History of Sudan

  • Sudan Gains Independence

    Sudan Gains Independence
    British and Egyptian troops left the country on January 1, 1956; the same day a five-man Council of State was appointed to take over the powers of the governor general until a new constitution was agreed.
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  • General Abboud

    General Abboud
    . Who is General Ibrahim Abboud? In 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud seized power and pursued a policy of Arabization and Islamization in the south that strengthened southern opposition.
  • A military coup takes place in Sudan.

    A military coup takes place in Sudan.
    Two years, later, on 17 November 1958 a bloodless army coup led by General Ibrahim Abboud toppled the Government of al-Azhari. On his assuming power, General Abboud declared that he would rule through a thirteen member army junta and that democracy was being suspended in the Sudan in the name of "honesty and integrity".
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  • General Abboud Represent

    Who did he represent, and what was his agenda? Seized power and pursued a policy of Arabization and Islamization in the south that strengthened southern opposition.
  • General Abboud is Overthrown

    Who overthrows Gen. Abboud? What is there agenda? General Abboud was overthrown in 1964 and a civilian caretaker government assumed control.
  • War Breaks Out

    War Breaks Out
    The civil war breaks out in the southern (mainly Christian/African) parts of Sudan.
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  • Maintaing Power

    How is power obtained and maintained? In May 1969, a group of communist and socialist officers led by Colonel Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiri, seized power.
  • Colonel Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiri

    Who is Colonel Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiri? What is his agenda? In May 1969, a group of communist and socialist officers led by Colonel Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiri, seized power. A month after coming to power, Nimeiri proclaimed socialism (instead of Islamism) for the country and outlined a policy of granting autonomy to the south.
  • The Agreement

    What is the Addis Ababa Agreement? Addis Ababa Agreement had no support from either the secularist or Islamic northern parties.
  • Breaking The Peace

    Breaking The Peace
    How does Nimeiri break this treaty? It failed and Numeiri ordered a massive purge of communists. This alienated the Soviet Union, which withdrew its support.
  • Reaching out

    Why does he reach out to the South? Numeiri in turn was the target of a coup attempt by communist members of the government.
  • Succession of Regional Efforts

    The 1990s saw a succession of regional efforts to broker an end to the Sudanese civil war.
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  • Authority for Development

    Authority for Development
    Beginning in 1993, the leaders of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Kenya pursued a peace initiative for the Sudan under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), but results were mixed. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/sudan/p/SudanHist3.htm
  • Declaration of Principles

    The 1994 Declaration of Principles aimed to identify the essential elements necessary to a just and comprehensive peace settlement; i.e., the relationship between religion and the state, power sharing, wealth sharing, and the right of self-determination for the south. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/sudan/p/SudanHist3.htm
  • Ending Conflict

    The Sudanese Government did not sign the DOP until 1997 after major battlefield losses to the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). That year, the Khartoum government signed a series of agreements with rebel factions under the banner of "Peace from Within." These included the Khartoum, Nuba Mountains, and Fashoda Agreements that ended military conflict between the government and significant rebel factions. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/sudan/p/SudanHist3.htm