Cassidy Maceachern- Absolutism to Exploration

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Absolutism to Expansion

  • Period: Jan 1, 1519 to Dec 31, 1556

    Charles V Rules

    Carried the title of Holy Roman Emperor- making him the ruler of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    Philip II

    King of Spain. He was the most powerful ruler in Europe; he reigned over the western Habsburg lands and all the Spanish colonies recently settled in the New World. Absolute Monarch, and Considered himself the Guardian of the Catholic Church.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1558 to

    Elizabeth I

    She brought back Protestantism back to England. Eventually, she provided funds and troops to the Dutch Protestant cause. Inorder for Elizabeth to solidify her personal power and the authority of the Anglican church, she had to squash uprisings by Catholics in the north and at least two serious plots against her life.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

  • Jan 1, 1563

    The Church of England's Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion

    Issued under Elizabeth I authority, incorporated elements of Catholic ritual along with Calvinist doctrines.
  • Jan 1, 1566

    Calvinists attack Catholic churches

    The Calvinists in the Netherlands attacked Catholic churches, smashing stained-glass windows and statues of the Virgin Mary, Philip sent an army to punish the rebels. Calvinist resistance continued despite this occupation,
  • Period: Jan 1, 1568 to Dec 31, 1570


    The Moriscos- Muslims converts to Christianity who remained secretly faithful to Islam- had revolted in the south of Spain, killing ninety priests and fifteen hundred Christians. Philip retaliated by forcing fifty thousand to leave their villages and resettle in other regions
  • Jan 1, 1569

    Poland- Lithuania formed

    Controlled an extensive amount of territory stretching from the Baltic Sea to deep within present-day Ukraine and Belarus. Poland- Lithuania was one of the great exceptions to the general trend toward greater monarchial authority.
  • Oct 4, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Philip II greatest military victory of his reign when he joined with Venice and the papacy to defeat the Turks. Fifty thousand sailers and soliders fought on the allied side, and eight thousand died. Spain would then control the western Mediterranean.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Marguerite de Valois was arranged to marry Henry of Navarre, a Hugenot and Bourbon. Four days before the wedding assassins tried but failed to kill one of the Huguenot nobles alllied with the Bourbons. Catherine convinced her son to go on the offensive and order the death of Huguenot leaders who had come to Paris for the wedding. Thats when the blood bathe broke out. In three days, Catholic mobs murdered three thousand Huguenots in Paris.
  • Nov 1, 1576

    Spanish Fury

    Philip's armies sacked Antwerp, then Europe's wealthiest commerical city. In eleven days of horror the Spanish soliders slaughtered seven thousand people. Led by Prince William of Orange, the Netherlands' seven Protestant northern provinces formally alied with the ten Catholic southern provinces and drove out the Spaniards.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    King of Portugal died

    King of Portugal died without a direct heir, Philip took over his neighboring realm with its rich empire in Africa, India, and the Americas
  • England defeats Spanish Armada

    Philip II sent his armada of 130 ships from Lisbon toward the English Channel in May 1588. The English scattered the Spanish Armada by sending blazing fire ships into its midst. Spanish were then forced to flee around Scotland. By the time the armada limped home in September, half the ships had been lost and thousands of sailors were dead or starving.
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    Henry IV

    Came to thrown after Henry III was stabbed. He established control over war-weary France. Having to place interests of the French state ahead of his Protestant faith. He issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. As well as created the "nobility of the robe"
  • Period: to

    Christian IV

    The Lutheran king of Denmark.
  • Edict of Nanes

    Henry IV made peace with Spain and issued the Edict of Nanes, in which he granted the Huguenots a large measure of religious toleration. Approximately 1.25 million Huguenots became a legally protected minority within an officially Catholic kingdom of some 20 million people. The Edict of Nanes ended the French Wars of Religion, but Henry still needed to reestablish monarchical authority and hold the fractious nobles in check.
  • Monarchy restored in Engliand

    Charles II moved quickly to reestablish royal authority. Puritan ministers lost their positions. Charles II restored full partnership with Parliament.
  • Hamlet Written

    William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. A story of a man whos mother marries the man who murdered his royal father and usurped the grown. In the end, Hamlet, his mother, and the usurper all die. Like many real-life people, Shakespeare's tragic characters found little peace in the turmoil of their times.
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    Louis XIII

  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    War began in 1618 with conflicts between Catholics and Protestants within the Holy Roman Empire and eventually involved most European states. By its end in 1648, many central European lands lay in ruins and balance of powers- Spain and Austria- toward France, England, and the Dutch Republic.
  • The Laws of War and Peace

    Hugo Grotius argued that natural law stood beyond the reach of either secular or divine authority; it would be vaild even if God did not exist. Although, Grotius himself believed in God. By this account, natural law- not scripture, religious authority, or tradition- should govern politics. These thoughts got him in trouble when he documented them in 'The Laws of War and Peace'. In which he was condemned by the Catholic church, while the Dutch Protestant government arrested him.
  • Period: to

    Charles I

    Succeeded his father, James I, he faced an increasingly aggressive Parliament that resisted new taxes and resented the king's efforts to extend his personal control.
  • France declare war on Spain

    France joins the Thirty Years War in 1635 by declaring war on Spain, and soon after forged an alliance with the Calvinist Dutch to aid them in their ongoing struggle for offical independence from Spain. Religion took a back seat whie the two Catholic dynastys battled it out.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

  • Dutch Repbulic recognized as independent

    Dutch Republic gained formal independence from Spain, and established a decentralized, constitutional state.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    This would serve as a model for resolving future conflicts among warring European states. France and Sweden gained most from Peace of Westphalia. France acquired parts of Alsace and replaced Spain as the revailing power on the continent. The Habsburgs lost the most.
  • New Russian Legal Code

    The code assigned all subjects to a hereditary class according to their current occupation or state needs. Slaves and free peasents were merged into a serf class. Serfs could not change occupations or moved. Nobels owed absolute obedience to the tsar and were required to serve in the army.
  • Charles I beheaded

    Court found Charles guilty of attempting to establish "an unlimited and tryannical power" and pronounced a death sentence. On Jaunuary 30th Charles was beheaded before an enormous crowd.
  • Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes published his masterpiece, Leviatha in 1651. In which he argued for unlimited authority in a ruler. Asolute authority could be vested in either a king or a parliament; it had to be absolute, Hobbes insisted, in order to overcome the defects of human nature.
  • Barbados Slave Code

    Barbados instituted a slave code that stripped all Africans of rights under English law, slavery became codified as an inherited status that applied only to blacks.
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    War of Devolution

    Louis claimed that lands in the Spanish Netherlands should devolve to him since the Spanish king had failed to pay the dowry of Louis's Spanish bride. Louis defeated the Spanish armies but had to make peace when England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic joined the war.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    Louis gained control of a few towns on the border of the Spanish Netherlands.Habsburgs accused Louis of aiming for "universal monarchy" or domination of Europe.
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    Dutch War

    Louis XIV opened hostilites against the Dutch because they stood in the way of his acquisition of more territory in the Spanish Netherlands. He declared war again on Spain in 1673. Dutch allied themselves with their former Spanish masters to hold off the French
  • The Princess of Cléves

    Madame de Lafayette wrote of Louis XIV royal court in her novel 'The Princess of Cléves. Stating that everybody fought for his attention, waiting on him hand and foot.
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    Treaty of Nijmegen

    The treaty gave several towns in Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté to France.
  • Louis Moves to Versailles

    Building of the grand Palace of Versailles began in 1660's. By 1685, the frenzied effort engaged thirty-six thousand workers, not including the thousand of troops who diverted a local river to supply water for pools and fountains. By the time Louis actually moved from the Louvre to Versailles in 1682, he had resigned as monarch for thirty-nine years.
  • The Siege of Vienna

    The Turks pushed all the way to the gates of Vienna and laid siege to the Austrian capital. The Austrians finally broke the siege and turned the tide in a major counteroffensive.
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    War of the Leauge of Augsburg

    In 1688, Louis attacked some of the small German cities of the Holy Roman Empire. Between 1689-1697, the League of Augsburg- made up of England, Spain, Sweden, the Dutch Republic, the Austrian emperor, and various German Princes- fought Louis XIV to a stalemate.
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    King William III and Mary II

  • Peace of Rijswijk

    Louis returned many of his conquests made since 1678 with the exception of Strasbourg.