British Colonial Rule (1763-1931)

  • Hudson Bay Company given fur trade monopoly around Hudson Bay

    In 1670, King Charles II of England gave the Hudson Bay Company monopoly around Hudson Bay. This territory was called Rupert's Land, and no people colonized in this area. Forts were made to trade, and the Hudson Bay Company controlled Rupert's Land from 1670 to 1869.
  • Britain defeats France

    Britain, under James Wolfe, defeats France, under General Montcalm in the Plains of Abraham, the last battle of the Seven Year War.
  • Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris was signed to end the war, so France kept two small islands off Newfoundland but nothing else. After the war, Britain occupied the area around the Great Lakes until 1774. The Royal Proclamation then made the French people follow British culture. The British believed that the French and the Natives would adopt English culture if immersed in it. First Nation people also recieved an area called the Indian Reserve. The British also wanted them to adopt English culture.
  • Upper and Lower Canada

    The start of Upper and Lower Canada, with Upper being lower on the map, but a higher sea level. Also, the Quebec Act was passed which allowed the Canadiens to maintain French culture. By doing so, the British hoped to gain loyalty and money from the fur trade. Also, the St. Lawrence River was a direct connection to England, but it belonged to Quebec, so the British hoped to gain access.
  • Treaty of Paris ends American Revolution

    The Treaty of Paris was signed by Britain to end the American Revolution, and Britain lost the land south of the Great Lakes, formerly known as The Thirteen Colonies. This caused the Loyalists, the people loyal to Britain, to migrate North. Natives who were loyal settled in six Nation Reserves led by Joseph Brant, or Thyendanegea.
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    Fur trade booming

    In this timespan, the fur trade was booming. The Hudson Bay Company was at its biggest, but the Northwest Company was also formed. This led to competition, rivalry, and expansion to the west. This conflict also involved the Metis and Red River settlement at Seven Oaks. In 1821, both companies came to an agreement so both companies became the Hudson Bay Co.
  • Two new colonies created

    The Atlantic had a lot of loyalists migrating into them as well, so the British government created 2 new colonies of New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island.
  • The Constitution Act

    There were problems between the Loyalists, that migrated into Quebec, and the French, which led to the Constitutional Act of 1791. This Act made Ontario into Upper Canada and Quebec into Lower Canad. Both provinces had representatives vote.
  • The Red River Settlement

    The Metis were settled in the Red River settlement. They were of European and Native descent, and respected both cultures. They created a new religion and language, and the fur trade/buffalo hunt was important to their society. They worked for both the HBC and NWC at nearby trading posts. Then came Lord Selkirk, a Scottish nobleman. He wanted to help crofters (Scottish farmers) who had been forced off rented farms. The landowners wanted to put the land to a different use.
  • The Red River Settlement Part 2

    Lord Selkirk applied for a land grant in the Red River Valley, but was denied, so he bought enough shares of HBC to gain control. He was able to get a land grant of 300 000 km squared, which included the Red Riverand the Assinboine River. This area was named Assinboia. Selkirk wanted to stop NWC from competing in Assinboia. Selkirk's firsst groups of settlers arrived at York Factory in 1811, where they survived a harsh winter with bad living conditions. In the spring, they journeyed to Red River
  • The Red River Settlement Part 3

    They arrived in August, too late to plant crops. They survived the winter with help from First Nations and Metis. In the Spring of 1813, a second group followed. Of course, there was conflict. The NWC thought that the HBC was trying to block their supplies from reaching their trading posts. The Metis were afraid the settlers would interfere with the buffalo hunt.
  • Reasons for the War of 1812

    There were many reasons America wanted war with Canada. There was quite a bit of discontentment between Canada and British, after taxwes were placed on the goods transported between the two countries. Also, the colonies had become 'Cash Cows'. Britain believed vthat anything Canada had was Britain's to take. America believed that the population of Canada would join their side. Also, there was Manifest Destiny, the assumption that one is better and it is their right to take over.
  • The Natives' role

    The Natives played a huge role in the War of 1812. They had a different style of fighting, guerilla warfare. Britain and America followed certain 'Rules of Engagement', that the Natives did not. The Natives, led by Tecumseh, were the reason Canada did not lose the war.
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    The War of 1812

    The War of 1812 was a war between USA and Great Britain. The major battles were fought in Upper and Lower Canada. There was no clear winner. The Canadian forces were led by Sir Isaac Brock. A native leader, Chief Tecumseh joined Brock, so 600 Natives fought with Canada.
  • The Pemmican Proclamation

    No food could be taken from Assiniboia without a license. This affected the Metis because they made pemmican to sell to fur trade, and was an important source of income. With all the tension building, the Metis started to destroy the settler's crops, and attacked Fort Douglas. The settlers fled from the Red River area.
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    The Great Migration

    Many settler came from Great Britain. They were mostly Irish, because of the Irish Famin, with a disease affecting crops. They came in timber ships that carried foreign diseases. Another source of settlers was the Underground Railway, with Dresden, Ontario being a big settlement for black runaways.
  • Seven Oaks

    Metis met the new governor near Seven Oaks, and a fight broke out. Five Metis and 21 settlers died in the skirmish. The remaining settlers abandoned the settlement, but the following year, Lord Selkirk brough soldiers called Meurons to regain control. The settlers returned, especially after HBC and NWC united.
  • The Industrial Revolution Begins

    The beginning of the Industrail Revolution was marked by the invention of the steam engines, as well as other machines. Machines over muscle and factories over farming.The Lachine Canal was built in 1823, and the Welland Canal was built in 1829. Both of these canals improved trade routes. In the 1850s, railway building began to boom. In 1853, The St Lawrence and Atlantic railway was built.
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    The Rebellions

    The government was in control, and saw no need to change the structure. However the citizens had no say in the way their country was run. Also, oligarchy was in place, which meant that privileges and property were given to friends. The Rebellions were led by William Lyon Mackenzie in Upper Canada and Louis Joseph Papineau. They had different views, but were both fighting for responsible government. Another key figure was Joseph Howe, leader of the fight for responsible government in Nova Scotia.
  • Act of Union

    The Act of Union was the aftermath of the rebellions, which had led to the Durham report being written. The author was Lord Durham, who had been sent into the Canadas to see what had sparked the rebellions, and to see what to change.The Act of Union creaded the United Province of Canada, with equal representation from Canada West and Canada East. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government in 1847, and the United Province of Canada followed one year later.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    The Repeal of the Corn Laws meant that there was no longer any cheap wheat exported to Britain. This meant that the farmers of British North America could not compete, so many farmers moved south.
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    Reciprocity Treaty

    In 1848, Lord Elgin reported that 75% of Montreal merchants faced bankruptcy, which led to the talk of joining America. However, in 1854, the Reciprocity Treaty was put into effect, which was a policy of free trade in some products between BNA and America, which increased BNA economic activity.
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    Canada East wanted reimbursement for losses caused by the rebellion. Canada West had already been repaid. There was much debate as to whether they should be repaid. However, a majority of elected representatives were in support of the bill. However, the Governor General, Lord Elgin did not agree with it. He still signed the bill, though, to prove that the United Province of Canada finally had responsible government. There were many protests, and a mob burned Parliament building down,
  • Political Deadlock

    In the 1850s, the government became ineffective. Political deadlock occured, and that is when two parties have completely different views, but are evenly supported, so nothing gets done. There was also representation by population, which meant that the amount of representatives was based on the amount of voters. This caused problems for the French, because after the Great Migration there were more English-speaking. The leaders of the two main parties in the West hated each other.
  • Reasons for Confederation

    The British supported South US in the American Civil War, which made the Americans angry at Britain. Also, the Reciprocity Treaty ended in 1866, which made people among colonies to think of joining so free trade would occur between colonies. The Americans had also began moving westward, so BNA feared American settlement, followed by invasion. Great Britain also supported Confederation.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    This was the first of three Confederation conferences, and was held in Charlottetown, PEI. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI and the Canadas. Originally, only Maritime colonies were invited ,to propose the idea of a Maritime union. Delegates from Canada caught wind of the conference, and asked if they could participate. The Maritime colonies were thrilled, and invited them to join. It was a large success in supporting the idea of Confederation. They agreed to meet again next month in Quebec.
  • Quebec Conference

    Newfoundland joined the group in this conference. This meeting was more serious, and worked out all the possible details of unification. After two weeks of talk, PEI and Newfoundland chose not to join Confederation. Other colonies made the 72 Resolutions, which were the rules that the new nation would be based on.
  • The London Conference

    16 delegates go to London to propose the idea of Confederation, and get the 72 Resolutions turned into the BNA Act.
  • US purchases Alaska

    Canada fears that America wants to take control of the territories.
  • The Birth of a New Country

    Confederation is achieved. Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia join to create Canada.
  • Rupert's Land and Northwest Territories part of Canada

    Canadian Government made a deal with Hudson Bay Company and bought Rupert's land, renaming it North West Territories. This happened due to the Metis Bill of Rights. It was one of the conditions for Manitoba to join Canada.
  • First Contact with Metis

    Surveyors sent to divide land for roads and boundaries for individual lots. Settlers and Metis not consulted, took away the cahins and the surveyors left. Unfortunately, the Metis had not title to the land, so they feared that they would be kicked out. On Nov 2, Macdonald appointed William McDougal to go to Red River to negotiate. The Metis seized Upper Fort Garry after they stopped McDougal. The Metis settled in the fort, with food and ammo present, and the winter offering a natural barrier,
  • Upper Fort Garry as Metis stronghold

    12 English and 12 French delegates meet with Riel, and the Canadian Party is developed by John Schultz group that wanted the English to control the Red River Settlement. The Metis surround Schultz on Dec 7, and imprison 50 guards in Fort Garry.
    On December 8, they set up a provisional government. They proposed the Metis Bill of Rights, for the Canadian government to abide by. McDougal gives up surveying, and Macdonald sent in Donald Smith, who explained Canada's plans, with a new Bill of Rights.
  • Manitoba Joins Canada

    Manitoba becomes the fifth province. It's considered a victory for Louis Riel and the Metis, as the Canadian government will pay more attention to the Metis Bill of Rights, giving Mantiba better representation. However, key players in the resistance are not granted amnesty.
  • Thomas Scott comes into the picture.

    Thomas Scott was a guard imprisoned in Fort Garry. He was symbol of opposition to Metis. He escaped, then was captured, and was convicted to treason. He was executed by a firing squad on March 4, 1870. Ontario was upset, they believed Riel was a murderer. Quebec thought Riel was a hero. Macdonald sent in troops, and Riel fled to the US. Canada decided to make Manitoba a new province, to allow the Metis to have more control. The Bill of Rights was accepted, but there was no amnewsty for some.
  • BC joins the party

    BC is the sixth province. The gold rush on Fraser River brought new settlers. They built farms, orchards and cattle ranches along Okanagan Valley. Aboriginals' rights were ignored, communities and land were destroyed, and it was easy to connect to major cities in America, leading to Macdonald convincing BC to joing the rest of Canada.
  • Dominion Lands Act

    This act gave settlers 65 acres of land out west. This involved a ten dollar registration fee, and the settlers had to live and work on the land for three years to obtain the land. Clifford Sifton then started to advertise in Europe. Many settlers ended up dying because of the harsh conditions.
  • PEI finally in

    PEI joins Canada, as the eighth province PEI didn't prosper after Confederation, and failed at an attempt to build a railway. Macdonald made a deal to take over debts if PEI joined Canada.
  • The NWMP is formed

    Macdonald's government creates the NWMP. THey were established to peace keep, look over the construction of the CPR, to cease American invaders and to stop whiskey traders.
    *Sam Steele, Jerry Potts
  • Liberals in power

    Alexander Mackenzie became PM. He invented the secret ballot, and the statement that filed how much was spent on campaign.
  • Indian Act

    The Indian Act decided who would have Indian status.
  • Conservatives are BACK.

    Conservatives get elected back, proposed National Policy. However, with the Liberals in power before, the CPR was delayed.
  • The Red River Rebellion

    The Metis petitioned for rights, but were ignored. They called for Louis Riel for help, because they were getting pushed out of Saskatchewan. On March 19, 1885, they seized a protestant church, Batoche, and they set up another provisional government. They were supported by other First Nation groups, and then began the war. Riel was arrested for high treason, and was found guilty. Macdonald chooses to hang him, and publicized the photos of Riel being hung.
  • Yukon is the second territory

    Yukon is experiencing the gold rush, and Canada feared that America would use the gold rush as an excuse to take over.
  • Saskatchewan and Alberta joing Canada

  • Newfoundland last province to join Canada.

  • Nunavut is formed

    Northwest Territories is split into two. Nunavut is the eastern side.