• Period: 525 to


  • It was the victory

    It was the victory
    at the battle of the Pyramids which shook the power of the Mamelukes, the Caucasian ruling class of Egypt, and paved the way for the rise to power of the Albenian soldier of fortune Muhammad Mi.
  • Period: to


  • 19th Century

    The south-western region of bahr al ghazal was one of the most prominent centers of slaves trading on the african continent in the late 19th century
  • Traders

    From the mid-1800s, however, foreign trsders encouraged hostile tribals goups to taids each other for treasure including ivory and slaves.
  • Jallaba.

    In the early 19th century the "jallaba" a group of northern muslim traders mostly from the ja'aliyyin and danagla tribes of the nile valley, came in increasing numbers to southern sudan, especially northern bahr al Ghazal which became an imporent source of slaves.
  • all of north and central Sudan was his

    Muhammad Mi sent his third son Ismail at the head of 10,000 men across the desert and, by 1821, all of north and central Sudan was his
  • Revolt against the Turco-Egyptian administration.

  • a religious leader

    In 1881, a religious leader named Muhammad ibn Abdalla proclaimed himself the Mahdi, or the "expected one," and began a religious crusade to unify the tribes in western and central Sudan. His followers took on the name "Ansars" (the followers) which they continue to use today and are associated with the single largest political grouping, the Umma Party, led by a descendant of the Mahdi, Sadiq al Mahdi
  • Taking advantage

    Taking advantage of dissatisfaction resulting from Ottoman-Egyptian exploitation and maladministration, the Mahdi led a nationalist revolt culminating in the fall of Khartoum in 1885.
  • Administered

    in 1898. While nominally administered jointly by Egypt and Britain, Britain exercised control, formulated policies, and supplied most of the top administrators.
  • administered jointly

    Britain and Egypt signed a condominium agreement under which the Sudan was to be administered jointly.
  • Sudan is under joint British-Egyptian rule.

  • 20th Century

    In the first two decades of the 20th century the british conducted a "pacification" campaign in southern sudan and the numb mountains. they used military force including the earliest aerual bombing against people who often regarded the british not as their saviors fro slavery but as a new wave of invaders
  • Series of laws,

    a series of laws, the closed districts ordinances placed tight contols on access to the south, the nuba mountains, dardur and southern blue nile, whse people- after "pacification"- were now regarded as needing "protection".
  • Mounting Egyptian nationalism

    Mounting Egyptian nationalism in the period after World War I culminated in 1924 in the assassination in the streets of Cairo of Sir Lee Stack, Governor - General of the Sudan; British reaction resulted in the expulsion of all Egyptian officials from the Sudan.
  • few Egyptians were allowed to return

    After the Anglo-Egyptian "entente" of 1936. a few Egyptians were allowed to return to the country in minor posts. But the signing of the 1936 agreement stimulated Sudanese nationalists who objected both to the return of the Egyptians and to the fact that other nations were deciding their destiny.

    By 1945, two political parties had emerged. The National Unionist Party led by al-Azhari, demanded union of the Sudan and Egypt; it had the support of Sayed Sir Ali al- Mirghani, head of a powerful religious sect.
  • Southern Policy was abandoned

    Southern Policy was abandoned after the jube conference organized by the colonial goverment, at which southern chifs agreed with northern nationalists to pursue a united sudan. a crash program of integration followed
  • The elections

    The elections, which were held during November and December 1953,
  • Cairo Conference

    In the eyes of southerners, "Sudanization" was effectively "Northernization". Southerners were not represented at the 1953 cairo conference on self-rule, on the grounds that they had no party or organization.
  • first Prime Minister

    resulted in victory for the NUP, and its leader, Ismail al-Aihari, became the Sudan's first Prime Minister in January 1954.The replacement of British and Egyptian officers in the Sudanese civil service by Sudanese nationals

    On December 19, 1955, the Parliament voted unanimously that the Sudan should become "a fully independent sovereign state".
  • Sudan gain independents

  • British and Egyptian troops left the country

    British and Egyptian troops left the country on January 1, 1956; the same day a five-man Council of State was appointed to take over the powers of the governor general until a new constitution was agreed.
  • slamicization campaign

    In September 1983, as part of an Islamicization campaign, President Nimeiri announced that traditional Islamic punishments drawn from Shari’a (Islamic Law) would be incorporated into the penal code. This was controversial even among Muslim groups. Amputations for theft and public lashings for alcohol possession became common. Southerners and other non-Muslims living in the north were also subjected to these punishments.
  • Nimeiri overthrown

    In April 1985, while out of the country, Nimeiri was overthrown by a popular uprising in Khartoum provoked by a collapsing economy, the war in the south, and political repression. Gen. Suwar al-Dahab headed the transitional government. One of its first acts was to suspend the 1983 constitution and disband Nimeiri’s Sudan Socialist Union.
  • Elections

    Elections were held in April 1986, and a civilian government took over after the April 1986 elections. There were tentative moves towards negotiating peace with the south. However, any proposal to exempt the south from Islamic law was unacceptable to those who supported Arabic supremacy.
  • slamic army faction

    In 1989, an Islamic army faction, led by General Umar al-Bashir mounted a coup and installed the National Islamic Front. The new government’s commitment to the Islamic cause intensified the north-south conflict.
  • The Period of the 1990s

    the period of the 1990s saw a growing sense of alienation in the western and eastern regions of Sudan from the Arab center. The rulers in Khartoum were seen as less and less responsive to the concerns and grievances of both Muslim and non-Muslim populations across the country. Alienation from the "Arab" center caused various groups to grow sympathetic to the southern rebels led by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A).
  • Sudan is under joint British-Egyptian rule.

  • U.N

    In 1996, the U.N. imposed sanctions for alleged connections to the assassination attempt on Egyptian President Mubarak.
  • Worksited

    Class atricles,