Sudan Timeline Assignment

  • Period: to

    Turko-Egyptian rule of Sudan

    In 1821, Turko-Egyptian forces invaded and conquered Sudan. This period greatly affected Sudan’s government and economy severely. First of all, Sudan’s trade with other nations and economy boomed due to slave trade. The trade enhance the position of the traders, who were generally Northerners and increased tension between the center and the periphery of Sudan..
    (No exact dates) (Source)
  • British colonization of Sudan

    British colonization of Sudan
    When Britain and Egypt invaded Sudan, Britain decided to heavily invest and modernize the north while neglecting the south completely by isolating it from the rest of the world with the southern policy. Muslim was supported in the north but banned in the south where missionaries were let in to promote christianity. The north used Arabic and the south used English. These big differences led to several issues later on.

    (No exact date) (Source) (Image)
  • Britain's Southern Policy

    Britain's Southern Policy
    The British originally considered Southern Sudan too underdeveloped and so, not ready enough for the modern world. Thus, Britain closed Southern Sudan from the rest of the world except for the few christian missionaries. Britain intended to create a split in everything. Religion, Britain promoted Islam in the north and Christianity in the south. Language, the south spoke English and native languages while the north spoke arabic. (No exact date) (Source) (Image)
  • Period: to

    1st civil war in Sudan

    The first civil war was, like the second civil war, an attempt by the south to rebel against the north to gain some rights in the governments. This first war formed Southern Sudan’s first few armed forces and gave South Sudan more war experience at the cost of immense civilian casualties.
    (No exact dates) (Source)
  • Sudan's Independence from Britain

    Sudan's Independence from Britain
    On this day, Britain and Egypt decided that Sudan have it’s own parliament, decisions and country before leaving the country permanently. Northern sudan decided to forget the promises of development and rights to the south entirely, plunging the nation into the first civil war.
    (Source) (Image)
  • Anya Nya is created

    Anya Nya is created
    The Anya Nya is a southern rebel group founded during the first civil war. Although it eventually ended at the end of the 1st civil war, it gave the south an image of how the south could fight back.
    (No exact date, simply 1969) (Source) (Picture)
  • Nimeiri becomes president in Sudan

    Nimeiri becomes president in Sudan
    Nimeiri became president twice in sudan. The first time he became president by Coup d'état, he initially pursued socialism but was overthrown quickly. Later, he was elected to be president once again, this time he stayed for quite a while and broke several promises with the south, sparking the second civil war.
    (Source) href='http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jun/05/obituary-jaafar-nimeiri' >(Image)</a>
  • Oil is first discovered in Sudan

    Oil is first discovered in Sudan
    Oil being discovered in Sudan raised the hopes of southerners in Sudan that their economy would skyrocket and poverty would vanish. But unfortunately, the north had plans. The refinery was built in the north so all the profits and oil went to the north. This left the south in rage and poverty leading up to the 2nd civil war. (No exact date, simply 1978) (Source) (Images)
  • SPLM/A is Created

    SPLM/A is Created
    SPLM/A is the name of Southern Sudan’s armed forces created in 1983. This marked a clear split between Sudan and South Sudan. They were one of the major belligerents in the Second Sudanese Civil War. (No exact date, simply 1983)
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  • Period: to

    2nd Sudanese civil war

    Northern Sudan, deny oil and rights to the south along with implementing Islam Sharia Law to the mostly Animist and Christian south, sparked the second civil war. The second civil war lasted for 22 years. The effects of the war on Sudan was massive. Millions, mostly civilians died from starvation and drought. Males of all ages were forced to fight for both sides. Industry was devastated and Sudan lost control of Souther Sudan. (Source)
  • Omar Al Bashir becomes president

    Omar Al Bashir becomes president
    Omar Al-Bashir, Sudan’s current president first acquired power through a coup and has been ruling ever since. Although he signed an agreement in 2005 to end the 2nd civil war, he caused a lot more bad than good - Especially in the Darfur region where he is accused of several crimes against humanity. Although he refuses supporting the Arab Janjaweed militia, many suspect he is involved and the ICC has already accused him of several crimes. (Picture) (Source)
  • 1998 Sudan Famine

    1998 Sudan Famine
    Major famine caused by the civil war and drought. Aid organizations were unable to help due to civil war. This damaged Sudan’s agriculture severely and due to the famine, many children were left malnourished (No exact date, simply 1998) (Source) (Picture)
  • Darfur Conflict Starts

    Darfur Conflict Starts
    Darfur, a region of Sudan home to various tribes all culturally different from northern Sudan and the rest of the north African Arab world. Also, Darfur, like Southern Sudan, was underdeveloped and ignored by the government. All this and the Arab supremacist movement in the 1980s led to clashes between the ethnic groups then finally an all out war on the government of Sudan when the Darfurians felt that the government was supporting the Arabs.
    (No exact date, simply 2003.) (Source) (Images)
  • ICC declares genocide in Sudan

    ICC declares genocide in Sudan
    In 2005, the International Crimes Court declared the situation in Darfur, Sudan as a genocide. In Darfur, an Arab Militia known as the Janjaweed are recruited by the Omar Al Bashir, Sudan’s president to harass and kill specific tribes in the Darfur region. The fact that such a large organization like the ICC declared this a genocide brought the issue to everyone’s attention.
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  • Southern Sudan Independence

    Southern Sudan Independence
    On this day, Southern Sudan gain it's independance from Northern Sudan. This marked an important period in the history of Sudan due to the massive loss of resources and a chunck of their more fertile and wetter lands. Although this ended the war, there are still fights over oil rich lands
    (Image) (Source)