Chapter 7 - Consolidation and expansion of the British Empire

  • Gold Coast acquired

  • British acquired Transvaal

  • Mahdist Revolt

  • Egypt and Sudan acquired

  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    Had to show evidence for effective occupation - both administration and defence
    Only 20% of Africa under European control
    Kenya under British control
  • British acquire Southern Nigeria

  • Northern Nigeria acquired

  • General Gordon killed in Khartoum

    General Gordon killed in Khartoum
  • Mahdist Revolt ends

    Khalifa Abdullah succeeded Mahdi
    Tried to unite people of Sudan
    Plagued by war from internal fighters, disease, famine
    Gladstone wanted to remove troops but Salisbury wanted to reconquers parts of Sudan
  • King Mwanga attempts to assert authority

    Executed around 30 Protestants and Catholics
    Provoked a civil war
    Mwanga fled
  • Sierra Leone protectorate

    Sierra Leone protectorate
    Initially acquired in 1808
  • British East Africa acquired

  • Uganda acquired

    Mwanga signed treaty with Lord Lugard - promised to hand over some sovereignty to Imperial British East Africa Company
    Ceded powers over revenue, trade, administration of justice
  • Somaliland Protectorate established

  • British policy more assertive

    Previously had largely established bases for strategic reasons or trade
  • Zanzibar acquired

    Formal protectorate established
    Still maintained rule of Sultan of Oman
  • Agreement with French over Nigeria

    Agreed to recognise Brit dominance over area in exchange for recognition of French claim to Madagascar
  • British and German Treaty

    Spheres of influence in Africa
    Kenya, Uganda + Zanzibar ceded to British - Zanzibar became protectorate + installed Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini
    Germany given Tanganyika
  • Nyasaland acquired

    Had been opened up by Livingstone and settled by Scottish missionaries
    Faced Portuguese-backed Arab resistance
    Guerilla warfare + resistance until 1897
  • Matabeleland acquired

  • First Ndebele War

    80,000 warriors vs British Maxim guns
    King Lobengula escaped + resistance continued
  • Uganda becomes formal protectorate

  • Imperial British East Africa Company replaced by replaced by formal protectorate

  • Matabeleland incorporated into Rhodesia

  • Rhodesia acquired

    Rhodesia acquired
  • Tories won under Lord Salisbury

    Tories won under Lord Salisbury
    Determined to uphold British position in all parts of the world
    Brought wars, threat of wars, ambitious programmes to consolidate Empire
    Protectorates expanded for better security to pre existing ports, markets, resources, new territories
  • Kenya part of British East Africa Protectorate

  • Second Ndebele War

    Spiritual leader Mlimo led an unsuccessful rising against colonial rule
  • Joseph Chamberlain becomes Colonial Secretary

    Joseph Chamberlain becomes Colonial Secretary
  • Jameson Raid

    Jameson Raid
    Bores + Paul Kruger denied Uitlanders in Transvaal right to vote
    Sought help of Cecil Rhodes
    Excuse for British intervention
    Rhodes's agent Jameson led a raid of 500 mounted police - overthrow Kruger
    Easily defeated - too drunk
    4 days
    Jameson + 12 companions sentenced to imprisonment
    British gov discredited
    Rhodes forced to reign Cape Premiership but not put on trial
    Covert aid by Chamberlain but was covered up
    Kruger became people's hero
    Boers in Cape formed anti-British "Afrikaner Bond"
  • Italians defeated in Adowa, Abyssinia

    Conflict had distracted Khalifa Abdullah of Sudan but when it was over, Salisbury had an excuse for a British campaign in Sudan
  • Uganda Railway from Mombasa

    Uganda Railway from Mombasa
    Connect coast with land surrounding Lake Victoria
    660 miles, 5 yrs
    2500 workers - indentured labourers from India + China
    Poor pay + conditions
    Corporal punishment/debilitating fines for insubordination
    Funded by taxpayers
    Justified by:
    Access to new markets
    Encouraged colonial settlement
    Facilitated export of tea and coffee
    Protected source of Nile from enemies
    Promoted tourism esp. safari tours
    Help end Arab-run E African slave trade - victims used as porters carrying commodities around Africa
  • Fourth Anglo Asante War

    Fourth Anglo Asante War
    Britain conquered Anglo Asante War
    Forced King Prempeh from his throne
  • Sultan Hamad killed

    Sultan Hamad killed
    Mysteriously died (rumours of poison)
    Cousin Khalid took throne without permission of British
    British told him to stand down but he refused
    Naval bombardment
    War lasted 38 mins
    500 Zanzibaris killed - mainly civilian recruits
    Khalid overthrown
    pro-British Hamad introduced
  • Kitchener given permission to penetrate Sudanese territory as far as Dongola

    Kitchener wanted to go further and take Khartoum and whole region
    Used Maxim guns, field artillery, modern rifles against army with much older weapons
  • Battle of Omdurman

    British won
  • Fashoda Incident

    French expedition arrived under Major Marchand
    Both Kitchener and Marchand accused each other of trespassing
    Meeting not fiery
    Press reacted by saying Britain and France on verge of war
    French gov chose to back down - had internal divisions, knew about British army in Sudan
  • Administrative and military personnel in Somaliland

    Limit French and Italian ambitions in area
  • Agreement with French

    Following Fashoda Incident
    French stay out of Nile Valley in return for territory further west
  • Sudan condominium of Britain and Egypt

    Sudan condominium of Britain and Egypt
  • Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

    Sudan administered as a condominium between Britain and Egypt
    Sudan run by British with Egyptian support
    Lord Kitchener appointed as governor general
    Set up Gordon College to train young Sudanese for gov
    Britain did not allow Egypt Sudan unification despite Egyptian expectations
  • Second Anglo Boer War

    Boers invaded British Ladysmith in Natal
    400,000 British troops
    £250 million
    Scorched Earth policy
  • Royal Niger Company rule converted into colony

    Direct British rule in North
  • Asante Uprising

    Britain's formal annexation of kingdom
  • Southern Rhodesia protectorate established

    Under BSAC
  • Queen Vicky died

    Queen Vicky died
  • Ashantiland incorporated into Gold Coast Colony

  • Transvaal integrated into Union for South Africa

  • Reginald Wingate becomes governor-general of Egypt and Sudan

    Reginald Wingate becomes governor-general of Egypt and Sudan
  • Peace of Vereening

    Boers acknowledged themselves as British subjects
    Boer republics became British colonies
    Promise of responsible self government
  • 90% of Africa under European rule

  • Responsible self government given to Boers

  • Formal protectorate in Nyasaland

    British South Africa Company rule replaced by protectorate
  • Constitution for Union of South Africa

    PMs of Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, Natal
    Single parliament
    Became British dominion
    Black Africans given no protection from settler colonial racism
  • Northern Rhodesia becomes protectorate

    Under BSAC
  • Egypt protectorate

  • United Nigeria

    United Nigeria