The First and Second Sudanese Civil War

  • Independence from British-Egyptian Rule

    Sudan gains independence from Britain and Egypt after having been taken over after the Ottoman rule.
  • Coup d'Etat

    The commander-in-chief of the Sudanese army, Ibrahim Abbud, dissolves all political parties and appoints a council of 12 senior officers, and ruled by army.
  • Civil War begins led by Anya Nya Movement

    After the coup that placed general Abbud in power, he started various movement that only benefited the north, like the economic expansion. He also forced Islamic law into Southern Sudan which was predominately Christian. The Nya were a group of guerrilla that believed only violence could make the government accept southern terms.
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    Expulsion of Christians

    In favor of Arabic and Islamic oriented culture, Christians were expelled by the Sudanese and the educational system of the south was shifted away from the English curriculum.
  • Temporary Government

    A coalition government is formed between the Sudanese to rule for the time being. This government was led by Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub, who favored more traditional laws over progressive ones.
  • The Islamic Charter Front is formed

    The Islamic Charter Front forms based on ideas from the Muslim Brotherhood, which advocated a return to an Islamic oriented lifestyle as opposed to the more secular approach that had been taken. It would begin to infiltrate the governmental and educational systems.
  • Another coup

    Gaafar Mohamed el-Nimieri wanted a working constitution, a better economy, and better working conditions. He leads a group of fed up people and seizes the government. Because of the opposition he faced from both sides, he disbanded the SCP (Sudanese Community Party).
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    Southern Sudanese rebels connect with the government

    General Joseph Lagu, the leader of the Southern Sudanese rebels, has an open line with the Sudanese government about how to end the violence, resulting in the Addis Ababa Agreement, and would continue to communicate with the government for a long time after.
  • Economic development starts

    Funds begin to be reallocated from funding the civil war to increase petroleum profit. This resulted in several private investors and even loans from the IMF (International Monetary Fund). The Sudanese would continue to produce sugar, cotton, and wheat.
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    Discontent continually grows

    The South is initially pleased with the Addis Ababa Agreement, but the rest of Sudan still held the South with contempt and discrimination. Colonel John Garang de Mabior starts a secret organization, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, that will swell over the course of 11 years against the corruption of the Sudanese government.
  • Addis Ababa Peace Agreement

    The end of the 17 year conflict between the southern rebels and sudanese army, there would be a seperate legislature between north and south and the Nya movement incorporated into sudanese army .
  • Sudanese economy begins to decline

    In theory, the economy of Sudan should have steadily gotten healthier, but the poor implementation of the reforms led to an inability to pay off their investors, which in turn, lead to inflated currency. This is mainly because the Sudanese were too hasty with all the money they had acquired in a short amount of time, making rash decisions that would not benefit them long-term.
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    Nimieri loses control

    As the liberation movement gains traction in the South, discontent also grows in the north over how harshly Nimieri enforces Islamic laws. Even though he retracts his division of the South and suspends the cruel parts of the Islamic court, the people are still furious.
  • The Addis Ababa Agreement is dissolved

    Because of tensions with the South Sudanese, Nimieri hands over control of the country to the Muslim Brotherhood, which instructs him to dissolve the Addis Ababa Agreement and divide up the South into three provinces again, angering the South.
  • Political instability starts

    Namieri is overthrown and the Sudan undergoes a warring states period, where several leaders try to vie for power, but none stay for long.
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    The civil war is still raging

    Despite the introduction of a new leader, the civil war continues to rage between the liberation army of the South and the Sudanese army of the North. The North would continually lose cities to the liberation army, but fought fiercely even through the governmental shifts.
  • A governmental shift

    The Sudanese government shifts from military-ruled to civilian-ruled, but before dissolving, it appoints Bashir as its president. Bashir would continue to be reelected twice. Eventually, more parties were introduced in an attempt to resemble democratic ideas, but the Sudanese still seemed to favor authoritarianism.
  • General Omar al-Bashir gains power

    With the support of the Muslim Brotherhood and the dismantling of the judiciary branch, Bashir begins to ruthlessly prosecute the South and condemn them for the civil war. He also reinstates the Islamic laws that were dissolved by Namieri to try and please his population.
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    Darfur Conflict

    Rebels in Darfur believed that the Sudanese did not care for the western region, which was primarily not Arab. In response to the rebels, the Sudanese government employs Janjaweed, or Arabian soldiers to fight the rebels. This would leave millions displaced and hundreds of thousands dead. Eventually, the International Criminal Court finds Bashir guilty of genocide and put a warrant out for his arrest.
  • Second civil war concludes

    Through the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the south regained the ability to administer itself. It also created a new constitution that would divide wealth and power in the country. The Abyei region would be jointly ruled until the two parts figured out what to do with it.