Cultura colombiana

Colombia Timeline

  • 20 BCE


    It begins approximately 20 thousand years ago.
    The territory was inhabited by various tribes ruled by caciques, who engaged in agriculture, hunting and fishing.
    Through vestiges that have been found, it was possible to know that Colombia was inhabited by the Arawak, Carib and Chibcha indigenous peoples.
    Their activities evolved from nomadism, hunting, fishing and gathering to the establishment in villages and the development of agriculture.
  • 1499


    Around the year 1499, the first Spaniards began to arrive in what is now Colombian territory. Previously, Christopher Columbus had made contact with the American continent on October 12, 1492.
    The first contact was by Alonso de Ojeda in 1499 with Américo Vespucio, founding the first Spanish settlement: San Sebastián de Urabá. Thus began the Spanish rule of the territory, which lasted for more than 300 years..
  • 1500


    Initially, communication in America between native peoples and newcomers took place between signs and gestures, although effective communication was rarely achieved.The kings, priests and missionaries promoted during the colonial period different linguistic policies and methods to communicate and thus access the information necessary to find resources and wealth, and convert all the inhabitants of the new Spanish colonies to the Catholic religion.
  • 1560


    Spanish was implemented in various ways over the years, the use of interpreters was one of the strategies used. Meanwhile, the native languages were studied and documented with the media of the time.

    Isolating the children of the chiefs and main men of the indigenous peoples to evangelize them, teach them European customs as well as Spanish, was another of the practices established by the colonizers. Subsequently, boarding schools and institutes run by the church were created to train children under the parameters of the Catholic religion where the predominant language was Spanish and those who spoke their mother tongue were punished.
  • Botanical expedition

    Botanical expedition
    Upon his arrival in Hispanic America in 1760, José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808) introduced the theories of Linnaeus, the first universal language to describe and classify nature. Unable to found a natural history cabinet in Madrid (1763 and 1764), the young doctor continued the Natural History of America that he had begun on his own initiative. Herbarium specimens and descriptions of plants that he considered botanically new were in his first collections.
  • AGE OF INDEPENDENCE-1810 to 1819 Historical process that allowed the emancipation of Colombia from the Spanish Empire, was a stage of revolutionary struggle

    AGE OF INDEPENDENCE-1810 to 1819 Historical process that allowed the emancipation of Colombia from the Spanish Empire, was a stage of revolutionary struggle
    Cry of independence 1810
    It took place in Santa Fe de Bogotá, for trivial reasons, it was planned by the Creoles, and the formation of a supreme board of Government of the New Kingdom of Granada was achieved, which led to the declaration of an open town hall and the signing of an act of independence.
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    The silly homeland 1810 to 1816

    The struggle between federalists and centralists produced political instability and civil wars throughout the territory. Which was used by the Spanish crown to start its reconquest.
  • The cry of independence July 20,1810

    The cry of independence July 20,1810
    It took place in Santafé de Bogotá, it was a launch triggered by trivial reasons, and planned by the Creoles, which led to the declaration of an open town hall and the signing of an act of independence.
    They resulted in the establishment of a Junta de Santa Fe that day.
  • The Spanish reconquest September 1816

    The Spanish reconquest September 1816
    Spain commissioned this expedition to Marshal Pablo Morillo, who sent his troops to Santa Marta and Cartagena, besieging the latter for three months, where the Cartagena made a strong resistance only won by hunger
  • The liberating campaign 1819

    The liberating campaign 1819
    It was a military campaign launched by Simón Bolívar in late 1819 to liberate New Granada from Spanish rule. It had important battles such as that of the Pantano de Vargas on July 25, 1819 and that of Boyacá (August 7, 1819) where absolute triumph was achieved.
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    The Great Colombia 1819 to 1830

    Formed by Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador, led by Vice President Francisco de Paula Santander, while Bolívar continued the war in other territories.
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    1830 to 1863

    Dissolution of Gran Colombia and the death of Bolívar
    Birth of the Republic of New Granada
    A new constitution is approved
    The national coat of arms and the colors of the flag of Colombia are decreed
    Birth of the liberal and conservative political parties
    President Francisco de Paula Santander promotes education and creates various educational institutions.
  • Abolition of slavery

    Abolition of slavery
    African slaves arrived in Colombia in the first decade of the XXVI century and were decisive in shaping our identity.From the sancocho, fritters, marimba and tambora music, they are traditions maintained for more than 400 years, since the arrival of thousands of people from different clans, from what are currently Guinea, Ghana and Nigeria, who arrived to supply the labor needs during the first years of the Colony.
    Law May 21,1851, which established a series of measures against discrimination.
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    After 1863-1880

    There is a civil war won by the liberals.
    The Constitution of Rionegro was made and the country takes the name of the United States of Colombia. 1880
    President Rafael Núñez writes the lyrics of the national anthem, and the music is by the Colombian-Italian musician Oreste Sindici
  • the prestige of Spanish in America.

    the prestige of Spanish in America.
    The establishment of institutions such as the Colombian Academy of the Language in 1871 contributed to the prestige of Spanish in America. Also the studies of philologists such as José Rufino Cuervo and Antonio Caro in the 19th century, who highlighted important characteristics of Spanish in Colombia. In this way they enriched and promoted the study of Spanish in the country, becoming an example for other countries on the continent.
  • 1886

    A new constitution confers the unitary character to the country, since then it has been called the Republic of Colombia.
  • Predominance of Spanish

    Predominance of Spanish
    The predominance of Spanish and the interest in keeping it as the official language was reinforced during the independence campaign led by Simón Bolívar, who emphasized that we are one people with only one language, Spanish, a common language throughout Latin America. Likewise, in 1886, in the Constitution of the Republic of Colombia, Spanish is promulgated as an official language
  • The thousands days' war

    The thousands days' war
    The 1000 day war breaks out between liberals and conservatives caused by the longstanding ideological tug-of-war of federalism versus centralism between the liberals, conservatives, and nationalists of Colombia following the implementation of the Constitution of 1886 and the political process known as the Regeneración.
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    20th century republic 1900 to 1940

    It begins with the thousand-day war between liberals and conservatives.
    In 1903 the Separation of Panama occurs.
    Conservative hegemony
    Period of violence
    Jorge Eliecer Gaitán is elected as a liberal candidate
    Mariano Ospina Pérez is elected as president
  • Banana massacre

    Banana massacre
    Banana massacre was a massacre of as many as 3000 United Fruit Company workers that occurred between December 5 and 6, 1928 in the town of Ciénaga near Santa Marta, Colombia.
    The strike began on November 12, 1928, when the workers ceased to work until the company would reach an agreement with them to grant them dignified working conditions.
  • April 9, 1948 The bogotazo

    April 9, 1948 The bogotazo
    Liberal leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitán is assassinated, which causes riots among the population.
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    1953 to 1957 coup by the military Gustavo Rojas Pinilla

    The arrival of television in Colombia
    The female vote is a reality
    There is restriction of freedom of expression.
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    1957 to 1970 National Front

    Liberals and conservatives alternate power every four years, as a way to face another possible coup. 1970 Misael Pastrana Borrero wins the elections, with accusations of irregularities in the vote count, which causes the emergence of guerrillas such as the FARC and the M19.
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    80s and 90s

    Wars between guerrillas, paramilitary groups, the Colombian army, mafias and drug cartels: Cali and Medellín. In the 90s, the M19 surrendered its weapons, joining political life. 1991 drafting of a new constitution that modernized the State. Andrés Pastrana as president of Colombia tries peace talks with the farc. Emergence of the Colombia plan, which was a bilateral agreement between the governments of Colombia and the United States to combat common enemies.
  • New Constitution

     New Constitution
    The new Constitution drawn up by the National Assembly enters into force. Among its most discussed articles is the prohibition of the extradition of nationals.
  • Native language

    Native language
    it is only until 1991 that native languages are considered co-official in the territories where they are spoken.
  • Indigenous people

    Indigenous people
    1993 was the first time that the indigenous population was quantified, guidelines were established in Decree 2109 of October 22 of the same year.
  • Raizal

    1994 sentence C-088
    The "Raizal" population of San Andrés y Providencia is an ethnic group with its own history, origins, culture, language, and customs. Their language is Creole (although many Raizales can speak and read English), but it contains many Africanisms, and also its own pronunciation and grammar.
  • Colombian Sign Language

    Colombian Sign Language
    The Colombian sign language is the language used by the deaf community in our country. It was officially recognized in 1996, during the government of Dr. Ernesto Samper Pizano, through Law 324.