Felipe II

  • May 21, 1527

    Birth date

    Birth date
    Son of Charles V and Isabel from Portugal.
  • 1529

    Ruler of the kingdom

    The court attorneys met in the San Jerónimo convent in Madrid where they recognized the boy as regent of the kingdom.
  • 1529

    Felipe is named heir to the crown of Castile

    This was named in the Madrid convent of San Jerónimo.
  • May 1, 1539

    Death of Isabel from Portugal

  • 1545

    First marriage

    First marriage
    He married his first cousin, the Infanta María Manuela of Portugal, for the first time. They had a son, Carlos of Austria, the future prince of Asturias.
  • 1554

    Second marriage

    Second marriage
    Second marriage to Mary Tudor, Queen of England. In order to marry her he was given the crown of Naples.
  • 1554

    Charles V transfers the Crown of Naples and the Duchy of Milan

    In this year Felipe II received these titles from his father.
  • 1556

    Rises to the throne

    Felipe II inherited a huge empire: all the territories of his father, except Austria. He did not inherit the dignity of Emperor, so he was able to concentrate on governing according to the interests of the Hispanic monarchy.
  • Period: 1556 to


    He was king of Spain, Naples and Sicily, Portugal and England
    His reign was characterized by global exploration and territorial expansion across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, leading the Hispanic Monarchy to be the first power in Europe and the Spanish Empire reaching its apogee, making it the first world empire.
  • 1557

    battle of San Quentin

    battle of San Quentin
    The wars against France continued, until the final victory of the thirds in the battle of San Quentin and Gravelinas. In 1559 the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis was signed and Philip married Isabel de Valois, daughter of the King of France.
  • 1557

    First actual bankruptcy

    After wars debts were stored so the Royal Treasury could not pay them and there were bankruptcies.
  • 1558

    Protestant circles in Seville

    Repression of the Protestant circles in Seville and Valladolid until 1561. Carlos I. dies.
  • Sep 21, 1558

    Death of Charles V

    He died of malaria, after a month of agony and fever (to which was added gout, a disease he also suffered acutely), caused by the bite of a mosquito from the stagnant waters of one of the ponds.
  • 1559

    Third marriage

    Third marriage
    His third marriage was to Isabel de Valois. They had five daughters, but 3 of them did not survive. Those who survived were Isabel Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela.
  • 1559


    During his reign, Felipe II had to face numerous external conflicts: Spain fought with France for control of Naples and the Milanese; and due to the high economic cost of these struggles, they agreed to peace at Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559.
  • 1561

    Madrid, capital of the kingdom

    Felipe was a bureaucratic king, who was personally in charge of government work from Madrid, a city that he chose as the capital of his dominions. He was an authoritarian monarch who managed to increase royal power and centralization. He made decisions without hardly convening Cortes, aided by officials.
    He created new councils: State, War, Finance ,. The corregidores were representatives of the king who controlled the municipalities.
  • Period: 1562 to

    Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio

    He was one of the most important poets and playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age and, due to the extent of his work, one of the most prolific authors of world literature.
    The so-called Fénix de los ingenios, Poeta del cielo y de la tierra, and Monstruo de la Naturaleza (by Miguel de Cervantes) renewed the formulas of Spanish theater at a time when theater was beginning to be a mass cultural phenomenon.
  • Period: 1563 to

    The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial

    It is a complex that includes a royal palace, a basilica, a pantheon, a library and a monastery. It is located in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, in the Community of Madrid, Spain. It was devised in the second half of the 16th century by King Felipe II and was considered, since the late 16th century, the Eighth Wonder of the World, both for its size and functional complexity and for its enormous symbolic value.
  • 1565

    hostility with the Ottomans

    In 1565, despite the victory over the Berbers in Malta, hostility with the Ottomans continued.
  • 1566

    Protestant rebellion in the Netherlands

    The Protestant rebellion against the defense of Catholicism by the monarchy of Philip II began in the Netherlands, initiating a political and religious problem for the Spanish monarchy that would last for eighty years.
  • 1567

    Philip II's punishment of the rioters

    The insurrectional outbreak in the Netherlands led to the dispatch of the army of Felipe II, commanded by the Duke of Alba, who was the man of greatest trust and obedience to King Carlos I and his son and successor, Felipe.
    Considered by historians as the best general of his time and one of the best in history.
  • 1568

    flanders rebellion

    The rebellion against the king begins in the Netherlands, led by William of Orange. The population's discontent with taxes, intolerance against Protestants, and repression by the Duke of Alba encouraged nationalist sentiment. The war lasted 80 years.
  • 1568

    Execution of the counts

    On June 5, 1568, the Earls of Horn and Egmont were executed by an executioner, as they were accused of the rebellion of the Netherlands.
  • Jan 1, 1568

    The War of the Alpujarras begins

    The War of the Alpujarras begins
    In 1567 the pragmatic sanction was issued by which the Moors could not continue using their language, clothes and customs. In the Granada Alpujarra, under the leadership of Abén Humeya, there was an uprising that was harshly repressed by Don Juan de Austria.
    The fight against Protestantism continued, prohibiting the importation of books and going abroad, to prevent their dissemination. The Inquisition also acted against the converts, imposing the concept of "cleansing of blood."
  • Period: 1568 to

    Eighty years war

    The Flanders War or Eighty Years War was a war that pitted the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against their sovereign, the King of Spain, in order to achieve independence. This war ended in 1648 and was carried out because the Netherlands did not agree that a king they considered foreign and authoritarian should be their king. Some of the information comes from
  • 1570

    Fourth marriage

    Fourth marriage
    He married his niece Archduchess Anne of Austria for the fourth time. They had four sons and a daughter. Fernando, prince of Asturias, although he died at the age of six. Carlos Lorenzo who died at two years of age. Diego Félix who died at the age of seven but was the heir to Asturias. Felipe III, the only one who managed to reach adulthood. He was the heir to almost all titles. Maria, the only girl who also died at the age of three.
  • 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    The Ottoman Empire continued its expansion throughout the Mediterranean, and to stop it, the Papacy, Venice and Spain created the Holy League. His fleet, under the command of Don Juan of Austria, defeated the Turks in this battle.
  • 1575

    Second actual bankruptcy

    After wars, instead of profits, they accumulated such large debts that not even the Royal Treasury could pay them.
  • 1576

    Sack of Antwerp

    Sack of Antwerp
    The sack of Antwerp, known as the Spanish Fury in the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom, was an uprising by Spanish mercenaries loyal to the Crown.
  • 1578

    Philip III

    Philip III, future king of Spain and Portugal, is born, son of Felipe II and his fourth wife, Ana de Austria.
    It is considered the first of the Minor Habsburgs, given the greatness of Felipe II and Carlos I, however during their reign Spain incorporated some territories in North Africa and Italy and reached levels of cultural splendor.
  • 1578

    Juan Escobedo dies

    Juan de Escobedo, secretary and confidant of the King's half-brother, Don Juan de Austria, dies after an unexpected attack.
  • 1580

    Annexation of Portugal

    From 1580 the Kingdom of Portugal became part of the Spanish Monarchy.
  • 1581

    Claim of inheritance

    When the king of Portugal died without issue, Felipe II claimed the throne, since he was the son of Isabel of Portugal. He was given the throne and appeared before the Courts of Tomar
  • El greco

    El Greco paints The Burial of the Count of Orgaz.
  • The Spanish Armada.

    The Spanish Armada.
    Invincible Armada is a term of English origin to refer to the Great Armada led by Felipe II to dethrone Elizabeth I and invade England.
  • Revolt in Aragon

    In the result of some incidents in court. They sheltered Antonio Pérez, accused of murder, where he asked the Higher Justice for protection.
  • Antonio Pérez, secretary of Felipe II, flees to France.

    He was the secretary of the chamber and of the Council of State of the King of Spain Felipe II.
    Tried guilty on the charges of treason to the Crown and the murder of Juan de Escobedo, he used his Aragonese ancestry to avail himself of the protection of the Chief Justice of Aragon, and thus gain time and support to evade royal justice and be able to flee to France.
  • Third actual bankruptcy

    There were more and more unaffordable debts.
  • Death

    He dies in el Escorial because of cancer
  • The Treaty of London

    The Treaty of London of 1604 was a peace treaty, signed by Spain and England in the city of London on August 28, 1604 that marked the end of the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604. This was signed after the expedition of the Invincible Aramda to sign peace.