The timeline of South Sudan: 2005-2015

  • Period: to

    South Sudan: From Independence to Civil War

  • Temporary peace in Sudan

    Temporary peace in Sudan
    North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war; deal provides for a permanent ceasefire, autonomy for the south, a power-sharing government involving rebels in Khartoum and a south Sudanese referendum on independence in six years' time.
  • Period: to

    Power Vacuum and Transition

  • Garang become the VP of Sudan

    Garang become the VP of Sudan
    Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president. A new Sudanese constitution which gives the south a large degree of autonomy is signed.
  • The death of Garang

    The death of Garang
    South Sudanese leader John Garang is killed in a plane crash. He is succeeded by Salva Kiir Mayardiit. Mr Garang's death sparks deadly clashes in the capital between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs.
  • Period: to

    Continual Conflict Betweem North and South

  • Battle of Malakal: Conflict between North and South

    Battle of Malakal: Conflict between North and South
    Hundreds die in fighting centered on the southern town of Malakal - the heaviest between northern Sudanese forces and former rebels since the 2005 peace deal.
  • Unsteable unity government

    Unsteable unity government
    SPLM temporarily suspends participation in national unity government, accusing Khartoum of failing to honour the 2005 peace deal. Returns to government in December.
  • Tension over Abyei

    Tension over Abyei
    Tensions rise over clashes between an Arab militia and SPLM in the disputed Abyei area on the north-south divide - a key sticking point in the 2005 peace accord.
    In May, intense fighting breaks out between northern and southern forces in disputed oil-rich town of Abyei.
  • International Arbitration for Abyei

    International Arbitration for Abyei
    Southern Sudanese leader Salva Kiir and Sudanese President Omar Bashir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute over Abyei.
  • The result of international arbitration

    The result of international arbitration
    North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region and placing the major Heglig oil field in the north.
  • The negotiation of referendum

    Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by 2011.
  • The referendum of independence

    The referendum of independence
    The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan.
  • North Sudan occupies disputed border region of Abyei.

    North Sudan occupies disputed border region of Abyei.
    North occupies disputed border region of Abyei.
    In June, governments of north and south Sudan sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force.
  • South Sudan Independence Day

    South Sudan Independence Day
  • Heglig crisis: Conflict between North/ South Sudan

    Heglig crisis: Conflict between North/ South Sudan
    After weeks of border fighting, South Sudan troops temporarily occupy the oil field and border town of Heglig before being repulsed. Sudanese warplanes raid the Bentiu area in South Sudan.
  • Temporary peace between North and South

    Temporary peace between North and South
    Sudan and South Sudan agree to resume pumping oil after a bitter dispute over fees that saw production shut down more than a year earlier. They also agreed to withdraw troops from their border area to create a demilitarised zone.
  • Kiir dismisses cabinet and VP

    Kiir dismisses cabinet and VP
    President Kiir dismisses entire cabinet and Vice-President Riek Machar in a power struggle within the governing Sudan People's Liberation Movement.
  • South Sudan Civil War Begins

    South Sudan Civil War Begins
    Civil war erupts as President Salva Kiir accuses his ex-Vice-President, Riek Machar, of plotting to overthrow him.
    Rebel factions seize control of several regional towns, thousands are killed and many more flee. Uganda troops intervene on the government's side. Foreigners are evacuated.
  • Period: to

    South Sudan Civil War

  • Peace Talk and Conflict

    Peace Talk and Conflict
    Peace talks begin in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa and drag on for months as fighting continues.
  • Reach peace agreement

    Reach peace agreement
    Despite "reservations" and under threat of UN sanctions, President Salva Kiir signs an internationally-mediated peace deal under which rebel leader Riek Machar will return as vice-president.