mass.
    He was the precursor in the nature of light and color and the physics of optics.
    His book Mathematica Principia started a brach of mathematics and calculus.
    The 3 Laws of Newton were discoveries related to movement.
  • Battle in Rocroi

    The exhausted Spain lost this battle
  • Period: to

    Reign of Louis XIV

    He was an absolutist monarch (this enabled France to become the main european power in the end of the century) after years of resistance from nobles and Parliament (La Fronde).
    He was called as the "Sun king"
  • Peace of Westphalia

    It was signed to end the 30 Years' War.
    The Dutch Republic gained its independence. It enabled religious freedom in the Holy Roman Empire.
    It started the idea of diplomatic conferences to solve international conflicts, based on the balance of power.
    Spain lost territories and France gained territories.
  • Period: to

    Edmund Halley

    Astronomer that studied the movement of celestial bodies. He discovered the Halley's comet.
  • Peace of Pyrenees

    Spain and France ended their hostilities in this treaty, in which France confirmed its superiority by claiming territories in the Netherlands and the border with Catalonia.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Carlos II

    He was crowned at the age of 4, so Mariana de Austria and a series of validos reigned the first years. During his reign, the decadence of Spain continued, but some ecomic recover took place.
    He was thought to have many physical and mental issues (The Bewitched). He was probably sterile, so european powers tried to impose candidates for the throne.
  • Period: to

    War of Devolution

    War between Spain and France. It ended in french victory.
  • Period: to

    Was of the Reunions

    War between Spain and Frence. It ended in french victory
  • Glorious Revolution

    After Cromwell's death, James II tried to hold absolute power, and the Parliament rebelled again.
    This led to the parliamentary victory, overthrowing James.
  • Period: to

    Nine Years' War

    War between France and Spain. It ended in the peace of Ryswick.
  • Bill of Rights

    It is a document signed by the monarch when he was elected by the Parliament. It was first signed by William III of Orange.
    It limited the power of the monarch and recognised the rights of the individual.
  • Period: to

    Was of Spanish Succession

    Carlos died without an heir, choosing Philip de Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV (the other candidate was Charles of Austria, son of Leopold I). However, some european powers feared the union of France and Spain, so the war began.