Absolutism and World Exploration

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Eric Stanley - Absolutism and World Exploration

  • Period: Jan 1, 1509 to Dec 31, 1547

    Henry VIII's Reign

    King of England, Henry VIII was the first monarch fo the house of Tudor.
  • Jan 1, 1516

    Erasmus publishes Greek New Testament

    Erasmus publishes Greek New Testament, translating it from latin, this is the first translation of the bible done in a millenium
  • Jan 1, 1516

    Thomas More writes Utopia

    Thomas More writes Utopia, a self critique of society where More writes of his ideal society.
  • Jan 1, 1517

    Luther composes ninety-five theses

    Luther's ninety-five theses was a critique of the church and its corrupt practices. His primary critiques were of the sale of indulgences and the purchase of church offices.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1519 to Dec 31, 1556

    Charles V's Reign

    The Reign of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Luther publishes three treatises

    In the publication of the three treatises, Luther argued that faith saved sinners from damnation, and he also distinguised between true Gospel teachings and invented church doctrines. The treatises' principle of "by faith alone" became a central feature of the reform movement
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Reformer Huldrych Zwingli breaks with Rome

    Chief preacher of Zurich, Zwingli openly declares himself a reformer, breaking with Rome
  • Apr 1, 1525

    German Peasants' War

    In the spring of 1525, many peasants in southern and central Germany rose in rebellion against the Catholic church. This was partially due to Luther's anticlerical message, which struck home with the peasants.
  • Jan 1, 1527

    Charles V sacks Rome

    Charles V's imperial troops sack Rome
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Lutheran German princes protest condemnation

    Lutheran German princes protest the condmemnation of religious reform by Charles V
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Colloquy of Marburg

    Disagreements between German and Swiss church reformers causes the Colloquy of Marburg to assemble in order to address these disagreements
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Act of Supremacy establishes King Henry VIII

    The Act of Supremacy establishes King Henry VII as head of the Anglican church, severing ties ties to Rome
  • Period: Jan 1, 1534 to Jun 1, 1535

    Anabaptists take over of Münster

    In a failed experiment to create a holy community, Anabaptists take over the German city of Münster. They were besieged by a combined Protestant and Catholic army, and the Anabaptist's leader's bodies were hung in cages affixed to the church tower to serve s a warning to all who might want to take the Reformation away from the authorities and hand it to the people.
  • Jan 1, 1541

    John Calvin establishes himself in Geneva permanently

    John Calvin establishes himself permanently in Geneva, making the city a model of Christian reform and discipline
  • Period: Jan 1, 1545 to Dec 31, 1563

    Council of Trent

    Catholic Council of Trent condemns Protestant beliefs and confirms church doctrine and sacraments
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    Phillip II's Reign

    Phillip II, King of Spain reigned over the wester Habsburg lands and new colonies. He was the most powerful ruler in Europe during his time.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1558 to

    Thomas Hobbes

    English philosopher and champion of absolutism.
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    Queen Elizabeth I's Reign

  • Jan 1, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis

    The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends wars between the Habsburg and Valois rulers
  • Period: Jan 1, 1560 to Dec 31, 1574

    Charles IX's Reign

    Ten-year-old Charles IX became king, with his Mother Catherine de Médicis serving as regent, or the acting ruler.
  • Jan 1, 1562

    French Wars of Religion

  • Period: Jan 1, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

    A period of time that consisted of military operations and civil infighting between French Catholics and Protestants, or Huguenots.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1564 to

    William Shakespeare

    Englishman who wrote three dozen plays, he was the most enduring and influential playwright of his time, with his plays reflecting on the concerns of his age.
  • Jan 1, 1566

    Calvinist revolt against Spain

  • Jan 1, 1569

    Poland-Lithuania formed

  • Jan 1, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

  • Jan 1, 1571


    Lepanto, a site off the Greek coast, was the site where the allied Catholic forces of Spain, Venice and the papacy defeated the Ottoman Turks ina great sea battle, giving Christian powers the control of the Mediterranean.
  • Jan 1, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

  • Period: Jan 1, 1578 to

    William Harvey

    Englishman William Harvey used dissection to examine the circulation of blood within the body, demonstrating how the heart worked as a pump.
  • Period: to

    Hugo Grotius

    Grotius furthered secular thinking during the Dutch revolt against Spain. He did this by attempting to systematize the notion of "natural law."
  • Edict of Nantes

    The Edict of Nantes gave Calvin Protestants of France, or Huguenots, substantial rights, in a nation that was considered essentially Catholic.
  • Shakespeare's Hamlet

    English playwright and poet produces one of the most famous plays of all time, Hamlet.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    A series of wars fought primarily by European countries. It was fought largely as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics.
  • New Plymouth Colony founded

    European settlers founded the New Plymouth Colony, in modern day Massachusetts.
  • The Laws of War and Peace

    The Laws of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius was written about natural law and his belief that natural law stood beyond the reach of either secular or divine authority, and he wrote that natural law should govern politics.
  • Gallileo forced to recant support of heliocentrism

    The "father of science", Italian physicist, philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician Gallileo Gallilei was forced to recant his support of heliocentrism, and afterwards placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life.
  • French declare war on Spain

    The French, under the Valois, declare war on the Habsburgs of Spain.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    The first of three wars between English Parlamentarians and Royalists.
  • Period: to

    Isaac Newton

    An English physicist and mathematician, Newton was a pioneer of the scientific revolution. He forumulated the laws of motion, and built the first practical reflecting telescope.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV's Reign

    Ruler of France and Navarre, the longest reign of a monarch in French history.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    A comprehensive settlement where congress brought in all parties in order to resolve disputes and sign treaties. As a result of the Peace of westphalia, France and Sweden gained territory and power, but the Spanish Habsburgs lost the most, recognizing Dutch independence after eighty years of war.
  • Period: to

    The Fronde

    A series of civil wars in France during the Franco-Spanish War.
  • Charles I beheaded

    When captured by the Scottish, Charles I was handed over to England for his role in the English Civil War, and tried for High Treason, and convicted. He was beheaded.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan, the work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.
  • Monarchy Restored in England

    Ruler Charles II restored Monarchy in England after the wars between the English, Scottish, and Ireland.
  • Period: to

    Charles II of England

    Successor of Charles I, Charles II was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland during his reign, and he re-established Monarchy within England during his reign.
  • Slave code set up in Barbados

    The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados.
  • Period: to

    War of Devolution

    Louis XIV fought against Spain, Dutch Republic, England, and Sweden in attempt to overrun Spanish-Habsburg controlled Netherlands.
  • Madame de Lafayette anonymously publishes her novel The Princess of Cléves

    She anonymously published this novel, with almost all of the characters in the novel depicting historical figures.
  • Austrlian Habsburgs break the Turkish siege of Vienna

  • Louis XIV revokes toleration of Edict of Nantes

    Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, revokes the toleration for French Protestants granted by the Edict of Nantes.
  • Principia Mathematica

    Isaac Newton brought all of his most significant mathematical and mechanical discoveries together in his masterwork, called Principia Mathematica.
  • Parliament deposes James II

    PArliament deposes James II and invites his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, to take the throne
  • Period: to

    Dutch ruler william, prince of Orangae, and his wife, Mary, jointly share the throne

    Parliament offered this on the condition that they accept a bill of rights guaranteeing Parliament's full partnership in a constitutional government.
  • John Locke publishes Two Tretises of Government and Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    John Locke, an English philosopher, publishes Two Tretises of Government and Essay Concerning Human Understanding.