Europe wars of charles xii peter great

The Great Northern War

  • The War Begins

    March, 1700 - Danes invade Holstein-Gottorp; Swedes (aided by Anglo-Dutch) invade Zeeland and threaten Copenhagen.
  • Period: to

    The Greath Northern War

    fought between Sweden's Charles XII and a coalition lead by Russia's Peter the Great.
  • Treaty of Traventhal

    August, 1700 - Denmark withdraws.
  • Swedes attack Russia

    November, 1700 - Charles XII with an army of 8,000 Swedes destroys a Russian army of 23,000.
  • Charles conquers Warsaw

    May, 1702 - A result of Charles' courting of anti-Saxon and anti-Russian Polish nobles for their support.
  • Charles takes Kliszow

    June, 1703 - Charles defeats a Polish-Saxon army.
  • Peter the Great on the move

    January, 1704 - With Charles preoccupied in Poland, Peter the Great moves into the Baltic, taking control of both Dorpat and Narva, previously controlled by Sweden.
  • Charles elects Leszczynski

    July, 1704 - Charles organized the election of Stanislas Leszczynski, as a puppet- with the title King of Poland.
  • Treaty of Warsaw

    February, 1705 - Charles signs, granting peace and commerce.
  • Charles in control of Poland

    Spring, 1706 - Charles defeats the Saxons at the Battle of Fraustadt in February 1706, ultimately succeeding in driving out both Russian and Saxon forces from Poland.
  • Treaty of Altranstädt

    September, 1706 - Augustus II (Augustus the Strong) recognized Stanislas, Charles' elected official, as the King of Poland and granted permission for the Swedish army to stay through the winter.
  • Charles invades Russia

    1707 - Charles invades Smolensk with the help of Count Lewenhaupt's invasion of Riga. Peter the Great in the meantime withdrew his forces.
  • The Battle at Holowczyn

    July, 1708 - Peter the Great makes his first stand, later withdrawing using scorched earth policy that destroyed anything that might be of value to the Swedish army.
  • Charles winters in Ukraine

    Winter, 1708 - Charles hoped to create an alliance between the Swedes, the Cossacks and the Crimeans. The Battle of Lesnaya stopped Lewenhaupt and an entire supply column was lost.
  • The Battle of Poltava

    June/July, 1709 - Charles' weakened army suffered military defeat, many died and the survivors surrendered at Perevolochna. The defeat removed Sweden as the supreme power in eastern Europe.
  • Charles isolated in Turkey

    Winter, 1709 - With Charles in Bessarabia, Turkey the alliance between Denmark, Poland, and Russia was able to regroup. Once Stanislas fled, Augustus reclaimed his title in Poland.
  • Swedish Council surrenders army

    May, 1713 - After the navy of Denmark destroyed transport ships and lacking supplies, the Swedish army was unable to return to Sweden and surrendered to the combined.
  • 25 Years of Peace

    June, 1713 - A settlement signed by the Sultan and Russia guarantees peace between the two powers for 25 years.
  • Battle at Hangö

    July, 1714 - Russia continues expansion into the Baltic states and Finland, Russia then defeated the Swedish navy at Hangö.
  • Alliance against Sweden

    1715 - Brandenburg and Hanover joined the alliance against Sweden. The last two remaining strongholds of Sweden in Germany were Stralsund and Wismar. Stralsund fell in 1715 and Wismar followed in 1716.
  • Battle at Fredriksheld

    1718 - Charles was able to put together a force of 60,000 men. In his attempt to invade Norway he was killed.
  • Treaty of Stockholm

    November, 1719 - Agreement between Sweden and Hanover, under which Sweden surrendered Bremen and Verden to Holstein in exchange for financial and naval support.
  • Treaty of Stockholm

    January/February, 1720 - Agreement between Sweden and Brandenburg, under which Sweden surrendered Stettin, South Pomerania, the islands of Usedom, and Wollin in exchange for money.
  • Treaty of Nystad

    August/September, 1721 - Agreement between Sweden and Russia, under which Sweden surrendered Livonia, Estonia, and Ingria in exchange for the return of Finland (apart from Kexholm and parts of Karelia).