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The birth of a nation (and death of a government)

By Sofia G
  • Napoleonic war INITIATION

    Napoleonic war INITIATION
    The kingdom of Spain, already established, was incorporated into a larger Napoleonic empire, with Rome as one of its two capitals. The change in power weakened the Spanish grip on its colonies. Criollos in Mexico, already miffed at the Bourbon reforms, saw this as an opportunity to start protests.
  • Discovery of the Conspiración de Querétaro INITIATION

    Discovery of the Conspiración de Querétaro INITIATION
    The Conspiración de Querétaro was one of the largest revolutionary movements in Mexico, organized by Criollos hoping to better their social standing. El Corregidor de Querétaro was married to one of the revolutionaries, and let her know that the government had discovered the conspiracy. Doña Josefa or La Corregidora then warned Miguel Hidalgo, a leader of the movement.
  • Grito de Dolores INITIATION

    Grito de Dolores INITIATION
    Miguel Hidalgo rang the morning bells, starting mass. He was a priest, so he could easily get the support of the indigeneous and mestizo Catholics who made up the majority of the population. His grito was a call to independence and is the most famous speech in Mexican history.
  • Takeover of the Alhóndiga of Granaditas INITIATION

    Takeover of the Alhóndiga of Granaditas INITIATION
    The independence movement had been violently destroying the gachupín population of the cities they had taken. At Granaditas, Hidalgo offerred the guard safety if he surrendered. When he refused, the army took over the Alhóndiga almost immediately.
  • Battle of el Monte de las Cruces INITIATION

    Battle of el Monte de las Cruces INITIATION
    The insurgent army destroyed the royalist forces at Monte de las Cruces, near Toluca. Following the battle, the insurgent forces were excited, ready to take over Mexico City. However, Miguel Hidalgo ordered a retreat, ignoring Allende's command, and inadvertently stretched out the independence movement for another decade.
  • Royalist victory INITIATION

    Royalist victory INITIATION
    After the retreat at Mexico City, the insurgent forces began to meet with defeat after defeat. The demoralized forces, confused and scared, deserted en masse. For a while, it appeared that the independence movement was going to die out.
  • Execution of Allende and Hidalgo INITIATION

    Execution of Allende and Hidalgo INITIATION
    The final blow to the early independence movement was when its de facto leaders, Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende, were executed by Royalist soldiers. By then, they had lost most of their early energy, and had been deserted by thousands of people. First, he was stripped of his title.
  • Capture of Jose Maria Morelos CONSOLIDATION

    Capture of Jose Maria Morelos CONSOLIDATION
    Jose María Morelos had led the remaining independence effort for four years until he was captured. This capture eventually led to the further decentralization of Mexican independence. Jose María Morelos was known for his radical views. and for the Congreso of Chilpancingo, which created the precursor to the first Mexican constitution.

    One of the remaining leaders of the Independence, Vincente Guerrero, was contacted by a Spanish military man who seemed interested in his ideas. This Spaniard was Agustín de Iturbide, who sympathized with the Independence movement (though mostly for his own self-advancement). They created a relatively right-wing Plan de Iguala, which instituted a constitutional monarchy in Mexico.
  • Independencia CONSUMMATION

    Independencia CONSUMMATION
    The Mexican Empire formally declares its independence from the Spanish Empire. Then, Mexico looked radically different from the way that it looks know.