War in Darfur

  • Origin of Conflict

    The origins of this conflict goes back to land disputes between semi-nomadic livestock herders and those who practice sedentary agriculture. Since the population of Darfur in predominantly Muslim, the conflict isn’t about race or religion. It’s about resources that the nomadic tribesman need and they are invading the sedentary farmer’s land.
  • Period: to

    War in Darfur

  • The Start of the Conflict

    The conflict started on 26 February 2003, when a group calling itself the Darfur Liberation Front publicly claimed credit for an attack on Golo, the headquarters of Jebel Marra District. Prior to this attack, a conflict had erupted in Darfur, as rebels had already attacked police stations, army outposts and military convoys, and the government had engaged in a massive air and land assault on the rebel stronghold in the Marrah Mountains.
  • The May Agreement

    On 5 May 2006, the government of Sudan signed an accord with the faction of the SLA led by Minni Minnawi. However, the agreement was rejected by two other, smaller groups, the Justice and Equality Movement and a rival faction of the SLA. The May agreement called for the disarmament of the Janjaweed militia, and for the rebel forces to disband and be incorporated into the army.
  • UN Peacekeeping Force

    On 31 August 2006, the UN approved a resolution to send a new peacekeeping force of 17,300 to the region. Sudan expressed strong opposition to the resolution. On 5 September, Sudan asked the AU force in Darfur to leave the region by the end of the month. This right rests with the of Sudan. The AU, whose peacekeeping force mandate expired on 30 September 2006, confirmed that its troops would leave the region.
  • Humanitarian Catastophe

    On 8 September, António Guterres, head of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, said Darfur faced a "humanitarian catastrophe". On 12 September, Sudan's European Union envoy Pekka Haavisto claimed that the Sudanese army was "bombing civilians in Darfur". A World Food Programme official reported that food aid had been cut off from at least 355,000 people in the region. Kofi Annan told the UNSC that "the tragedy in Darfur has reached a critical moment.
  • Deterioration

    On 2 October, the AU announced that it would extend its presence in the region until 31 December 2006. Two hundred UN troops were sent to reinforce the AU force. On 6 October, the UNSC voted to extend the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan until 30 April 2007. On 9 October, the Food and Agriculture Organization listed Darfur as the highest in need for the Crop Prospects and Food Situation report.
  • Oxfam Pulling Out

    Oxfam announced on June 17 that it is permanently pulling out of Gereida, where more than 130,000 have sought refuge. It is also the biggest refugee camp in the area. The agency cited inaction by local authorities from the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), which controls the region, in addressing security concerns and violence against aid workers. There have been ongoing hijackings of vehicles belonging to the UN and other international organizations.
  • Start of the End

    General Martin Agwai, head of the joint African Union-United Nations mission in Darfur, said the war was over in the region, but there were still small disputes between the people. There are still localized issues, because people are trying to resolve issues over water and land at a local level. But real war as such, I think we are over that," he said.
  • Peacekeepers

    On 18 September 2007, JEM stated that if the peace talks with Khartoum should fail, they would step up their demands from self-determination to independence for the Darfur region. On 30 September 2007, the rebels overran an AMIS base, killing at least 12 peacekeepers in "the heaviest loss of life and biggest attack on the African Mission" during a raid at the end of Ramadan season. This could have ended the war if the peacekeepers weren’t killed.
  • Mortality Rate

    The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters published an article in a special issue of The Lancet. The article, entitled Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur Conflict, estimated, with 95% confidence, that the excess number of deaths is between 178,258 and 461,520 with 80% of these due to diseases. 51 International peacekeepers have been killed in Darfur.